Kalmasha, Kalmāṣa, Kalmaṣa: 19 definitions


Kalmasha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Kalmāṣa and Kalmaṣa can be transliterated into English as Kalmasa or Kalmasha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Kalmash.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Kalmasha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kalmaṣa (कल्मष) refers to “sins” (viz., of the body), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.30. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] [Satī] desired to burn off the body and retain the pure wind by yogic means. In this posture she remembered the feet of her lord and nothing else. Her body divested of its sins (hata-kalmaṣa) fell in the yogic fire and was reduced to ashes, O excellent sage, in accordance with her own wish”.

Source: Eastern Book Linkers: Harivaṃśa Purāṇa

Kalmāṣa (कल्माष) refrers to one of the ten sons of Tāmasa Manu (of the fourth manvantara), according to the Harivaṃśa-purāṇa 1.7.20-29:—“In the Tāmasa-manvantara there were the gods called Satya. Tāmasa Manu had ten very strong sons, known as Dyuti, Tapasya, Sutapa, Tapomūla, Tapodhana, Taparati, Kalmāṣa, Tanvī, Dhanvī and Paraṃtapa. All of them were owned by vāyu”.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kalmāṣa (कल्माष) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.35.7, II.25.6, II.47.4, IX.44.100) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kalmāṣa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa (itihasa)

Kalmāṣa is the name of a Serpent (sarpa) mentioned in the thirty-fifth chapter (verses 4-17) of the Ādiparva of the Mahābhārata.—Accordingly, Sauti, on being implored by Śaunaka to name all the serpents in the course of the sarpa-sattra, tells him that it is humanly impossible to give a complete list because of their sheer multiplicity; but would name the prominent ones in accordance with their significance [e.g., Kalmāṣa].

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Kalmāṣa (कल्माष) refers to an ancient kingdom or tribe of people, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If there should be both lunar and solar eclipses in one month, princes will suffer both from dissensions among their own army and from wars. [...] If the solar or lunar eclipse should fall in the lunar month of Kārttika, persons who live by fire, the Magadhas, the eastern princes, the Kosalas, the Kalmāṣas, the Śūrasenas and the people of Benares will suffer miseries; the ruler of Kaliṅga with his ministers and servants and the Kṣatriyas will perish but there will be prosperity and plenty in the land”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Kalmaṣa (कल्मष) refers to the “sins”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “That, which is the cessation of the acquisition of karmic material of an ascetic, is declared by those whose sins are removed by meditation (dhyāna-nirdhūta-kalmaṣa) to be the physical stopping of the influx of karma. That which is evidently cessation of action causing the cycle of rebirth is to be considered as the mental stopping of the influx of karma by those who know about that from the most excellent scripture”.

Synonyms: Pāpa, Durita.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Kalmasa in India is the name of a plant defined with Oryza sativa in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Oryza sativa var. rubribarbis Desv. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Plant Systematics and Evolution (1993)
· Landwirthschaftliche Flora (1866)
· Aspects of Plant Sciences (1989)
· Botanisches Archiv (1922)
· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association (1988)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kalmasa, for example extract dosage, side effects, diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, health benefits, chemical composition, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kalmaṣa (कल्मष).—n S Sin. 2 fig. Feculence, filth, sordes, any excretion or excrementitious matter.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kalmaṣa (कल्मष).—n Sin. Fig. Ecculence, filth, sordes.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kalmaṣa (कल्मष).—a.

1) Sinful, wicked.

2) Foul, dirty; व्यरोचत तदा तोयं निर्मलं गतकल्मषम् (vyarocata tadā toyaṃ nirmalaṃ gatakalmaṣam) Rām.1.43.26.

-ṣaḥ, -ṣam 1 Stain, dirt, dregs.

2) The hand below the wrist.

3) Sin; स हि गगनविहारी कल्मषध्वंसकारी (sa hi gaganavihārī kalmaṣadhvaṃsakārī) H.1.19; Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 4.3; 5.16; Manusmṛti 4.26,12.18,22.

-ṣaḥ Hell.

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Kalmāṣa (कल्माष).—a. (-ṣī f.)

1) Variegated, spotted; आजुहाव ततः प्रीतः कल्माषीं धूतकल्मषाम् (ājuhāva tataḥ prītaḥ kalmāṣīṃ dhūtakalmaṣām) Rām.1.52.2.

2) Black and white; अश्वांस्तित्तिरकल्माषान् (aśvāṃstittirakalmāṣān) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.124.12.

-ṣaḥ 1 The variegated colour.

2) A mixture of black and white. शुक्लगुणः शुक्लः । कृष्णगुणः कृष्णः । य इदानीमुभयगुणः स तृतीयामाख्यां लभते कल्माष इति वा सारङ्ग इति वा (śuklaguṇaḥ śuklaḥ | kṛṣṇaguṇaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ | ya idānīmubhayaguṇaḥ sa tṛtīyāmākhyāṃ labhate kalmāṣa iti vā sāraṅga iti vā) Mahābhārata on P.I.2.31.

3) A demon, goblin.

4) The black colour.

5) A form of Agni.

6) A kind of fragrant rice.

-ṣī Name of the river Yamunā; अभितः सोऽथ कल्माषीं गङ्गाकूले परिभ्रमन् (abhitaḥ so'tha kalmāṣīṃ gaṅgākūle paribhraman) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.167.5.

2) The spotted cow of Jamadagni.

-ṣam Stain.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kalmaṣa (कल्मष).—mfn.

(-ṣaḥ-ṣā-śaṃ) Dirty, foul. m.

(-ṣaḥ) A kind of hell, a division of the infernal regions. n.

(-ṣaṃ) 1. Sin. 2. The hand bellow the wrist. E. karmma virtuous or pious action, ṣo to destory, and ka affix; the form is irr.

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Kalmāṣa (कल्माष).—mfn.

(-ṣaḥ-ṣā or -ṣī-ṣaṃ) Of a mixed or variegated colour. m.

(-ṣaḥ) 1. A variegated colour. 2. A mixture of black and white. 3. Black. 4. A demon or goblin. f. (-ṣī) The spotted cow of Jamadagni, the giver of all desires. E. kal to go, &c. kvip affix, kal, maṣ to injure, aṇ affix māṣa; what injures or triumphs over other colours.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kalmaṣa (कल्मष).— (cf. kaluṣa), m. and n. 1. Dirt, sediment, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 8, 7, 43. 2. A spot, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 36, 27; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 186, 9. 3. Guilt, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 104; sin, 12, 22.

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Kalmāṣa (कल्माष).— (cf. the last), I. adj., f. ṣī, Of a mixed or variegated colour, spotted, Mahābhārata 2, 1043; [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 52, 20. Ii. m. The name of a Nāga, Mahābhārata 1, 1552. Iii. f. ṣī, 1. A cow of variegated colour, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 13, 16. 2. The name of a river, Mahābhārata 2, 2575.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kalmaṣa (कल्मष).—[neuter] dirt, stain, sin.

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Kalmāṣa (कल्माष).—[feminine] ī black spotted. [masculine] [Name] of a serpent demon; [feminine] kalmāṣī a spotted cow; [neuter] spot, stain.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kalmaṣa (कल्मष):—n. (as m., [Bhāgavata-purāṇa viii, 7, 43] = karmaṣa [from] karma + √so, ‘destroying virtuous action’ [Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 8-2, 18]) stain, dirt

2) dregs, settlings (cf. jala-k)

3) darkness

4) moral stain, sin, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Manu-smṛti iv, 260; xii, 18, 22]

5) Kalmaṣā (कल्मषा):—[from kalmaṣa] f. ifc. [Bhagavad-gītā iv, 30 etc.]

6) Kalmaṣa (कल्मष):—mf(ā)n. dirty, stained, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) impure, sinful, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) n. the hand below the wrist, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) mn. a particular hell, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) Kalmāṣa (कल्माष):—mf(ī)n. ([Pāṇini 4-1, 40] [gana] gaurādi, [Pāṇini 4-1, 41]) variegated, spotted, speckled with black, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra; Mahābhārata]

11) black, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) m. a variegated colour (partly black, partly white), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) a Rakṣas, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) a species of fragrant rice, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) Name of a Nāga, [Mahābhārata]

16) a form of Agni, [Harivaṃśa]

17) Name of an attendant on the Sun (identified with Yama), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) a kind of deer, [Tārānātha tarkavācaspati’s Vācaspatyam, Sanskrit dictionary]

19) Name of Śākya-muni in a former birth

20) n. a stain, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa vi, 3, 1, 31]

21) Name of a Sāman.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kalmaṣa (कल्मष):—[(ṣaḥ-ṣā-ṣaṃ) a.] Dirty, foul. 1. n. Sin; the hand below the wrist. 1. m. A kind of hell.

2) Kalmāṣa (कल्माष):—(ṣaḥ) 1. m. A variegated color. a. Variegated; black; a demon. f. (ṣī) A fabulous spotted cow, belonging to Jamadagni.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kalmaṣa (कल्मष) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kammasa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kalmasha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Kalmasha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kalmaṣa (कल्मष) [Also spelled kalmash]:—(nm) sin; impurity, filth.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kalmaṣa (ಕಲ್ಮಷ):—

1) [adjective] soiled; unclean; dirty.

2) [adjective] morally unfair, illicit or questionable.

3) [adjective] feeling or showing anger; extremely resentful; angry.

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Kalmaṣa (ಕಲ್ಮಷ):—

1) [noun] any unclean or soiling matter, as mud, dust, dung, trash, etc.; dirt.

2) [noun] a moral stigma; a religious violation or transgression; a sin.

3) [noun] (myth.) a division of one of the hells.

4) [noun] the state or fact of being short of; deficiency; incompleteness; shortcoming.

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Kalmāṣa (ಕಲ್ಮಾಷ):—

1) [adjective] marked with irregular patches of different colours; variegated.

2) [adjective] done in black and white.

3) [adjective] of the colour of charcoal; black.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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