Hasya, Hāsya: 22 definitions


Hasya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Hasy.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Hāsya (हास्य) refers to the “comic” sentiment (rasa). It is one of the eight rasas mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 6.15. The color associated with the hāsya is white (sita), and the presiding deities of of the comic (śṛṅgāra) sentiment are the Pramathas.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “The Comic (hāsya) has as its basis the Durable Psychological State of laughter. This is created by Determinants such as, showing unseemly dress or ornament, impudence, greediness, quarrel, defective limb, use of irrelevant words, mentioning of different faults, and similar other things.”.

2) Hāsyā (हास्या, “smiling”) refers to a specific “glance” (dṛṣṭi), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. This is a type of glance that expresses the ‘comic sentiment’ (hāsyarasa). There are a total thirty-six glances defined. In the Hāsyā (smiling) Glance the two eyelids are by turns contracted, and they open with the eyeballs moving and slightly visible; it should be used in representing jugglery.

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Hāsya (हास्य) or the “sentiment (rasa) of humour”.—Hāsya, in which the permanent mood is hāsa or mirth, is according to the imagination of the mythologists, is of white colour and the attendants of Śiva are its presiding deities. It may arise from the fun of distorted shapes, words, dresses, gestures etc. Whatever a person laughs at, when he sees it, distorted in case of form, speech or gesture, this they call the ālambana and the gestures thereunto pertaining, is held to be the uddīpana. Among its anubhāvas are, closing of the eyes, smiling of the countenance etc. and the vyabhicāribhāvas may be drowsiness, indolence, dissembling etc.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

1) Hāsya (हास्य) refers to the “comic sentiment” and represents one of the nine kinds of Rasa (“soul of Drama”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa says that hāsya-rasa is generated from some irrelevant or funny conversations or attires which bring humour to the viewers’ mind and the viewers start laughing. The Nāṭyaśāstra speaks that, the comic sentiment is created through the determinants like deformed dress or ornaments, impudence, greediness, quarrel, use of irrelevant and inappropriate words etc. According to the Sāhityadarpaṇa, deformed movements of hands and feet are also the cause of laughing. Hāsa is the sthāyibhāva of this sentiment. Sita i.e., white is the colour and Pramatha is the God of this sentiment

According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, it is of two kinds viz.,

  1. ātmastha i.e., self laugh and
  2. parastha i.e other’s laugh.

This books places the grade of laughing in three standards viz., uttama, madhyama and adhama. Uttama is the best form of smile where teeth are not visible; madhyama is the middle form where teeth are visible and adhama type of laughing is associated with tears and noise

2) Hāsyā (हास्या) refers to one of the Thirty six kinds of Glances (dṛṣṭi) or “proper accomplishment of glances” (in Indian Dramas).—Dṛṣṭi is very important in a dance form. The appropriate movements of eyes, eyeballs and eyebrows of an artist make the performance more charming. There are thirty six kinds of glances (dṛṣṭi) accepted in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, for example hāsyā, belonging to the rasadṛṣṭi division.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Hāsya (हास्य) refers to “joking remarks”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.21. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] When Kāma (God of Love) reached the vicinity of Śiva, Spring spread all his splendour in accord with the inclination of the lord. [...] With diverse conversations, glances, joking remarks (hāsya) and exchanges of pleasantries he instructed Śiva in the knowledge of Self. Drinking the nectar from her moon-face, Śiva stabilised his body. Sometimes he experienced exhilarating and particularly pleasing state”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Hāsya (हास्य) or “sentiment of humour” refers to one of the Nine Sentiments (citrarasa) in ancient Indian Painting (citra), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa nine kinds of sentiments [e.g., hāsya—humour] are reflected through Paintings and these are termed as citrarasas in this work. [...] According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, hāsya i.e., the sentiment of humour (hāsya) is reflected through the Painting of a person who is hunchback, dwarfish and somewhat deformed in appearance

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Hāsya (हास्य) refers to “laughter”, representing one of the various actions of Māra, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 10).—Accordingly, “[Question: What are the works of Māra?]—[Answer].—[...] Māra has three types of actions: (a) play, laughter (hāsya), idle chatter, singing, dancing, and everything that provokes desire; (b) iron fetters, beating, whipping, wounds, spikes, knives, slashing and everything that is caused by hatred; (c) [demented mortifications] such as being burned, being frozen, tearing out one’s hair, starving, jumping into the fire, throwing oneself into the water, falling onto spears and everything that results from stupidity”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Google Books: An Illustrated History of the Mandala

Hāsyā (हास्या) is the deity associated with Rati (“delight”): one of the Seventeen Viśuddhipadas (“stations of purity”), according to the Prajñāpāramitānayasūtra: an ancient Buddhist Tantric text recited daily in the Japanese Shingon sect which is closely related to the Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha.—The seventeen-deity maṇḍala, representing the deification of the seventeen viśuddhipadas, corresponds to the great maṇḍala described in the Mahāsamayatattvavajra, which explains seventeen viśuddhipadas (twenty in the Chinese translation). [...] Iconographically, these Goddesses (e.g., Hāsyā) correspond to the four inner offering goddesses of the Vajradhātu-maṇḍala, although Hāsyā does not coincide with Vajramālā of the Vajradhātu-maṇḍala. [...]

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Hāsya (हास्य, “ridiculous”) refers to “sense of the absurd” and represents a subclass of the interal (abhyantara) division of parigraha (attachment) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment). Amṛtacandra (in his Puruṣārthasiddhyupāya 116), Somadeva, and Āśādhara among the Digambaras and Siddhasena Gaṇin (in his commentary on the Tattvārtha-sūtra 7.24) among the Śvetāmbaras mention fourteen varieties  of abhyantara-parigraha (for example, hāsya).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Hāsya (हास्य).—What is meant by ‘jest / laughter’ (hāsya)? Ridiculing right faith and the true religion, laughing at the distress or misery of others, making jokes at the expense of others, excessive laughter and the rest are meant by laughter.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Hāsya (हास्य, “jest”).—The renunciation of cowardice or jest (hāsya-pratyākhāna) refers to one of the contemplations of the vow of truthfulness (satyavrata) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 7.5.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Hāsya (हास्य, “jest”) refers to “risible or laughter-producing” and represents one of the nine types of the Akaṣāya (“quasi passions”) classification of of  Cāritramohanīya “conduct deluding (karmas)” according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. Cāritramohanīya refers to one of the two main classifications of Mohanīya, or “deluding (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha). What is meant by jest (hāsya) karma? The karmas rise of which causes laughter is called jest karma.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

hāsya (हास्य).—n (S) Laughter: also delight or pleasurable emotion. This is one of the nine rasa. See nava- rasa. 2 Laughing at; ridicule or derision. 3 Mirth or pleasantry. Note. From the subrisus or smile to the horse-laughter some are pleased to reckon four stages; viz. smita, hāsita, hāsya, aṭṭahāsa.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

hāsya (हास्य).—n Laughter. Laughing at. Mirth.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Hāsya (हास्य).—a. [has-ṇyat] Laughable, ridiculous; संरुद्धचेष्टस्य मृगेन्द्र कामं हास्यं वचस्तद्यदहं विवक्षुः (saṃruddhaceṣṭasya mṛgendra kāmaṃ hāsyaṃ vacastadyadahaṃ vivakṣuḥ) R.2.43.

-syam 1 Laughter; क्रीडां शरीरसंस्कारं समाजोत्सवदर्शनम् । हास्यं परगृहे यानं त्यजेत् प्रोषितभर्तृका (krīḍāṃ śarīrasaṃskāraṃ samājotsavadarśanam | hāsyaṃ paragṛhe yānaṃ tyajet proṣitabhartṛkā) || Y.1.84.

2) Mirth, amusement, sport; तस्माद्द्यूतं न सेवेत हास्यार्थमपि बुद्धिमान् (tasmāddyūtaṃ na seveta hāsyārthamapi buddhimān) Manusmṛti 9.227.

3) Jest, joke.

4) Derision, ridicule; तुष्टैर्बद्धं तदलघु रघु- स्वामिनः सच्चरित्रं क्रुद्धैर्नितस्त्रिभुवनजयी हास्यमार्गं दशास्यः (tuṣṭairbaddhaṃ tadalaghu raghu- svāminaḥ saccaritraṃ kruddhairnitastribhuvanajayī hāsyamārgaṃ daśāsyaḥ) Vikr. 18.17.

-syaḥ The sentiment of mirth or humour, one of the eight or nine sentiments in poetry; it is thus defined :-विकृताकारवाग्वेषचेष्टादेः कुहकाद्भवेत् । हास्यो हास- स्थायिभावः (vikṛtākāravāgveṣaceṣṭādeḥ kuhakādbhavet | hāsyo hāsa- sthāyibhāvaḥ) (so must the line be read instead of hāso hāsya- sthāyibhāvaḥ) श्वेतः प्रमथदैवतः (śvetaḥ pramathadaivataḥ) S. D.228.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hasya (हस्य).—mfn.

(-styaḥ-styā-styaṃ) 1. Given with the hand. 2. Done with the hand, manual. E. hasta the hand, and yat aff.

--- OR ---

Hāsya (हास्य).—mfn.

(-syaḥ-syā-syaṃ) Laughable, ridiculous. n.

(-syaṃ) 1. Laughter. laughing, mirth. 2. Ridicule, derision. E. has to laugh, ṇyat aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hāsya (हास्य).—[adjective] ridiculous; [neuter] laughing, laughter, joke, hāsyārtham [adverb] for sport.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Hāsya (हास्य):—[from has] mfn. to be laughed at, laughable, ridiculous, funny, comical, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] laughing, laughter, mirth (in [rhetoric] one of the 10 Rasas or of the 8 Sthāyi-bhāvas, qq.vv.), [Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] jest, fun, amusement, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hāsya (हास्य):—(syaṃ) 1. n. Laughter, mirth. a. Laughable.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Hāsya (हास्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Hassa, Hāsia, Hāsīa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Hasya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Hāsya (हास्य) [Also spelled hasy]:—(nm) humour; ridicule, fun; —[kathā] a humorous tale; ~[kara/kāraka/janaka] humorous; provoking laughter; -[kautuka] fun and humour; -[citra] a cartoon; ~[citrakāra] a cartoonist; —[bhāva] sense of humour; —[rasa] the final and successful culmination of the sense of humour ([hāsya]) into a rasa; ~[rasātmaka] full of or abounding in [hāsyarasa; —rūpalekhā] humorous feature; -[vyaṃgya] humour and satire/wit.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Hāsya (ಹಾಸ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] joy; pleasure; delight.

2) [noun] an act of amusing or the condition of being amused.

3) [noun] a deriding or being derided; ridicule; derision.

4) [noun] comic sentiment (as in a drama, cinema, etc.).

5) [noun] (jain.) one of the several karmas that makes the person indulge in the humorous element in art or life.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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