Kashtha, Kāṣṭha, Kāṣṭhā: 25 definitions
Kashtha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Kāṣṭha and Kāṣṭhā can be transliterated into English as Kastha or Kashtha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Kashth.
Images (photo gallery)
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ) refers to “wood”, representing a material for the seat (āsana), which one should make after taking a bath (snāna), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.13, while explaining the mode of worshipping Śiva:—“[...] in a clean place washed and smeared with cow-dung (gomaya), the devotee shall take his seat (āsana), O Brahmins. The seat shall be made of wood (kāṣṭha) or a cloth-cover. A seat of diverse colours (citrāsana) is conducive to the achievement of all desires. Or he can have the hide of a deer (mṛgacarma) for a seat. He shall sit on it and apply Tripuṇḍra with the ashes”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1) Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ).—A measurement of length and capacity; Yayāti versed in;1 the intervening distance between two kāṣṭhas and the distance between kāṣṭha and lekha, north to south; both the outer and inner circumference in dakṣiṇāyana and uttarāyaṇa2 thirty form a kala.3 Time equal to 15 nimeṣas.4
- 1) Matsya-purāṇa 34. 9; 142. 4.
- 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 1. 93; 50. 127, 132 and 133.
- 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 13; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 3. 8; II. 8. 59; VI. 3. 6.
- 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 19; 13. 16; Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 169; 57. 6; 70. 15; 93. 72; 100. 214; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 3. 8.
2) Kāṣṭhā (काष्ठा).—One of the Kaśyapa's wives, and mother of quadrupeds with cloven hoofs; a mother goddess.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 25 and 29; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 56; IV. 32. 14.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vedanta (school of philosophy)Source: Google Books: Studies on the Moksopaya
Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ) refers to “wood”, according to the 10th century Mokṣopāya or Mokṣopāyaśāstra 6.182.13-17.—Accordingly, “With regard to each of [the three:] perceiver (draṣṭṛ), perception (darśana) and perceived objects (dṛśya), the state of mere knowledge is the essence; therefore there is not in the least a difference from it (i.e. knowledge), like a flower in space (is not different from space). (13) What is of the same kind becomes one. Therefore mutual perception [of things] determines their unity. (14) If wood [i.e., kāṣṭha], stones and other [material objects] did not have knowledge as their nature, then there would be a permanent nonperception of these, which would even be nonexistent. (15) When the whole beauty of perceptible objects has but one form of mere knowledge, then, whether it is different or identical, it becomes known through knowledge. (16) This whole [group of] perceptible objects in the world has expanded [as] mere knowledge, just as wind is mere movement and the ocean mere water. (17)”.
Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ) refers to a “brush” (i.e., dantakāṣṭha—‘tooth brush’), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “A true Astrologer is also one who has thoroughly mastered the Science of Saṃhitā. [...] It also treats of the prediction of events from the flight of the kañjana and from the appearance of various abnormal phenomena, of expiatory ceremonies; of miscellaneous planetary phenomena; of ghṛta-kambala; of the royal sword; of paṭa; of the features of a house cock, a cow, a sheep, a horse, an elephant, a man and a woman. It also treats of the treatment of women; of moles in the body; of injuries to shoes and clothes; of hairy fans; of walking sticks: of beds and seats; of lamplight; of tooth brush [i.e., danta-kāṣṭha] and the like”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ) or Kāṣṭhavrata refers to the “block-of-wood (observance)”, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 3.—Accordingly, “[...] One may perform the Block-of-Wood Observance (kāṣṭha-vrata) in a forest full of bears, tigers and lions, conquering the urges to sleep and eat, [constantly] reciting. If one takes on the appearance of a woman and sings and dances, adorned with bracelets, with a winnowing fan, ball and plait, one observes the Colourful Observance. With a weapon in hand, full of compassion, if one wanders like a saviour of creatures (?) focussed upon recitation, meditation and worship, one performs the Warrior Observance. [...]”.Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra
Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ) refers to “wood (for cleaning the teeth)”, according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.8-13, while describing auspicious dreams]—“[...] [It is auspicious when one dreams of] a pill, wood for cleaning the teeth (danta-kāṣṭha), yellow pigment on a sword or sandal, sacred thread, ointment, nectar, mercury, medicinal herbs, śakti, a water jar, lotus, rosary, red arsenic or blazing objects of siddhas, which have red chalk as their ends. [...]”
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)
Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ) [=kāṣṭhaja?] refers to a “piece of wood”, according to the Devyāmata (in the section śalyoddhāra-paṭala or “excavation of extraneous substances”).—Accordingly, “[...] If [someone] touches his mouth (or face), there must be [an extraneous thing] which is a piece of wood or hair (kāṣṭha—kāṣṭhajaṃ vā śirobhavaḥ) [at a depth of] two cubits underground. [...]”.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ) refers to “wood” (e.g., pieces of wood), according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXXII-XXXIV).—Accordingly, “When one is making fire by friction, first the flame takes fire on the soft grass and dried cow dung and, as the strength of the fire increases, it is able to consume big pieces of moist wood (sa-sneha-kāṣṭha). It is the same for the concentration of loving-kindness (maitrī-samādhi): at the beginning, when one make the vows for loving-kindness, one applies them only to one’s friends; but when the mind of loving-kindness has grown, enemies and relatives become mixed up and one sees them all as experiencing happiness: this is because the dhyānas or samāpattis of loving-kindness have grown and are becoming complete”.Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā
Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ) refers to “trees”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] There is no self, being, life-principle, life-sustaining principle, spirit, personality, human being, or man; in the dharmas which are dependently originated there is no true origination and there is no owner. Therefore, all dharmas are like (sadṛśa) grass (tṛṇa), trees (kāṣṭha), walls (kuḍya), paths (mārga), and reflections (pratibhāsa). [...]”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections
Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ) refers to a “stick” (for crushing oil), according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Here in the cycle of rebirth consisting of endless misfortune, sentient beings roam about repeatedly, struck down by spear, axe, vice (yantra) [com.—tailanikvānakāṣṭha—a stick for crushing oil’], fire, corrosive liquid or razor in hell, consumed by the multitude of flames from the fire of violent actions in the plant and animal world, and subject to unequalled trouble in the human condition [or] full of desire among the gods. [Thus ends the reflection on] the cycle of rebirth.”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Kāṣṭha.—cf. a-tṛṇa-kāṣṭha-grahaṇa (IE 8-5), fuel or wood which the villagers were obliged to supply to the king or landlord on occasions or to the touring officers. See also devakuṭī-kāṣṭha. Note: kāṣṭha is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kāṣṭha (काष्ठ).—n (S) Wood. 2 fig. A lean or lank person, a mere stick. kāṣṭha vaḷaṇēṃ or hōṇēṃ g. of s. To pine away; to become lank and meagre.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
kāṣṭha (काष्ठ).—n Wood. Fig. A lean person.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ).—[kāś-kthan Uṇ2.2]
1) A piece of wood, especially one used as fuel; Manusmṛti 4.49,241;5.69.
2) Wood or timber, a piece or log of wood in general; यथा काष्ठं च काष्ठं च समेयातां महोदधौ (yathā kāṣṭhaṃ ca kāṣṭhaṃ ca sameyātāṃ mahodadhau) H.4.69; Manusmṛti 4.4.
3) A stick; शोणितेन विना दुःखं कुर्वन् काष्ठादिभिर्नरः (śoṇitena vinā duḥkhaṃ kurvan kāṣṭhādibhirnaraḥ) Y.2.218.
4) An instrument for measuring length.
Derivable forms: kāṣṭham (काष्ठम्).
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Kāṣṭhā (काष्ठा).—1 A quarter or region of the world, direction, region; काष्ठा (kāṣṭhā) (diśa) मुदीचीमिव तिग्मरश्मिः (mudīcīmiva tigmaraśmiḥ) (didīpe) Kirātārjunīya 3.55; cf. also पर्वा तु काष्ठा तिमिरानुलिप्ता (parvā tu kāṣṭhā timirānuliptā) Avimārkam 2.12.
2) A limit, boundary; स्वां काष्ठामधुनोपेते (svāṃ kāṣṭhāmadhunopete) Bhāgavata 1.1.23; स्वयं विशीर्णद्रुमपर्णवृत्तिता परा हि काष्ठा तपसः (svayaṃ viśīrṇadrumaparṇavṛttitā parā hi kāṣṭhā tapasaḥ) Kumārasambhava 5.28.
3) The last limit, extremity, pitch, climax, excess; काष्ठा- गतस्नेहरसानुविद्धम् (kāṣṭhā- gatasneharasānuviddham) Kumārasambhava 3.35.
4) Race ground, course.
5) A mark, goal.
6) The path of the wind and clouds in the atmosphere.
7) A measure of time = A Kalā; शुक्लस्त्वं बहुलस्त्वं च कला काष्ठा त्रुटिस्तथा (śuklastvaṃ bahulastvaṃ ca kalā kāṣṭhā truṭistathā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.25.14.
9) The sun.
1) A fixed place of a lunar mansion.
11) Name of a wife of Kaśyapa and daughter of Dakṣa.
12) The yellow colour or the कदम्ब (kadamba) tree; cf. काष्ठा दिक्कालहारिद्रस्थित्युत्कर्षेषु तु स्त्रियाम् (kāṣṭhā dikkālahāridrasthityutkarṣeṣu tu striyām) Nm.
13) A form, form of appearance; काष्ठां भगवतो ध्यायेत्स्वनासाग्रावलोकनः (kāṣṭhāṃ bhagavato dhyāyetsvanāsāgrāvalokanaḥ) Bhāgavata 3.28.12.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṣṭhā-ṣṭhaṃ) Wood f. 1. A quarter or region of the world space. tract. 2. Place, site. 3. Limit, boundary. 4. A measure of, time the thirteenth part of a Kala, or eighteen twinkling. of the eye. 5. Excellence, superiority. 6. A plant, (Curcum zanthorhiza, Rox.) E. kāś to shine, Unadi affix kthan changed to ṣa, and tha after ṣa becomes ṭha.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ).—I. n. A piece of wood, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 372. Ii. m. A proper name, Mahābhārata 2, 415. kāṣṭhā, q. v.
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Kāṣṭhā (काष्ठा).—f. 1. Aim, Mahābhārata 3, 10424; limit, boundary, [Kumārasaṃbhava, (ed. Stenzler.)] 5, 28. 2. Place, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 18, 12. 3. A quarter or point of the compass, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 24, 1. 4. A lunar station, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 1, 12, 31. 5. A measure of time, Mahābhārata 1, 1292. 6. A proper name, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 6, 6, 25.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ).—[neuter] stick of wood, log; a kind of measure.
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Kāṣṭhā (काष्ठा).—[feminine] race-course, course ([especially] of the winds and clouds); mark, goal, limit; summit, top, height ([figuratively]); cardinal point or quarter of the heaven; a cert. measure of time.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ):—m. Name of one of Kubera’s attendants, [Mahābhārata ii, 415]
2) n. a piece of wood or timber, stick, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti] etc.
3) wood or timber in general
4) an instrument for measuring lengths
5) a kind of measure, [Saddharma-puṇḍarīka]
6) Kāṣṭhā (काष्ठा):—f. a place for running, race-ground, course (also the course, path or track of the wind and clouds in the atmosphere), [Ṛg-veda]
7) the mark, goal, limit, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.
8) the highest limit, top, summit, pitch, [Kumāra-sambhava; Daśakumāra-carita] etc.
9) a quarter or region of the world, cardinal point, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska; Nirukta, by Yāska; Mahābhārata] etc.
10) the sixteenth part of the disk of the moon, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa i, 12, 31]
11) a measure of time (= 1/30 Kalā, [Manu-smṛti i, 64; Suśruta]; = 1/12 Kalā, [Jyotiṣa]; = 1/15 Laghu, = 1/225 Nāḍikā, = 1/450 Muhūrta, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iii, 11, 7]), [Mahābhārata i, 1292 etc.]
12) form, form of appearance, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iii, 28, 12; vii, 4, 22]
13) the sun, [Nirukta, by Yāska ii, 15]
14) water, [ib.]
15) the plant Curcuma xanthorrhiza, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
16) Name of a daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Kaśyapa (mother of the solidungulous quadrupeds), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa vi, 6, 25 ff.]
17) Name of a town.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ):—[(ṣṭhaṃ-ṣṭhā)] 1. n. Wood. f. Space or quarter; limit; space of time.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Kāṣṭha (काष्ठ) [Also spelled kashth]:—(nm) wood; —[kalā] woodcraft; ~[vat] as dead as wood, motionless.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
Kāṣṭha (ಕಾಷ್ಠ):—[noun] = ಕಾಷ್ಠೆ [kashthe].
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1) [noun] a dry piece of wood or a stick.
2) [noun] a peg of wood, metal, etc., used esp. for fastening or holding things together; a bolt; a pin.
3) [noun] a stupid man.
4) [noun] (fig.) the state of being very lean.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+78): Kashtha-yuti, Kashthabale, Kashthabhakshana, Kashthabhangin, Kashthabhara, Kashthabharaka, Kashthabharika, Kashthabheda, Kashthabhid, Kashthabhrit, Kashthabhuta, Kashthacataka, Kashthacataki, Kashthachataka, Kashthachataki, Kashthachita, Kashthacita, Kashthadaru, Kashthadhatriphala, Kashthadhirohana.
Ends with (+35): Agnikashtha, Amarakashtha, Andakashtha, Ardrakashtha, Arkakashtha, Asangakashtha, Bhadrakashtha, Brahmakashtha, Dahakashtha, Dandakashtha, Dantakashtha, Devakashtha, Devakuti-kashtha, Dhanushkashtha, Dirghakashtha, Gandhakashtha, Jotikashtha, Kakakashtha, Kalakashtha, Kambukashtha.
Full-text (+197): Kattha, Agnikashtha, Kashthalekhaka, Kashthamaya, Kashthabhrit, Kashthataksh, Kashthakadali, Kashthagara, Ardrakashtha, Dirghakashtha, Purvakashtha, Gandhakashtha, Kashthatantu, Kashthatakshaka, Kashthakhanda, Kashthamathi, Kashthadaru, Kashthakutta, Kashthakita, Kashthakiya.
Search found 49 books and stories containing Kashtha, Kāṣṭha, Kāṣṭhā, Kastha; (plurals include: Kashthas, Kāṣṭhas, Kāṣṭhās, Kasthas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Vishnu Purana (by Horace Hayman Wilson)
Chapter III - Measure of Time < [Book VI]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Appendix 3 - Purāṇic measurements of time < [Appendices]
Chapter 19 - Incarnations of Śrī Viṣṇu < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Chapter 272 - Characteristics of Different Yugas < [Section 1 - Tīrtha-māhātmya]
Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study) (by Debabrata Barai)
Part 9 - Deśa-vibhāga and Kāla-vibhāga < [Chapter 3 - Contribution of Rājaśekhara to Sanskrit Poetics]
Part 8.8 - Region of Madhyadeśa (central part) < [Chapter 5 - Analyasis and Interpretations of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā]
Part 22 - The Kāvyamīmāṃsā of Rājaśekhara: A General Introduction < [Chapter 2 - A General Outlines of Sanskrit Poetics]