Jiva, Jīva, Jīvā: 36 definitions



Jiva means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Jeev.

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In Hinduism

Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Google Books: The Khecarividya of Adinatha

In the texts of haṭhayoga, the Jīva (जीव) is the vital principle, entering the foetus at the moment of conception, and leaving with the body’s final exhalation. It moves about the body, propelled by the breath, unless restrained by means of prāṇāyāma. Ballāla glosses Jīva with prāṇa which seems to be an oversimplification: describes the ten vāyus as flowing through the nāḍīs while “having the form of the Jīva” (jīvarūpinaḥ).

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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Jīva (जीव) refers to the “individual soul”, as defined in the Śivapurāṇa 1.16. Accordingly, “certainly the birth is induced by the Māyā as an extraneous source. The word Jīva (the individual soul) means that which gets decayed even from the time of birth. Another meaning of the word Jīva is that which is born enmeshed and entwined. Hence the devotee shall worship the primordial phallic image for unravelling the knots and nooses of the birth”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Jīva (जीव).—Is Guru planet.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 93. 10 and 16; Vāyu-purāṇa 111. 5.

1b) The vital prāṇa; Lord lives in every creature like the ākāśa, all-pervading in respective pots.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 102. 101.

1c) Four classes born of sveda, aṇḍa, udbhija and jarāyu; and Jīvātma subject to Iśvara is one view.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 1. 31; 3. 28.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: archive.org: A History of Indian Philosophy (vaishnavism)

Jīva (जीव, “individual”).—In the Paramātma-sandarbha the jīva or individual is described as an entity which in its own nature is pure and beyond māyā, but which perceives all the mental states produced by māyā and is affected by them. It is called kṣetrajña, because it perceives itself to be associated with its internal and external body (kṣetra). The jīvas are described as atomic in size; they are infinite in number and are but the parts of God.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Jīva (जीव) refers to “living entity; soul”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Jīva (जीव) refers to:—The eternal individual living entity who, in the conditioned state of material existence, assumes a material body in any of the innumerable species of life. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Jīva (जीव) refers to the “living entity” according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—Accordingly, while explaining the necessity of Arcana:—Constitutionally, the living entity (jīva) is an eternal servant of Śrī Bhagavān, but due to becoming adverse to Bhagavān, he identifies himself with the material body. Since time immemorial, he has been wandering throughout the universe, suffering the threefold miseries in higher and lower species of life. As long as the jīva remains opposed to Bhagavān, he will not attain Him and will remain imprisoned in the jailhouse of the illusory energy. When in his heart a fortunate jīva becomes inclined toward serving the Supreme Lord, only then is he able to attain Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s eternal association.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Jīva (जीव) refers to:—(or Jīvātmā) The living being, or spirit soul; the eternal, individual soul who, in the conditioned state of material existence, assumes a material body in any of innumerable species of life. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Jīvā (जीवा).—1. Sine or Chord; (lit. bowstring.) 2. R sine. Note: Jīvā is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

1) Jīvā (जीवा) is another name for Jīvantī, a medicinal plant identified with Leptadenia reticulata (cork swallow-wort) from the Apocynaceae, or “dogbane family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.37-39 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Jīvā and Jīvantī, there are a total of eighteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

2) Jīva (जीव) is mentioned as a synonym for Kāmavṛddhi, a medicinal plant possibly identified with Blepharis edulis Linn. or “uttanjan” from the Acanthaceae or “acanthus” family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.196-197. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Jīva and Kāmavṛddhi, there are a total of thirteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Jīva (जीव):—[jīvaḥ] The Soul; the spirit: Be or remain alive, To live, Restore for life.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is a living being, or more specifically, the immortal essence or soul of a living organism (human, animal, fish or plant etc.) which survives physical death. It has a very similar usage to atma, but whereas atma refers to "the cosmic self", jiva is used to denote an individual 'living entity' or 'living being' specifically. To avoid confusion, the terms Paramatma and jivatma (also commonly spelled jeevatma) are used.

The word itself originates from the Sanskrit Jivás, with the root jīv- 'to breathe'. It has the same Indo-European root as the Latin word Vivus: "alive".

In the Bhagavad Gita, the jiva is described as immutable, eternal, numberless and indestructible. It is said not to be a product of the material world (Prakrti), but of a higher 'spiritual' nature. At the point of physical death the jiva takes a new physical body depending on the karma and the individual desires and necessities of the particular jiva in question.

Aniruddha defines the Jiva, the empirical self, as the self determined by the body, the external sense-organs, mind, intellect, and egoism; the self which is devoid of empirical cognition, merit, demerit, and other mental modes is the transcendental Atman. When the Jiva breaks the shackles of Prakrti it becomes the transcendental self. Isvara and the jivas are both empirical realities; the former is the ruler and the impeller, and the latter are the ruled, the ones who are impelled.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

Daughter of Ubbiri and the king of Kosala. When she died, it was her death which made Ubbiri attain to arahantship. v.l. Jivanti. Thig.vs.51; ThigA.53f.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

life, vital principle, individual soul. 'Soul (life) and body are identical' and 'Soul and body are different', these two frequently quoted wrong views fall under the 2 kinds of personality-belief (sakkāya-ditthi; s. ditthi), i.e. the first one under the annihilation-belief (uccheda-ditthi) and the second under the eternity-belief (sassata-ditthi).

"Verily, if one holds the view that the soul (life) is identical with the body, in that case a holy life is not possible; or if one holds the view that the soul (life) is something quite different, also in that case a holy life is impossible. Both these extremes the Perfect One has avoided and shown the Middle Doctrine, which says: 'On ignorance depend the karma-formations, on the karma-formations depends consciousness', etc." (S. XII. 35).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Jīva (जीव) is the name of a Tathāgata (Buddha) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Jīva).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Jīva (जीव) refers to “living things”, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, in the sermon of Sūri Dharmaghoṣa:—“[...] Jīvas are known to be of two kinds: immovable (sthāvara) and movable (trasa). In both of these there are two divisions, depending on whether they have faculties to develop (paryāpti) or not. There are six faculties to develop, which are the cause of development: eating food and digesting it, body, senses, breath, speech, and mind. Creatures that have one sense, two to four, or five senses, have respectively four, five, or six faculties”.

Jīva (“soul”) represents one of the seven tattvas (principles), accordingly to the sermon of Anantanātha:—“[...] Of these [i.e., the seven tattvas], Jīvas are known to be of two kinds by the division into those emancipated and those in wordly existence, all without beginning and end, characterized by knowledge and perception. The emancipated have one nature, free from the trouble of birth, et cetera; possessing infinite perception, knowledge, power, and bliss. The Jīvas in worldly existence are of two kinds by the division into immovable and movable. [...]”.

Source: Atma Dharma: Principles of Jainism

Souls; Embodied Soul;

What is the size (extent) of each soul?

From the spatial units (pradeshas) covering point of view, each individual soul has innumerable units of space equal to universe, but by virtue of the quality of contraction and expansion it retains the shape and size of the body it occupies and the emancipated soul has its size equal to the last body it occupied.

Which soul becomes equal to the universe?

Just before attaining emancipation the soul which undergoes 'kevali samudghat' becomes equal to the universe.

Source: Jain eLibrary: 7th International Summer School for Jain Studies

Jīva (living beings with consciousness):—There are infinite Jīvas in this cosmos. Each Jīva has the potential to attain Jina status through his strenuous spiritual purification efforts. However all living beings help (cooperate) with each other. Further Jīvas are broadly divided as pure soul (siddha) and empirical souls (defiled souls or saṃsārī-jīva). Empirical souls go through innumerable varieties of existences grouped in four categories namely hell, heaven, human and sub-human.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1

Jīva (जीव, “soul”).—What is meant by jīva (living being)? An entity which has consciousness (cetanā) is called jīva.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living

Jīva (जीव).—How many categories of sentients/ soul / jīva / ātma are there? There are two main categories of soul, namely: empirical (saṃsārī) and pure or liberated (mukta). (see Tattvārthasūtra 2.10)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Jīva (जीव) refers to a “living being” according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 8.2.—Who is a living being (jīva)? An entity which has six to ten life forces /vitalities and has life is called a living being. Another definition of a living being is one who is endowed with knowledge and perception. How do we establish the existence of karmas with the empirical soul? There are infinite living beings (jīva) in this universe. Each has different level of the manifestation of consciousness as knowledge and intuition. Also the discrimination amongst them as rich or poor, happy and unhappy etc all prove the existence of karmas with the soul. Even though jīva is a being of independent nature, still it is transmigrating in this universe. Why? This transmigration is due to its bondage with karmas.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

Jiva (“life”) is one of the gotras (clans) among the Kurnis (a tribe of South India). Kurni is, according to the Census Report 1901, “a corruption of kuri (sheep) and vanni (wool), the caste having been originally weavers of wool”. The gotras (viz., Jiva) are described as being of the Brāhman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya sub-divisions of the caste, and of Shanmukha’s Sudra caste.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

jīva : (m.) the life.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Jīva, 2 (nt.) the note of the jīvaka bird Sum. V. on D. III, 201. (Page 285)

2) Jīva, 1 (adj. -n.) (Sk. jīva, Idg. *gǔīǔos=Gr. bi/oQ, Lat. vīvus, Goth. quius, Ohg. queck, E. quick, Lith. gyvas) 1. the soul. Sabbe jīvā all the souls, enumerated with sattā pāṇā bhūta in the dialect used by the followers of Gosāla D. I, 53 (=DA. I, 161 jīvasaññī). “taṃ jīvaṃ taṃ sarīraṃ udāhu aññaṃ j. aññaṃ s. ” (is the body the soul, or is the body one thing and the soul another?) see D. I, 157, 188; II, 333, 336, 339; S. IV, 392 sq.; M. I, 157, 426 sq.; A. II, 41.—Also in this sense at Miln. 30, 54, 86.—Vin. IV, 34; S. III, 215, 258 sq.; IV, 286; V, 418; A. V, 31, 186, 193.—2. life, in yāvajīvaṃ as long as life lasts, for life, during (his) lifetime D. III, 133; Vin. I, 201; Dh. 64; J. II, 155; PvA. 76.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jivā (जिवा).—a R From jīva but used throughout as jitā.

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jīva (जीव).—m (S) Life. 2 A living being, an animate creature. Ex. sarva jivāṃsa īśvara pōsitō. S adage jīvō jīvasya jīvanaṃ Life is the support of life. 3 A small insect or creature, e. g. a mite, maggot, weevil, worm. 4 (Freely.) Fire, energy, vigor, mettle, pluck, heart, power, capability, bottom (of man, horse, bullock &c.): life, spirit, productiveness (in a work or business): strength, firmness, soundness, substantialness (of articles, cloth &c.): truth, reality, solidity, consistency (of tidings, of a report): animation, beauty, force (of a writing). Ex. hyā vyavahārāmadhyēṃ jīva nāhīṃ kēlā na kēlā sārakhā; chatrīcā jīva halakā mhaṇūna vāṛyānēṃ phāṭalī; tyā vastrālā agadī jīva nāhīṃ; hyā bātamīmadhyēṃ, tyā granthānta jīva disata nāhīṃ. 5 Mind, intention, inclination. Ex. ēka jīva mhaṇatō jāvēṃ ēka jīva mhaṇatō na jāvēṃ. 6 The sentient or personal soul. See jīvātmā. ardhā jīva karaṇēṃ g. of o. To half-kill a person (by teasing &c.) ardhā jīva hōṇēṃ g. of s. To be worked, worried, frightened &c. to death's door. āpa- lyā jivālā khāṇēṃ To pine or fret. ēka jīva yēṇēṃ ēka jīva jāṇēṃ To be quivering in the last agonies. ēka jīva hōūna jāṇēṃ To unite, join, coalesce; to become one. jīva aṭaṇēṃ g. of o. To work hard or to worry to death. jīva aṭaṇēṃ g. of s. To exhaust or waste one's self (through exertion, care &c.) jīva aḍakaṇēṃ or ṭāṅgaṇēṃ g. of s. or ṭāṅgalā asaṇēṃ To hang or rest upon (any loved object); to be set upon. jīva adhāntarīṃ uḍaṇēṃ g. of s. To be bewildered or perplexed; to lose one's self-possession. jīva ardhā karaṇēṃ To spend one's strength (in toil, vain instructing &c.); and jīva ardhā hōṇēṃ g. of s. (kāmākhālīṃ or cālūna-raḍūna-kaṣṭakarūna &c.) To be half-dead. jīva kālaviṇēṃ g. of s. To be in great trepidation or apprehensive commotion. jīva kōra- ḍā hōṇēṃ or paḍaṇēṃ To dry, waste away, fall in--a person from sickness, fatigue, hunger &c. Also jīva sukaṇēṃ. jīva kharaḍūna With might and main-- bōlaṇēṃ-raḍaṇēṃ speaking, bellowing, bawling. jīva khā- ūna kāma karaṇēṃ To work with all one's soul and strength. jīva khāṇēṃ or ghēṇēṃ g. of o. or jivāsa khāṇēṃ To tease one's life out; to prey upon. jīva khālīṃ paḍaṇēṃ g. of s. To have one's ardent desire gratified. jīva gōḷā hōṇēṃ g. of s. To be about to die. jīva ghēūna paḷaṇēṃ To flee for one's life. Ex. nagarīṃ kōṇācī kōṇa vārttā || paḷati jīva ghēuniyā ||. jīva jāḷaṇēṃ or māraṇēṃ To repress or mortify (the lusts and passions). jīva ṭākaṇēṃ To throw up one's life. 2 To despond; to refuse consolation. 3 To hanker after immoderately and passionately; to give one's soul to. 4 (Preceded by a participle of the ūna form, as raḍūna, hāsūna, khaṇūna &c.) To cry, laugh, dig &c. with exceeding vehemence and effort. jīva ṭākūna paḷaṇēṃ To flee for one's life. jīva ṭhikā- ṇīṃ nasaṇēṃ g. of s. To be disconcerted or discomposed; to be thrown off one's balance. jīva tuṭaṇēṃ g. of s. To be wearied out of one's life. jīva tōḍa- ṇēṃ To be painfully anxious or apprehensive. jīva tōḍūna karaṇēṃ To do very sedulously or strenuously. jīva thārīṃ basaṇēṃ To find rest to one's soul. jīva thōḍathōḍā hōṇēṃ g. of s. (To be languishing, failing, dying.) To be extremely solicitous about, or painfully affected by; to be sinking under; to misgive and lose heart. jīva dēṇēṃ To commit suicide. 2 To give the whole soul to; to strain every nerve. jīva dharaṇēṃ To brighten up; to acquire new vigor: also to begin to recover. jīva dharūna (Plucking up or gathering spirit.) Earnestly, engagedly, intently, with alacrity or animation--performing, acting. jīva pachāḍaṇēṃ To prostrate one's self in great earnestness of supplication. jīva paḍaṇēṃ g. of s. To enter into heartily; to become interested in. jīva pākhaḍaṇēṃ To take great pains or make earnest and strenuous efforts. 2 To chafe and fume and storm at. jīva pāpī (Ah! sinful soul, ah! corrupt spirit.) An ejaculation on detecting in one's self (or in another) an evil thought. jīva pōḷaṇēṃ To burn one's fingers; to learn a lesson. jīva pyārā as Pr. jyācā tyālā jīva pyārā No man ever hated his own flesh. jīva basaṇēṃ with vara of o. g. of s. To have great delight in or fondness for. jīva bhāṇḍyānta paḍaṇēṃ g. of s. To get into peace or at ease; to find a settlement and rest. jīva muṭhīnta dharaṇēṃ (To take or hold one's life in one's fist.) To go, do, behave, or be, holding one's life closely and carefully (because of danger). 2 To hold one's self in restraint or under government. jīva mōṭhā or mōṭhā jīva karaṇēṃ To make a vigorous effort, or to summon up boldness or fortitude. 2 To arouse one's self into great liberality (of giving or of expending). jīva rākhaṇēṃ To spare one's self; to work lazily. jīva vara dharaṇēṃ or vara (or varatā) jīva dharaṇēṃ To be eager after or impatiently desirous of. jīva vārā piṇēṃ To feel desolate, melancholy, dreary, heavy. jīva sōḍaṇēṃ To give up the ghost; or to sacrifice one's life. To crave or desire intensely. To wave (a living fowl &c.) around (a sick person) that it may receive his malady. The fowl &c. is then cast away, and is supposed to die. jivā agōcara Beyond one's power; exceeding one's ability. (i. e. The soul is not able to contemplate such a matter.) jivā āgaḷā Exceeding one's power of performance or endurance. jivācā ghāta karaṇēṃ To strain every nerve; to exhaust one's self in effort. 2 g. ofo. To harass sorely; to worry to death. jivācā ghōṭa ghēṇēṃ To take one's life-blood; i. e. to plague to death. jivācā lōḷa karaṇēṃ To harass or weary out of one's life. jivācī kōyakōya karaṇēṃ (To make one disposed to bark like a cur.) To worry exceedingly. jivācī gvāhī or pākhī dēṇēṃ To attest upon one's soul or life; to give one's most solemn assurance. jivācī rāḷavaṇa karaṇēṃ (To make one's soul like the straw of rāḷā) To work, weary, or vex exceedingly. jivācī hulaḍa karaṇēṃ To make a strong and determined effort. jivācē cāra karaṇēṃ To be dainty, delicate, nice, fanciful, whimsical, humorsome. jivānta jīva āhē tōmparyanta As long as there is life (in me, you &c.) jivānta jīva ghālaṇēṃ To restore or revive one's life, courage, fainting spirit &c. 2 To cast one's soul into the soul of another; i. e. to convey one's own mind or thoughts unto. jivānta jīva yēṇēṃ To revive--lost strength or courage. jivāniśīṃ With one's own soul, life, strength, power &c. (i. e. not through another). jivāniśīṃ jāṇēṃ To lose life (through some violence, or with prematureness). jivāparatā That is beyond one's strength to bear--toil, sickness &c. 2 Dearer than life; beyond one's own soul--loved &c. jivāpalīkaḍē Beyond life (i. e. dearer than &c.) jivālā khāṇēṃ To undergo remorse or bitter compunction. jivāvara Upon one's own life or strength or exertions--living, working, performing. jivāvara uṭhaṇēṃ To rise up against the life of. jivāvara āpalēṃ pōṭa bharaṇēṃ g. of o. To board at the cost of; to live upon. jivāvara uḍyā māraṇēṃ To indulge or enjoy one's self in dependence upon the life or well-being of. jivāvara udāra Reckless of life. Pr. ji0 tō lākhāśīṃ jhuñjāra. jivāvaracā That falls upon or endangers life. Hence jivāvaracā-lāga m -pāḷī f -gōṣṭa f -prasaṅga m -khēḷa m -kāma n Terms for an imminent peril or hazard; jeopardy of life. Also jivāvaracā tāpa-jvara-rōga-dukhaṇēṃ A dangerous fever or sickness. jivāvaracēṃ adhaṇa utaraṇēṃ g. of s. To obtain relief from some afflictive or oppressive circumstances. jivāvara yēṇēṃ. or bitaṇēṃ or jivāsīṃ- gāṇṭha paḍaṇēṃ To affect or concern vitally, dangerously, deeply, closely; to fall or bear hard upon. jivāsa karavata lāgaṇēṃ To be keenly pressing upon. jivāsa jahānagirī (karaṇēṃ or hōṇēṃ) Danger to life; jeopardy: also the matter or occasion of jeopardy. jivāsa jīva dēṇēṃ To give life for life, heart for heart &c.; to love (a friend &c.) as one's own soul. jivāsa mukaṇēṃ To lose life, to perish. jivāsīṃ or jivīṃ dharaṇēṃ or bāndhaṇēṃ To love or prize dearly. jivīṃ lāgaṇēṃ To be greatly interesting or dear unto. 2 To enter into the quick; to affect vitally or powerfully. jivēṃ vāñcaṇēṃ To be saved or preserved; to be delivered from a jeopardy or impending death; to escape with life. Ex. ājī āmhā yēthēṃ rākhiyēlēṃ dēvēṃ || nāhīṃ tarīṃ jivēṃ na vāñcatōṃ ||.

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jīvā (जीवा).—f S The chord of an arc: also the sine of an arc.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

jīva (जीव).—m Life. A living being. A small in- sect or creature, e.g., a mite, maggot, worm. Vigour, energy, mettle, pluck, capability:life, spirit, productiveness (in a work or business): strength, firmness; truth reality, consistency (of tidings, of a report): animation, beauty, force (of a writing). Mind, intention, inclination. Ex. ēka jīva mhaṇatō jāvēṃ āṇi ēka jīva mhaṇatō na jāvēṃ. ardhā jīva karaṇēṃ. Half-kill a person. ardhā jīva hōṇēṃ Be worked, worried, frightened, &c., to death's door. ēka jīva yēṇēṃ ēka jīva jāṇēṃ Be quivering in the last agonies. ēka jīva hōūna jāṇēṃ To unite, join, coa- lesce, to become one. jīva aṭaṇēṃ Work hard or worry to death; exhaust one's self. jīva aḍakaṇēṃ or ṭāṅgaṇēṃ or ṭāṅgalā asaṇēṃ To hang or rest upon (any loved object), to be set upon. jīva ardhā hōṇēṃ Be half dead. jīva khālīṃ paḍaṇēṃ To have one's ardent desire gratified. jīva gōḷā hōṇēṃ To be about to die. jīva ghēūna paḷaṇēṃ Flee for one's life. jīva ṭākaṇēṃ Throw up one's life; give one's soul to. jīva ṭhikāṇīṃ nasaṇēṃ Be disconcerted. jīva tōḍaṇēṃ Be painfully anxious or apprehensive. jīva tōḍūna karaṇēṃ Do very sedulously or strenuously. jīva thārīṃ basaṇēṃ Find rest to one's soul. jīva thōḍathōḍā hōṇēṃ To be extremely solicitous about or painfully affected by. Be sinking under. jīva dēṇēṃ Commit suicide. Strain every nerve, give the whole soul to. jīva dharaṇēṃ Acquire new vigour; also being to recover. jīva bhāṇḍyānta paḍaṇēṃ To get into peace or at ease; to find a settlement and rest. jīva muṭhīnta dharaṇēṃ (To take or hold life in one's fist.) To go, do, behave, hold- ing one's life closely and carefully (because of danger). To hold one's self in restraint or under government. jīva rākhaṇēṃ Spare one's self, work lazily. jivā āgaḷā Exceeding one's power of performance or endur- ance. jivācā ghōṭa ghēṇēṃ Plague to death.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of jiva in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jīva (जीव).—a. [jīv-kartari ka] Living, existing; जीवपुत्रे निवर्तस्व (jīvaputre nivartasva) Rām.4.19.11; असच्च सज्जीवमजीवमन्यत् (asacca sajjīvamajīvamanyat) Bhāg.5.1.12.

-vaḥ 1 The principle of life, the vital breath, life, soul; गतजीव, जीवत्याग, जीवाशा (gatajīva, jīvatyāga, jīvāśā) &c.

2) The individual or personal soul enshrined in the human body and imparting to it life, motion and sensation (called jīvātman as opposed to paramātman the Supreme Soul); Y.3.131; Ms.12.22-23; सम्पद्यते गुणैर्मुक्तो जीवो जीवं विहाय माम् । जीवो जीवविनिर्मुक्तो गुणैश्चाशयसंभवैः (sampadyate guṇairmukto jīvo jīvaṃ vihāya mām | jīvo jīvavinirmukto guṇaiścāśayasaṃbhavaiḥ) || Bhāg.11.25.36. (here jīva = liṅgaśarīra).

3) Life, existence.

4) A creature, living being.

5) Livelihood, profession.

6) Name of Karṇa.

7) Name of one of the Maruts.

8) The constellation पुष्य (puṣya).

9) Name of Bṛhaspati.

1) The third lustrum in the cycle of Jupiter.

11) Association of cause and effect.

12) Name of Viṣṇu.

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Jīvā (जीवा).—a. [jīv-ac]

1) Water.

2) The earth.

3) A bow-string; मुहुर्जीवाघोषैर्बधिरयति (muhurjīvāghoṣairbadhirayati) Mv.6.3.

4) The chord of an arc.

5) Means of living.

6) The tinkling of metallic ornaments.

7) Name of a plant (vacā).

8) Life, existence.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jīva (जीव).—mfn.

(-vaḥ-vā-vaṃ) 1. Life, the vital breath, existence. mf.

(-vaḥ-vā) 1. Livelihood, profession, specific occupation. 2. A tree: see jīvantī. m.

(-vaḥ) 1. The sentient soul, the emanation of the deity, which is incorporated with the animal body, and gives it life, motion and sensation; hence also called jīvātman; it is opposed to that abstract state of the soul paramātman in which, by meditating upon its own divine nature and origin, the spirit is set at liberty from human feelings and passions. 2. A name of Vrihaspati. 3. A name of the prince Karna. 4. The constellation called Pushya. f.

(-vā) 1. A bow string. 2. The earth. 3. The tinkling of metallic ornaments. 4. Orris root. 5. (In Geometry.) The chord of an arc. E. jīv to live, affix ghañ or ka and fem. affix ṭāp.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jīva (जीव).—[jīv + a], I. adj. 1. Living, Mahābhārata 13, 31. 2. Causing life, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 9, 21, 13. Ii. m. and n. 1. Creature, Mahābhārata 13, 13828. 2. Life, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 3, 74. Iii. m. The individual soul, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 207, 6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jīva (जीव).—[adjective] living, alive; living on or causing to live, vivifying (—°). [masculine] the principle of life, the living or personal soul; [Epithet] of the planet Jupiter; [neuter] life; [masculine] [neuter] living being, creature; [feminine] jīvā [plural] water as the living or vivifying element.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Jīva (जीव) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Gopālatāpanīyopaniṣadbhāṣya Subodhinī.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Jīva (जीव):—[from jīv] mf(ā)n. living, existing, alive, [Ṛg-veda] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] healthy (blood), [Caraka viii, 6, 74]

3) [v.s. ...] ifc. living by (See jala-cara-, rūpa-)

4) [v.s. ...] causing to live, vivifying (See putra-, -jala)

5) [v.s. ...] m. n. any living being, anything living, [Ṛg-veda] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] m. life, existence, [Mahābhārata iv, vi; Harivaṃśa] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Kathāsaritsāgara])

7) [v.s. ...] m. the principle of life, vital breath, the living or personal soul (as distinguished from the universal soul See jīvātman), [Ṛg-veda i, 164, 30; Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad; Praśna-upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti] etc.

8) [v.s. ...] Name of a plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] Bṛhaspati (regent of Jupiter), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Laghujātaka, by Varāha-mihira; Sūryasiddhānta; Kāśī khaṇḍa, from the skanda-purāṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] the 3rd lustrum in the 60 years' Bṛhaspati cycle, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā viii, 26]

11) [v.s. ...] Name of one of the 8 Maruts, [Yājñavalkya ii, 102/103 39]

12) [v.s. ...] Karṇa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] n. Name of a metre, [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya xvii, 4]

14) Jīvā (जीवा):—[from jīva > jīv] f. life, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] the earth, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] a bow-string, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] (in [geometry] = jyā) the chord of an arc

18) [v.s. ...] the sine of an arc, [Sūryasiddhānta ii, 57] (cf. tri-, tri-bha, dṛg-gati-, lambaand śaṅku-jīvā)

19) [v.s. ...] Name of a plant (jīvantī or vacā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā iii, 39]

20) [v.s. ...] the tinkling of ornaments, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of a particular formula, [Kauśika-sūtra; Vaitāna-sūtra]

22) Jīva (जीव):—[from jīv] cf. ati-, upaand saṃ-jīva

23) [v.s. ...] a-,kumāra-,ciraṃ-,jagaj-,dur-,nir-,pāpa-,bandhu-,sa-,su-

24) [v.s. ...] khṣudra-jivā, yāvaj-jīvam

25) [v.s. ...] cf. b/ios; [Latin] vivus; [Lithuanian] gIvas; [Gothic] qvius; [English] quick; [Hibernian or Irish] beo.

26) [v.s. ...] m. (also) Name of a famous physician, [Buddhist literature]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Jīva (जीव):—jīvati 1. a. To live. With ā to enjoy, get a living; with upa to depend on for a living; with pra or saṃ to live well.

2) [(vaḥ-vā-vaṃ)] 1. m. f. n. Life. m. f. Livelihood; a tree. m. The sentient soul. f. A bowstring; earth; tinkling ornament; orris root.

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Jīva (जीव):—(von jīv)

1) adj. lebendig; subst. m. n. der —, das Lebendige, ein lebendes Wesen [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 414.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1366.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 521.] [Medinīkoṣa v. 8.] ni.aitu jī.o akṣato jī.o jīvantyā.adhi [Ṛgveda 5, 78, 9.] jī.ā jyotiraśīmahi [7, 32, 26.] asu [1, 113, 16. 140, 8. 164, 30. 2, 28, 8. 5, 44, 5.] [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 4, 1, 3, 2. 13, 8, 1, 9. 4, 12.] ātman [KATHOP. 4, 5.] [Chāndogyopaniṣad 6, 3, 2. 11, 1.] i.e jī.ā vi mṛ.airāvavṛtran [Ṛgveda 10, 18, 3. 57, 5.] [Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 19, 46.] [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 1, 35, 2. 6, 46, 1. 12, 2, 45. 18, 2, 52.] jī.ānāṃ lo.aḥ [2, 9, 1.] viśvaṃ jī.aṃ ca.ase bo.hayantī [Ṛgveda 1, 92, 9. 113, 8. 10, 107, 1.] namo vaḥ pitaro jī.āya dem was an euch lebendig ist [Vājasaneyisaṃhitā 2, 32.] etadvai vanaspatīnāmanārtaṃ jīvaṃ yadārdram das ist lebendig an den Bäumen was saftig ist [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 9, 2, 2, 3. 1, 3, 4, 1.] jīvaṃ vai devānāṃ haviramṛtamamṛtānām [2, 1, 20.] — mṛte vā tvayi jīve vā [Mahābhārata 12, 10634.] tasmātsarpaṃ lubdhaka muñca jīvam [13, 31.] yadyetebhyo mucyase riṣṭadehaḥ punarjanma prāpsyase jīva eva [Duaupadīpramātha 7, 20.] dhānyavījāni yānyāhurvrīhyādīni sarvāṇyetāni jīvāni [Mahābhārata 3, 13826.] jīvā hi bahavaḥ vṛkṣeṣu ca phaleṣu ca . udake bahavaścāpi [13828.] karṣanto lāṅgalaiḥ puṃso (nom. pl.) ghnanti bhūmiśayānbahūn . jīvān [13825.] jīvo jīvasya jīvane [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 13, 44.] jīvāḥ śreṣṭhā hyajīvānāṃ tataḥ prāṇabhṛtaḥ [3, 29, 28.] araṇya m. ein im Walde lebendes Thier [Pañcatantra 193, 23.] mit caus. Bed. leben machend, erzeugend in putrajīva, jīvajala lebenbringendes Wasser [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 9. 21, 13.] —

2) m. das Lebensprincip, die individuelle Seele [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 1, 1, 113.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1366,] [Scholiast] vālāgraśatabhāgasya śatadhā kalpitasya ca . bhāgo jīvaḥ sa vijñeyaḥ sa cānantyāya kalpate [ŚVETĀŚV. Upakośā 5, 9.] [Chāndogyopaniṣad 6, 11, 2. fg.] [Praśnopaniṣad 5, 5.] jīvasaṃjño ntarātmānyaḥ sahajaḥ sarvadehinām . yena vedayate sarvaṃ sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ ca janmasu .. [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 12, 12. 22. 23. 53.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 3, 131.] ayaṃ kartṛtvabhoktṛtvābhimānitvena ihalokaparalokagāmī vyāvahāriko jīva ityucyate [Vedānta lecture No. 50.] [Bālabodhanī 16.] [Kapila 1, 98.] [BĀDAR. 1, 31.] [TARKASAM̃GR. 54.] jīvaṃ paśyāmi vṛkṣāṇāmacaitanyaṃ na vidyate [Mahābhārata 12, 6837.] kālasaṃcoditā jīvā majjanti narake vaśāḥ [10006. 10008. fg. 13, 5422. 5430. fgg. 14, 469. fg. 503.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 3, 32. 7, 5. 10, 22. 3, 12, 46. 31. 43. 44. 7, 14, 36. 37.] jīvakośa [4, 22, 26. 23, 11.] [Prabodhacandrodaja 56, 5.] evaṃ pūrvamidaṃ kāvyaṃ munibhiḥ pratipūjitam . jīvabhūtaṃ manuṣyāṇāṃ kavīnāmupajīvanam [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 4, 23.] —

3) m. n. das Leben [Amarakoṣa 2, 8, 2, 88.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 414.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1367.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] parāyaṇa [Mahābhārata 4, 1644. 6. 1903.] yathā jīvaṃ labhāmyaham [Harivaṃśa 9972.] tvadgatāni hi jīvāni sarveṣāṃ naḥ [Rāmāyaṇa 5, 3, 74.] jīvāśā [Amaruśataka 90.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 2, 10.] tyāga [Prabodhacandrodaja 89, 5.] [Sāhityadarpana 182.] karma jīvānapekṣi [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 14, 80.] gata todt [Kathāsaritsāgara 5, 16.] anutkrānta [4, 111.] —

4) m. Lebensunterhalt, Gewerbe [Medinīkoṣa]; vgl. jalacara, rūpajīva . Könnte hier auch adj. sein: lebend von.

5) m. eine best. Pflanze [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] —

6) m. Beiname Bṛhaspati’s, der Planet Jupiter [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 2, 26.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 414.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 118.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Hārāvalī 36.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 5, 66. 9, 38. 16, 25. 17, 19. 20, 7.] [LAGHUJ. 1, 8. 14. 2, 3. fgg.] [Sūryasiddhānta 1, 69. 2, 55. 9, 2.] als Regent des Nakṣatra Tiṣya oder Puṣya [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 98, 1.] des 3ten Lustrum im 60 jährigen Jupiter-Cyclus [8, 26]; vgl. [23.] —

7) Name eines der 8 Marut [Mitākṣarā 142, 13.] —

8) m. Beiname Karṇa’s [Dharaṇīkoṣa im Śabdakalpadruma] —

9) jīva am Ende von Mannsnamen [WASSILJEW 268.] —

10) f. ā a) das lebendige oder lebenbringende Element, Wasser (vgl. jīvikā, jīvajala u. jīva [1], jīvana u. s. w.): jīvābhirācamya [Kauśika’s Sūtra zum Atuarvaveda 3. 58. 90.] — b) die Erde [Medinīkoṣa] — c) Bogensehne [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 8, 51. 3, 3, 414.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 776.] [Medinīkoṣa] in der Geom. die Sehne [Algebra 89.] der Sinus eines Bogens (vgl. jyā) [Sūryasiddhānta 2, 57]; vgl. tri, tribha, dṛggati, lamba, śaṅku . — d) das Klingen metallischer Schmucksachen [Medinīkoṣa] — e) Name zweier Pflanzen: α) = jīvantī [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 5, 7.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1185.] [Medinīkoṣa] — β) = vacā [Medinīkoṣa -] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 47, 39.] — Vgl. a, ati, kumāra, kṣudrajīvā, ciraṃjīva, jagajjīva, pāpa, putra, bandhu, yāvajjīvam, rūpajīva, sa . Bisweilen werden jīva und vīja (durch Versetzung der Consonanten) mit einander verwechselt, so z. B. [Mahābhārata 5, 1109.]

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Jīva (जीव):—

1) jīvāṃsthāvarajaṅgamān [Spr. 4992.] [Z. 4 lies 2, 28, 9 Stenzler 2, 28, 8.] —

2) jīvastvahorātramanuśvasanvai śvāsāṃkarotīha katipramāṇān [Oxforder Handschriften 149,b,20. fgg. 150,a,4. 236,b,13.] jīvaparamātmānau die individuelle Seele [SARVADARŚANAS. 50, 17.] jīveśvarau [69, 12.] niyāmaka die individuelle Seele lenkend [54, 16. 55, 2.] —

3) jīvotsarga das Aufgeben des Lebens [Spr. 2623.] gatajīvā adj. [Kathāsaritsāgara 52, 65.] utkrāntajīvā [71, 226.] —

6) [Weber’s Indische Studien 5, 297.] [KĀŚĪKH. 17, 44] [?(nach AUFRECHT und BENFEY).] = Ζεύς [BENFEY]; vgl. jedoch jyau . —

10) f) das Leben [Halāyudha 1, 134.] —

11) n. ein best. Metrum [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 17, 4.] [Weber’s Indische Studien 8, 107. 111.] — Vgl. noch durjīva, nirjīva, su .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Jīva (जीव):——

1) Adj. (f. ā) — a) lebend , lebendig. — b) von Blut so v.a. gesund [Carakasaṃhitā 8,6.] — c) am Ende eines Comp. lebend von. — d) Leben verleihend.

2) m. n. — a) der — , das Lebendige , ein lebendes Wesen. — b) das Leben (*m.). Am Ende eines adj. Comp. f. ā. —

3) m. — a) das Lebensprincip , die individuelle Seele [Ṛgveda (roth). 1,164,30.] Am Ende eines adj. Comp. f. ā. — b) am Ende eines adj. Comp. Lebensunterhalt , Gewerbe. — c) *eine best. Pflanze. — d) Beiname — α) Bṛhaspati’s , der Planet Jupiter — β) *Karṇa's. — e) Nomen proprium eines Marut. —

4) f. jīvā — a) *das Leben. — b) Pl. das lebendige oder Leben bringende Element , Wasser [Vaitānasūtra] — c) *die Erde. — d) *Bogensehne. — e) in der Geom. die Sehne. — f) der Sinus eine Bogens. — g) eine best. Pflanze. Nach den Lexicographen = jīvantī und vacā. — h) *das Klingen metallischer Schmucksachen.

5) n. ein best. Metrum.jīvāt [Mahābhārata 5,1109] fehlerhaft für bījāt.

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Jīva (जीव) [Also spelled jeev]:—(nm) a creature, living being; life; soul; ~[ghātī] destroyer of life, killer; murderous; -[jaṃtu] creatures; tiny creatures; -[jagata] the animate world; ~[dāna] sacrifice of life; ~[dhārī] living being, organism; ~[bhautikī] biophysics; ~[rasāyana] biochemistry; ~[loka] mortal world; ~[vāda] vitalism, animism; ~[vāsikī] bionomics, bionomy; ~[vijñāna] biology; ~[viṣa] toxin; ~[vaijñānika] a biologist; biological; -[hatyā/hiṃsā] destruction of life; ~[hīna] lifeless.

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