Anukampa, Anukampā: 17 definitions



Anukampa means something in Jainism, Prakrit, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Anukampā (अनुकम्पा, “compassion”) refers to “compassion towards living beings (bhūta) in general” and is one of the causes leading to the influx (āsrana) of karmas extending pleasant feelings (sātāvedanīya).

Anukampā is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

Source: Jaina Yoga

Anukampā (अनुकम्पा, “compassion”) refers to an aspect of samyaktva (right belief) classified under the liṅga and guṇa heading, according to various Jain authors (e.g., Cāmuṇḍarāya, Amitagati and Vasunandin). Hemacandra, in his 12th century Yogaśāstra verse 2.15, defines anukampā as the desire to eliminate suffering: in this compassion for those in misery no partiality may be shown, for even a tiger will manifest affection for its own offspring. In its material aspect this virtue takes the form of practical steps to remedy suffering where one has the power and in its non-material aspect it expresses itself in tenderness of heart. It is, as Āśādhara stresses, the root of the whole sacred doctrine (Sāgāra-dharmāmṛta verse 1.4).

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Anukampa (अनुकम्प, “compassion”) refers to one of the five Lakṣaṇas (“characteristics”), according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “[...] Vajranābha acquired strong Tirthakṛt-body-making and family-karma by the twenty sthānakas as follows:—[...] The ninth [sthānaka] is right-belief, free from the faults of doubt, etc., adorned with the qualities of firmness, etc., characterized by tranquillity, etc. [viz., anukampa-lakṣaṇa] [...]”.

Note: The characteristics (lakṣaṇa) are: tranquillity (śama); desire for emancipation (saṃvega); disgust with the world (nirveda); compassion (anukampa); faith in the principles of truth (āstikya).—(cf. Yogaśāstra 2.15.)

Anukampa (“compassion”) as one of the five characteristics of Saṃyagdarśana (“right-belief”), is also mentioned in chapter 1.3 in Ṛṣabha’s sermon:—

“[...] mokṣa is attained by those who practice unceasingly the brilliant triad of knowledge, faith, and conduct. Attachment to the principles told by the scriptures is called ‘right-belief’ (saṃyakśraddhāna or saṃyagdarśana), and is produced by intuition or instruction of a Guru. [...] Right-belief is marked by five characteristics: equanimity, desire for emancipation, disgust with existence, compassion, belief in principles of truth. Tenderness of heart of the one seeing the misery of all creatures, those with one sense, etc., mired in the ocean of existence, pain at their pain, and activity as much as possible for the sake of aiding them, that is called compassion (anukampā)”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Anukampā (अनुकम्पा).—What is meant by compassion (anukampā) towards living beings in general (bhūta)? Developing fellow feelings or distress at the sufferings of all other living beings and to consider their suffering as your own is general-compassion.

What is meant by compassion (anukampā) towards the devout (vrati) in particular? Developing special feelings or distress at the sufferings of householders practising minor vows (aṇuvratas) and the ascetics practising major vows (mahāvratas) and observing self control and to consider their suffering as own is devout-compassion in particular.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1

Anukampā (अनुकम्पा).—What is anukampā? Compassion or pity with the inclination of helping the sufferer is anukampā.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (A) next»] — Anukampa in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

anukampā : (f.) compassion; pity.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Anukampā, (f.) (abstr. fr. anukampati) compassion, pity, mercy D.I, 204; M.I, 161; II, 113; S.I, 206; II, 274 (loka°); IV, 323; v.259 sq.; A.I, 64, 92; II, 159; III, 49; IV, 139; Pug.35. — Often in Abl. anukampāya out of pity, for the sake of D.III, 211 (loka° out of compassion for all mankind, + atthaya hitāya); J.III, 280; PvA.47, 147. (Page 34)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

anukampā (अनुकंपा).—f (S) Tenderness, compassion, pitifulness.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

anukampā (अनुकंपा).—f Tenderness, compassion.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Anukampā (अनुकम्पा).—[kamp-aṅ] Compassion, commiseration, pity; with gen.; तेषामेवानुकम्पार्थम् (teṣāmevānukampārtham) Bg.1.11; or with loc.; भक्त्या गुरौ मय्यनुकम्पया च (bhaktyā gurau mayyanukampayā ca) R.2.63; or in comp.; भूतानुकम्पा तव चेत् (bhūtānukampā tava cet) R.2.48; अनुकम्पायां कन् (anukampāyāṃ kan) P.V.3.76.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Anukampa (अनुकम्प).—[, read °pya, to be pitied: Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 6.14 anukampo (read °pyo) 'si…sugatānāṃ, you have the compassion of the Sugatas (Suzuki).]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Anukampā (अनुकम्पा).—f.

(-mpā) Tenderness, compassion. E. anu before kapi to tremble, and affix ac, and ṭāp.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Anukampā (अनुकम्पा).—[anu-kamp + ā], f. Compassion, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 60.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Anukampā (अनुकम्पा):—[=anu-kampā] [from anu-kamp] f. idem

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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