Nishcaya, Niścaya, Niścāya: 18 definitions


Nishcaya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Niścaya and Niścāya can be transliterated into English as Niscaya or Nishcaya, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Nishchaya.

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In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam

Niścaya (निश्चय) refers to “correct apprehension”, as opposed to viparyāsa, “misapprehension”; both mentioned as characteristics of intelligence (buddhi) in the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam 3.26.30.—The study to determine whether one's identity is spiritual or material begins in doubt. When one is able to analyze his actual position, the false identification with the body is detected. This is viparyāsa. When false identification is detected, then real identification can be understood. Real understanding is described here as niścaya, or proved experimental knowledge.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Niścaya (निश्चय, “certainty”) refers to one of the sixteen phases leading to the perception of any object (meya), according to Abhinavagupta’s Mālinīvijayavārtika:—[...] The sixteen phases [i.e.,  certainty (niścaya) ...] leading to the perception of any object, if correctly and fully experienced, culminate in the liberated condition of the sixteenth phase, which is equated with the sixteenth energy of the Moon. [...] To the degree in which objectivity (meyamaya) is made manifest in this way, sixteen-fold, that is said to be the Moon of consciousness (vijñāna) considered to be the basic state (sthiti) of the sixteen energies.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Nishcaya in Purana glossary
Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Niścaya (निश्चय) (Cf. Suniścaya) refers to “making a decision”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.15 (“The penance and reign of Tārakāsura”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “Thus with ardour, the king of the demons [i.e., Tāraka] performed the severe penance duly unbearable even to those who heard about it. [...] Indra, the lord of gods, was extremely terrified. He thought ‘Some one is performing a penance. Surely he will usurp my position. This master mind shall in a trice destroy the whole cosmos’. All those who entertained similar doubts could not decide what to do [i.e., niścayaniścayaṃ nopalebhire]. [...]”.

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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Niścaya (निश्चय) refers to “(supreme) certainty”, according to the Vārāṇasīmāhātmya verse 1.116-125.—Accordingly, “Engaged in the path of the observance of the skull, the Lord wanders, free from attachment, displaying the Lokamārga and the supreme Lokātīta. And the lokas are designated ‘bound souls’, including gods, demons and men. No one realizes the supreme certainty (niścaya) with respect to knowledge of the self. And except for Śarva, the supreme god, there is no such behaviour of another [God]. No other god has certainty of knowledge. There is no such behaviour anywhere in the world with all its Gods. [...]”.

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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Niścaya (निश्चय) refers to the “ascertainment (of one’s mind)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja, having praised the Lord with these verses, addressed himself to the Lord: ‘[...] O Lord, please elucidate this exposition of the dharma to these good men (satpuruṣa) who have a doubt (saṃśaya) in their respective dharmas. May the Blessed Tathāgata please cut off their all doubts (saṃśaya) and illuminate all qualities of the Buddha (sarva-buddhadharma) since you are established (pratiṣṭhita) in the ascertainment (niścaya) in your mind (buddhi)’”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Niścaya (निश्चय) refers to “ascertaining” (the nature of the self), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “That (i.e. meditation) is reckoned to be of three kinds by some who have a liking for conciseness from the [Jain] canon which ascertains the nature of the self (nirūpyātman-niścaya) because the intention of living beings is of three kinds. Now the three— In that regard, it is said that the first is auspicious intention, its opposite is inauspicious intention [and] the third is called pure intention”.

2) Niścaya (निश्चय) refers to “certainly”, according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “Certainly [com.niścaya], O friend, these twelve reflections are the female friends of those whose good fortune is liberation [and] they are practised to procure their friendship by wise men who are absorbed in connection [with them]. [...]”.

Synonyms: Khalu.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

niścaya (निश्चय).—m (S) Determination, resolve, settled purpose. 2 Determination, settlement, ascertainment, positive conclusion. 3 Confidence, assurance, firm belief or persuasion. 4 Certainty or sureness; as opp. to contingency. 5 Used as ad Certainly, positively, without fail. niścayapūrvaka, niścayātmaka Certainly, without a doubt or question. 2 Certain, sure. niścayācā Decided, determined, not changeful. 3 Sure, certain, settled, not doubtful.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Niścaya (निश्चय).—

1) Ascertainment, investigation, inquiry.

2) A fixed opinion, settled or firm conviction, firm belief.

3) A determination, resolution, resolve; एष मे स्थिरो निश्चयः (eṣa me sthiro niścayaḥ) Mu.1.

4) Certainty, positiveness, positive conclusion.

5) Fixed intention, design, purpose, aim; कैकेयी क्रूरनिश्चया (kaikeyī krūraniścayā) R.12.4; Kumārasambhava 5.5.

6) Name of a figure in Rhetoric.

Derivable forms: niścayaḥ (निश्चयः).

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Niścāya (निश्चाय).—Congregation; ततः कपिसमाहारमेकनिश्चायमागतम् (tataḥ kapisamāhāramekaniścāyamāgatam) Bhaṭṭikāvya 7.34.

Derivable forms: niścāyaḥ (निश्चायः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Niścaya (निश्चय).—m.

(-yaḥ) 1. Certainty, ascertainment, positive, conclusion. 2. A fixed intention, design, purpose, aim. E. nira affirmative particle, ci to collect, aff. ac.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Niścaya (निश्चय).—i. e. nis-ci + a, m. 1. Ascertainment, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 1. 2. Firm conviction, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 29, 19. 3. Certainty, [Nala] 19, 8. 4. instr. ºyena, and abl. ºyāt, Certainly, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 10, 5; [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 14125. 5. Inquiry, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 94. 6. Decision, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 8, 22. 7. Regard, Mahābhārata 12, 2218. 8. Resolution, design, [Pañcatantra] 77, 13; [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 17, 6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Niścaya (निश्चय).—[masculine] ascertainment, conviction, persuasion, decision, resolution, fixed opinion or purpose.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Niścaya (निश्चय):—[=niś-caya] a etc. See niś-ci.

2) [=niś-caya] [from niś-ci] b m. inquiry, ascertainment, fixed opinion, conviction, certainty, positiveness (iti niścayaḥ, ‘this is a fixed opinion’; yaṃ-√jñā, ‘to ascertain the certainty about anything’; yena ind. or yāt ind. certainly), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] resolution, resolve fixed intention, design, purpose, aim (yaṃ-√kṛ, to resolve upon, determine to [dative case] [locative case] or [infinitive mood]), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) Name of a [particular] figure, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Niścaya (निश्चय):—[niśca+ya] (yaḥ) 1. m. Certainty.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Niścaya (निश्चय) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ṇicchaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Nishcaya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Nishcaya in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Niścaya (निश्चय) [Also spelled nischay]:—(nm) determination, resolution; settlement; decision; certainty; (a) definite; certain; positive; (adv) definitely, certainly; positively; ~[yātmaka] positive; definite, decisive, certain; hence ~[yātmakatā] (nf).

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Niścaya (ನಿಶ್ಚಯ):—

1) [noun] the true or actual state of a matter; truth.

2) [noun] a resolve or determination; a firm resolution.

3) [noun] a formal exchange of betel leaves, arecanut, etc., in confirmation of the promise of marriage.

4) [noun] ನಿಶ್ಚಯಪಡಿಸು [nishcayapadisu] niścaya paḍisu to make certain; to assure; ನಿಶ್ಚಯ ಮಾಡು [nishcaya madu] niścaya māḍu = ನಿಶ್ಚಯಿಸು [nishcayisu]; ನಿಶ್ಚಯ ಹಾಕು [nishcaya haku] niścaya hāku = ನಿಶ್ಚಯಿಸು [nishcayisu].

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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