Kirana, Kiraṇa: 23 definitions


Kirana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Kiran.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Kiraṇa (किरण) or Kiraṇāgama refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The Śaivāgamas are divided into four groups viz. Śaiva, Pāśupata, Soma and Lākula. Śaiva is further divided in to Dakṣiṇa, Vāma and Siddhānta (e.g., kiraṇa).

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Kiraṇa (किरण) refers to “rays” (e.g., the fifty rays of the energies of the letters”, according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “In the meantime, once the goddess had crossed over the most excellent Yoga and once the fifth night had passed, she emerged from the middle of the Liṅga. [...] The mass of radiance from (her) garland is associated with the letters (of the Mālinī alphabet) beginning with Na and ending with Pha and, endowed with the fifty rays (of the energies of the letters) [i.e., pañcāśat-kiraṇa], she is marked with a garland of flames, has light brown, dishevelled hair, and loves snakes. [...]”.

2) Kiraṇā (किरणा) or Kiraṇākalā refers to one of the “eight energies” (Aṣṭakalā) that surround the sacred seat Kāmarūpa, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “Then (after that comes the fourth sacred seat [i.e., Kāmarūpa] which) is in the locus of the heart and is surrounded by eight energies, namely Mohā, Āvṛtā, Prakāśyā, Kiraṇā, Rāgavatī, Hṛṣṭā, Puṣṭī, and Krodhā. One should know that it is located in the Wheel of the Heart surrounded by (this) group of energies set around it anticlockwise. (Brilliant) like the rising sun, its purpose is the emanation of the (many) diverse and true Yoginīs by means of (the energy) who (is full of the) attachment and passion (kāma) that comes from the joy of the heart (generated) by the countless energies of (the divine) will in order to (emanate) the many and diverse forms of creation. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Kiraṇa (किरण) refers to the “rays” (of the sun and planets), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “A true Astrologer is also one who has thoroughly mastered the Science of Saṃhitā. It treats of the motions of the sun and planets; of their size, color, rays [i.e., kiraṇa], brilliancy and shape and changes in the same of their disappearance and re-appearance; of their courses and deviations therefrom; of their retrograde and reretrograde motions; of their conjunction with the stars and of their places among the stars and the like”.

2) Kiraṇa (किरण) or Kiraṇaketu refers to specific types of Ketus, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11).—Accordingly, “The Ketus or comets that resemble garlands, gems and gold are named Kiraṇa Ketus [i.e., kiraṇākhyāḥ] and are 25 in number; they have tails and appear in the east and in the west; they are the sons of the Sun, and when they appear, princes will begin to be at strife. The Ketus that are of the colour of the parrot, of fíre, of Bhandhu-Jīvika flower, of lac or of blood are the sons of Agni (fìre) and appear in the south-east; they are 25 in number; when they appear mankind will be afflicted with fears”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Kiraṇa (किरण) is the name of a Vākchomā (‘verbal secrect sign’) which has its meaning defined as ‘puṣpa’ according to chapter 8 of the 9th-century Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja, a scripture belonging to the Buddhist Cakrasaṃvara (or Saṃvara) scriptural cycle. These Vākchomās (viz., kiraṇa) are meant for verbal communication and can be regarded as popular signs, since they can be found in the three biggest works of the Cakrasaṃvara literature.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Kiraṇa (किरण) refers to “rays of light”, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Homage be to you, homage be to you, homage be to you, homage, homage, With devotion I bow to you, Guru protector be pleased with me. By whose bright rays of light (prasāda-kiraṇa), the true self suddenly appears, With an abundance of jeweled radiance, defeating darkness, Rightly understanding with clear eyes, with intense playfulness, This adoration is offered to them, to the illuminating Guru”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kiraṇa : (m.; nt.) ray; effulgence.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kiraṇa, (nt.) 1. (fr. kṛ, karoti to do) an occupation, place of work, workshop J. IV, 223. Cp. kita & kittima. ‹-› 2. (fr. kṛ, kirati to scatter, cp. pp. kiṇṇa) scattering, effusion (of sun rays), effulgence VvA. 169, 199. (Page 215)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kiraṇa (किरण).—m (S) A ray of light; a sun beam or moonbeam. 2 n Sunshine.

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kiraṇa (किरण).—n See kirāṇa. A bound &c.

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kirāṇa (किराण).—n Properly kilāṇa. A bound, spring, leap. v māra, ṭāka, sādha. By some this word is restricted to signify A leap, heels over head (as into water), a somerset. v māra. 2 An aim. v sādha, bāndha, cuka.

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kirāṇa (किराण).—m (Vulgar corr. of kiraṇa A ray.) The first rays of the rising, or the last of the setting, sun. v paḍa & rāha respectively.

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kirāṇā (किराणा).—m Grocery: (sugars, spices, raisins &c.)

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kiraṇa (किरण).—m A ray of light; a sunbeam or moon-beam.nSunshine.

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kirāṇā (किराणा).—m Grocery (sugars, spices, &c.).

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kiraṇa (किरण).—[kṛ-kyu Uṇādi-sūtra 2.81]

1) A ray or beam of light, a ray (of the sun, moon or any shining substance); रविकिरणसहिष्णु (ravikiraṇasahiṣṇu) Ś.2.4; एको हि दोषो गुणसंनिपाते निमज्जतीन्दोः किरणेष्विवाङ्कः (eko hi doṣo guṇasaṃnipāte nimajjatīndoḥ kiraṇeṣvivāṅkaḥ) Kumārasambhava 1.3; Śānti.4.6; R.5.74; Śiśupālavadha 4.58; °मय (maya) radiant, brilliant.

2) A small particle of dust.

3) The sun.

Derivable forms: kiraṇaḥ (किरणः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kiraṇa (किरण).—m., a kind of evil spirit (associated with kākhorda, vetāla or °ḍa): Mahāvyutpatti 4374; Mahā-Māyūrī 220.18. Tibetan on Mahāvyutpatti gyeṅs byed, which according to [Tibetan-English Dictionary] = Sanskrit kiṭi, ‘fig. a pig’. For Sanskrit kiṭi, wild hog, Lexx. give also kira, kiri. But our word certainly means a demon (possibly supposed to resemble a swine?).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kiraṇa (किरण).—m.

(-ṇaḥ) 1. A ray of light, a sun or moon beam. 2. The sun. E. ka to scatter, (light,) and kyu Unadi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kiraṇa (किरण).—i. e. kṛ10 + ana, m. A ray of light, [Pañcatantra] 223, 3; [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 199, 1.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kiraṇa (किरण).—[masculine] very small dust, a mote, a ray or beam of light.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Kiraṇā (किरणा) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Quoted by Abhinavagupta. Catal. Io. p. 840.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kiraṇa (किरण):—[from kir] m. dust, very minute dust, [Ṛg-veda]

2) [v.s. ...] a rein (a meaning drawn probably [from] [Ṛg-veda iv, 38, 6]), [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 5]

3) [v.s. ...] a ray or beam of light, a sunor moonbeam, [Mahābhārata; Suśruta] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] (perhaps) thread, [Ṛg-veda x, 106, 4; Atharva-veda xx, 133, 1 and 2]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of a kind of Ketu (of which twenty-five are named), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

6) [v.s. ...] the sun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of a Śaiva work, [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

8) Kiraṇā (किरणा):—[from kiraṇa > kir] f. Name of a river, [Skanda-purāṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kiraṇa (किरण):—(ṇaḥ) 1. m. A ray of the sun.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kiraṇa (किरण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kiraṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kirana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Kiraṇa (किरण) [Also spelled kiran]:—(nf) a ray, beam; —[phūṭanā] a ray to shoot forth.

2) Kirānā (किराना):—(nm) grocery.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Kiraṇa (किरण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Kiraṇa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kiraṇa (ಕಿರಣ):—

1) [noun] any of the thin lines or beams, of light that appear to come from a bright source; a ray of light.

2) [noun] a particle of dust.

3) [noun] the sun.

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Kiraṇa (ಕಿರಣ):—

1) [noun] a diffusing or scattering; dissemination.

2) [noun] one of the Saivāgamas, the religious scriptures.

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Kiraṇa (ಕಿರಣ):—[noun] the waist of a horse.

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Kīraṇa (ಕೀರಣ):—

1) [noun] the act of fusing, soldering, attaching two or more things together or inlaying something into the surface of another.

2) [noun] something that is kept hidden from otheṛs knowledge; a secret.

3) [noun] the experience of mystical union or direct communion with ultimate reality reported by mystics; mysticism.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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