Kula, Kūla, Kūḻā: 40 definitions


Kula means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Cool.

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In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

1) Kula (कुल) refers to “part of a village”. It is also known as haṭṭa and uṣṭa. The boundaries are defined as “as much land as can be cultivated with two ploughs”. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 7.119)

2) Kula (कुल) refers to either “member of a family” or, in a different context, “judge”. (See the Manubhāṣya, verse 8.169)

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: DSpace at Pondicherry: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu (shaivism)

Kula (कुल).—According to the Kaulajñānanirṇaya, kula is defined as the condition in which the mind and the sight of the devotee merge and the senses lose their independence, the devotee’s own power becomes one with jīva, and his sight merges into the visible objects. Kula is identical with Śakti, who merges into Śiva, Śiva into action (kriya), Kriya into jñāna (knowledge), through icchā (desire) which merges finally into supreme Śiva.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Kula (कुल) refers to a “clan/noble family”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[Devī spoke]:—O God, what kind of a woman is a Yoginī? Who is Māyā and who is Pāśavī? Tell me, O Bhairava, the pros and cons of having sex with them. [Bhairava spoke]:—[...] A woman who possesses all favourable characteristics [but] has neither a [Yoginī] Clan/noble family (kula) nor a [human/material] form/beauty, and who is to be approached by empathic imagination, O Maheśānī, is called Māyā”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Kula (कुल) refers to “(king’s) family”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 19.129-133, while describing daily rituals]—“[The Mantrin] performs daily fire rites for the prosperity of the kingdom of kings. The [king] enjoys the kingdom happily, there is no doubt. [His] enemies, etc., disappear, even through one pūjā. Overcome, they escape into to the ten directions like deer etc., from a lion. Poverty disappears from the [king’s] family (kula) through the continual application of the rites. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Kūla (कूल) refers to a “slope”, and is mentioned in verse 2.40-44 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] the shadow of a slope [viz., kūla], the enemy of a king, a beast of prey, a tusked [fanged] animal, and horned cattle; intercourse with wicked, dishonourable, and over-shrewd (people and) quarrel with superiors [...] (all these things) one shall eschew. In all activities of a wise (man) the world alone (is) his teacher”.

Note: Kūla (“slope”) has been rendered by gad-kha, lit. “face of rock”; cf. Mahāvyutpatti 8599, where the synonymous taṭa has been translated this way. What is apparently meant here is a precipice composed of brittle stone and liable to landslide; at any rate, gad-pa denotes in a more specific sense what is called by geologists pudding-stone or conglomerate: water-worn fragments of rock cemented into a mass.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Kula (कुल) denotes a modality of practice, school, tradition or teaching, we turn to another range of meanings. The word ‘kula’ and its derivatives came to denote a surprising number of metaphysical concepts ranging across the whole gamut of reality from the absolute, through to the godhead, deity, its energies and those of the entire cosmic order. Kula is also their microcosmic counterpart ranging from the innermost Self through to the energies of the psycho-physical body. Thus, kula and the related words akula and kaula, denote aspects or modalities of the one non-dual reality.

2) Kula (कुल) is another name for the Kaumara mountain (identified with Śrīśaila in Andhra) and refers to one of the ten places visited by the Goddess on her pilgrimage, according to Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, as the Goddess said: “I am (now) going again there to the Kula mountain in India that has been praised by those who know it as Śrīparvata from ages without beginning. (Also) called (mount) Kumāra, it is adorned with an umbrella for shade”.

3) Kula (कुल) refers to one of the male servants associated with Kāmarūpa, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Nine of the twelve female servants (three in each of the first four seats), are low-caste women who we find, in other contexts, embody the Mothers (mātṛkā). The maids (cellakā) are Yoginīs and the servants their male counterparts [i.e., Kula]. These replace the spiritual ‘sons’ and ‘daughters’ the goddess generates and the guardians she appoints in the sacred seats listed in the ‘Kubjikāmatatantra’.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Kūla (कूल) refers to a “(sea) beach”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the sun and moon should begin to be eclipsed when only half risen, deceitful men will suffer as well as sacrificial rites. [...] If when in the sign of Pisces (Mīna), the products of the sea beach [i.e., sāgara-kūla] and of the sea, man of respectability and of learning and persons that live by water will suffer. Also those provinces will be affected which correspond to particular lunar mansions in which the eclipses happen to occur, as will be explained in the chapter (14) on Kūrmavibhāga”.

2) Kula (कुल) refers to a “family”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8).—Accordingly, “The years of Jupiter (bṛhaspati) take their names from the several Nakṣatras in which he reappears after his conjunction with the Sun; and these names are identical with the names of the lunar months. [...] In the Jyeṣṭha year of Jupiter, the chief men of every caste (jāti), of every family (kula-dhana-śreṣṭhā), of every opulent class (śreṇī) and of every village as well as princes and learned men will suffer miseries; and grains excepting Kaṅgu and pod grains will suffer”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Nirukta (Sanskrit etymology)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram (etymology)

Kula (कुल).—Abhinavagupta explains that the term ‘kula’ is derived from the root ‘kul’, which means “coming together as a group”. Another meaning of this root is “condensation”. While the first meaning alludes to the collection of the vital breaths, sense organs, elements and so forth that constitute the psycho-physical body, the second denotes the ‘condensed’ state of consciousness that, for those ignorant of this process, is bondage. From another point of view, Kula is Kaulikī śakti, which is both the energy of Kula and the energy that is Kula. Moreover this energy is the power of consciousness that gives life to the body and empowers the senses and the mind. Thus, Kula is both the essential nature of outer phenomena, their manifestation as their perceptual and conceptual representation as well as the Self of every living being.

context information

Nirukta (निरुक्त) or “etymology” refers to the linguistic analysis of the Sanskrit language. This branch studies the interpretation of common and ancient words and explains them in their proper context. Nirukta is one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Kula (कुल) refers to “lineage”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “[...] [The demons born of] the aggressive magic of [his] enemies, having failed to take hold of him, frightened will possess the performer [of the ritual], like a river[’s fury] blocked by a mountain. Droughts will end and enemies will run away. In his kingdom there will not be dangers in the form of untimely deaths, wild animals, beasts of prey, thieves, illnesses etc. and strength shall reside in his lineage (balatatkule balam)”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kula (कुल) refers to “one’s family”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.48 (“Description of Marriage of Śiva and Pārvatī”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] Then the Brahmins were requested by Himavat ‘May the rite be formally started after narrating the Tithi etc. The auspicious hour has come’. After saying ‘So be it’, the excellent Brahmins who knew the proper time proclaimed the Tithi etc. very delightedly. Then Himācala mentally urged with pleasure by lord Śiva, the cause of great enjoyment, smilingly spoke to Śiva. ‘O Śiva, please do not delay. Please mention your genealogy, saintly lineage, family (kula), name and your Veda along with your branch of the Vedas’”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Yoniversum: Hinduism

Sanskrit., kula: Clan, Family, Lineage

  1. name of an influential and widespread group of Indian vamacara ("left hand") Tantrics
  2. name for a member of this "family" or "lineage", a membership gained either by birth or initiation

The prominent influence the Kula have had on the general development of Indian Tantra can be judged by the number of important scriptures that have come out of this movement; for example the Kaulavali Nirnaya Tantra, Kubjika Tantra, Kularnava Tantra, Parasurama-kalpa Sutra and Yogini Tantra.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

See Kundala.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Kula (कुल) refers to the “families of gods and goddesses”, according to Vajrayāna or Tibetan Buddhism.—[...] [The] Dhyāni Buddhas represent the five Skandhas or the five cosmic elements of which the world is composed. They are here described as the progenitors of the five Kulas or families of gods and goddesses. The families owe allegiance to their progenitors who are known as Kuleśas or Lords of Families. In the Guhyasamāja it is said: “The five Kulas (families) are the Dveṣa (hatred), Moha (delusion), Rāga (attachment), Cintāmaṇi (Wishing Gem), and Samaya, (convention) which conduce to the attainment of all desires and emancipation”.

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Kula (कुल) refers to the “classes of birth”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, [while describing the Adamantine Circle (vajracakra)]: “[...]  [On each realm], there are thirty-six [couples of heroes and Yoginīs] in total; [it] consists in all merits and is powerful. In this way, [every] realm has the nature of the heroes and Yoginīs. In [all circles inside] the ring of mountains, classes of birth (kula) of sentient beings are to be generated in order; they are again divided into thirty-six [and arranged] in the respective places [on each circle] in order. The Adamantine Circle, the first, is thus [taught]. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Kula (कुल) refers to the “family (of the Dharma)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 22, v2).—Accordingly, “The Bodhisattva takes birth into a Kṣatriya family or a Brāhmaṇa family.—Brāhmaṇa families have wisdom; Kṣatriya families have power. The Brāhmaṇa favors the future life; the Kṣatriya favors the present life: both families are useful in the world; this is why the Bodhisattva is born among them. There is also the worthy family of the Dharma (dharma-kula), that of the non-regressing adepts (avaivartika). Taking birth in these families is the excellence of the family”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Kulaputrā (कुलपुत्रा) refers to a “good family”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “When that prediction of the wicked Māra was set forth, all the assembly of Indras, Brahmās and Lokapālas were astonished, and they uttered a joyous utterance: ‘Even though they have done that many works of the Māra, they still can produce the thought of incomparable complete awakening by means of meaningfulness of seeing the Tathāgata. The discipline of the dharma, which is well spoken by the Lord, is marvelous! O Lord, who is the son (kula-putra) or daughter (kula-duhitṛ) of good family who could measure the Buddha-fields from one person to another because it cannot be measured by any disciple or isolated Buddha?’”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kula (कुल) refers to a “group of sects” and represents one of the ten persons suitable for rendering services, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “[...] Vajranābha acquired strong Tirthakṛt-body-making and family-karma by the twenty sthānakas as follows:—[...] The sixteenth sthāna is the rendering of service by food, drink, etc., to the ten persons, Ācārya, etc. [viz., Kula] [...]”.

Note: The 10 persons entitled to service are; [viz., Kula (a group of sects);].—(cf. Aupapātikasūtra 20, p. 43. Sthānāṅgasūtra 397, p. 299. Āvaśyakasūtra 176-78, p. 161b). [...] These 10 persons are entitled to 13 kinds of service: giving of food; of drink; giving a seat; supplying anything that may be lacking in his equipment; cleansing the feet; giving of clothes; giving of medicine; escort on the road; protection from rogues, thieves, etc.; taking the staff when he enters the house; and 3 kinds of sanitary service.—(cf. Āvaśyakasūtra p. 161b).

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Kula (कुल, “family”) as in kula-mada refers to “pride of family” and represents one of the eight forms of vainglory (mada), according to Samantabhadra in his Ratna-Karaṇḍa-śrāvakācāra (with commentary of Prabhācandra). These eight madas are included in the twenty-five blemishes (dṛg-doṣas), which are generally held to be the eight madas, the three mūḍhatās, the six anāyatanas, and the eight doṣas.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas

Kula (कुल).—One of the ten types of ‘nursing services’ (vaiyāvrata)? What is meant by ‘the congregation of the common disciples’ (kula) of one teacher /preceptor? The lineage of disciples initiated into the monk-hood by the same head of the congregation called the congregation of the disciples of one teacher /preceptor.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Kula (कुल) refers to a “good family”, according to Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi.—Accordingly, “[...] Even if human birth is attained, a good country, a good family (kula), keen senses, health, etc. are more and more difficult of attainment. When all these are attained, if true faith is not acquired, human birth becomes useless like the face without vision. And even after attaining this rare true faith, if anyone is immersed in worldly pleasures, it is like burning sandal-wood paste for the sake of ash. [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Kūla (कूल) refers to a name-ending for place-names according to Pāṇini VI.2.129. Pāṇini also cautions his readers that the etymological meaning of place-names should not be held authoritative since the name should vanish when the people leave the place who gave their name to it.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kula.—(LL), Jain; a particular section of the Jains. Cf. udhad8īyā-jhumpad8īya-kula (LP), ‘farmers on whom revenue is fixed in a lump sum and who live in huts’. Cf. kulam (EI 25), a land measure; equal to 2 halas. Note: kula is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Kūla.—(SITI), tax on grains and pulses; cf. Tamil kiru- kūlam. Cf. Tamil kūlam (SII 1), a market. Note: kūla is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Kula in the Marathi language is the name of a plant identified with Chlorophytum breviscapum from the Asparagaceae (Asparagus) family. For the possible medicinal usage of kula, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Kula in Kenya is the name of a plant defined with Lagenaria siceraria in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Cucurbita leucantha Duchesne (among others).

2) Kula in Senegal is also identified with Albizia ferruginea It has the synonym Inga malacophylla A. Rich. (etc.).

3) Kula in South America is also identified with Caryocar glabrum It has the synonym Saouari glabra Aubl. (etc.).

4) Kula in Togo is also identified with Bombax costatum It has the synonym Bombax houardii Pellegr. & Vuill. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Florae Senegambiae Tentamen (1830)
· Nomenclator Botanicus (1824)
· Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club (1896)
· A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants (1831)
· Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2004)
· Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden (1968)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kula, for example pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, health benefits, side effects, chemical composition, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kula : (nt.) a family; clan; caste. || kūla (nt.), river-bank; embankment.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kūla, (nt.) (Dhtp 271: kūla āvaraṇe) a slope, a bank, an embankment. Usually of rivers: S. I, 143=J. III, 361; A. I, 162; Sn. 977; J. I, 227; Miln. 36: udapāna° the facing of a well Vin. II, 122; vaccakūpassa k° the sides of a cesspool Vin. II, 141. See also paṃsu°, & cp. uk°, upa°, paṭi°. (Page 225)

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Kula, (nt.; but poetic pl. kulā Pv. II, 943 (Idg. *qǔel (revolve); see under kaṇṭha, cakka and carati) 1. clan, a high social grade, “good family, ” cp. Gr. (doric) fuά, Goth. kuni. A collection of cognates and agnates, in sense of Ohg. sippa, clan; “house” in sense of line or descent (cp. House of Bourbon, Homeric genέh). Bdhgh at Vism. 91 distinguishes 2 kinds of kulāni, viz. ñātikulaṃ & upaṭṭhāka-kulaṃ.—1. A. II, 249 (on welfare and ill-luck of clans); Sn. 144; 711; It. 109 sq. (sabrahmakāni, etc.); Dh. 193.—brāhmaṇa° a Brahmanic family A. V, 249; J. IV, 411, etc.; vāṇija° the household of a trader J. III, 82; kassaka° id. of a farmer J. II, 109; purāṇaseṭṭhi° of a banker J. VI, 364; upaṭṭhāka° (Sāriputtassa) a family who devoted themselves to the service of S. Vin. I, 83; sindhava° VvA. 280.—uccākula of high descent Pv III, 116, opp. nīca° of mean birth Sn. 411 (cp. °kulīno); viz. caṇḍālakula, nesāda°, veṇa°, etc. M. II, 152=A. I, 107=II. 85=III, 385=Pug. 51; sadisa° a descent of equal standing PvA. 82; kula-rūpa- sampanna endowed with “race” and beauty PvA. 3, 280.—2. household, in the sense of house; kulāni people DhA. I, 388; parakulesu among other people Dh. 73; parakule do. VvA. 66; kule kule appaṭibaddhacitto not in love with a particular family Sn. 65; cp. kule gaṇe āvāse (asatto or similar terms) Nd2 on taṇhā IV.—devakula temple J. II, 411; rāja° the king’s household. palace J. I, 290; III, 277; VI, 368; kulāni bahutthikāni (=bahuitthikāni, bahukitthī° A. IV, 278) appapurisāni “communities in which there are many women but few men” Vin. II, 256=S. II, 264=A. IV, 278; ñāti-kula (my) home Vv 3710 (: pitugehaṃ sandhāya VvA. 171).

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kula (कुल).—n (S) Family, race, tribe. 2 S A herd or flock.

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kula (कुल).—a ( A) All. In comp. as kulajamā, kulakharca, kulavasūla, kulaināma, kulakānū, kulabāba, kulabābatī. Other compounds of less obvious signification follow in order.

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kulā (कुला).—m A buttock. Pr. rikāmā sutāra kulētāsī. kulā bāhēra paḍalā A covert or delicate way of speaking about prolapsus ani (i. e. something in the neighborhood of kulā). kulē thōpaṭaṇēṃ To clap the buttocks in triumph or in joy. kulyāvara kulā yēṇēṃ To get fat. mātīcē kulē kōṭhēṃ lāvalyānēṃ lāgatāta? Can any acquirement or adventitious good sit as appropriately as an endowment or excellency of nature?

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kūḷa (कूळ).—n (kula S) A family, a race, a tribe. Pr. kuḷāsa khōḍa santānāsa vēḍa (nasāvēṃ). 2 A lessee or tenant or the contracting farmer with reference to the Surkar or lessor; a debtor with reference to the Banker; an engaging man with reference to his Security; a patient with reference to the Physician; a client with reference to the Advocate; and sometimes, a protégé with reference to his Patron; i. e. the tenant, debtor, patient &c. of. The word preeminently respects a Family or an individual paying revenue to Government. For compounds see all those under kula, changing the u into ū and the la into ळ. kūḷa uddharaṇēṃ g. of o. To curse or abuse the whole ancestry of. kuḷālā ḍāga lāvaṇēṃ To bring a stain upon the family.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kula (कुल).—n Family, race. A herd. a All. In comp. kulajamā, kulakharca &c.

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kula (कुल) [-llā, -ल्ला].—m A buttock.

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kūḷa (कूळ).—n A family. A lessee; a debtor. kūḷa uddharaṇēṃ Curse or abuse the whole an- cestry of.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kula (कुल).—1 A race, family; निदानमिक्ष्वाकुकुलस्य संततेः (nidānamikṣvākukulasya saṃtateḥ) R.3.1.

2) The residence of a family, a seat, house, an abode; ददर्श धीमान्स कपिः कुलानि (dadarśa dhīmānsa kapiḥ kulāni) Rām.5.5.1; वसन्नृषि- कुलेषु सः (vasannṛṣi- kuleṣu saḥ) R.12.25.

3) A high or noble family, noble descent; कुले जन्म (kule janma) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5.2; कुलशीलसमन्वितः (kulaśīlasamanvitaḥ) Manusmṛti 7.54,62; so कुलजा, कुलकन्यका (kulajā, kulakanyakā) &c.

4) A herd, troop, flock; collection, multitude; मृगकुलं रोमन्थमभ्यस्यतु (mṛgakulaṃ romanthamabhyasyatu) Ś.2.6; Uttararāmacarita 2.9; अलिकुलसंकुल (alikulasaṃkula) Gītagovinda 1; Śiśupālavadha 9.71; so गो°, कृमि°, महिषी° (go°, kṛmi°, mahiṣī°) &c.

5) A lot, gang. band (in a bad sense).

6) A country.

7) The body.

8) The front or fore part.

9) A tribe, caste, community.

1) A blue stone.

-laḥ The head of a guild or corporation.

-lā See कुलतिथि (kulatithi).

Derivable forms: kulam (कुलम्).

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Kulā (कुला).—f. Red arsenic (Mar. manaśīḷa).

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Kūla (कूल).—

1) A shore, bank; राधामाधवयोर्जयन्ति यमुनाकूले रहःकेलयः (rādhāmādhavayorjayanti yamunākūle rahaḥkelayaḥ) Gītagovinda 1; नदीवोभयकूलभाक् (nadīvobhayakūlabhāk) R.12.35,68; चुकूज कूले कलहंसमण्डली (cukūja kūle kalahaṃsamaṇḍalī) N. यथा महामत्स्य उभे कूले अनुसंचरति (yathā mahāmatsya ubhe kūle anusaṃcarati) Bṛ. Up. 4.3.18.

2) A slope, declivity.

3) Skirt, edge, border, proximity; आस्तीर्य दर्भान्प्राक्कूलान् (āstīrya darbhānprākkūlān) Bhāgavata 8.24.4; कुलाय- कूलेषु विलुट्य तेषु ते (kulāya- kūleṣu viluṭya teṣu te) N.1.141.

4) A pond.

5) The rear of an army.

6) A heap, mound.

Derivable forms: kūlam (कूलम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kula (कुल).—n.

(-laṃ) 1. Family, race, tribe or caste. 2. A herd, a flock, &c. of animals of the same species. 3. An inhabited country. 4. A house, an abode. 5. The body. 6. The front or fore part. 7. A blue stone: see kulattha m.

(-laḥ) An artist of celebrated descent. f. (-liḥ or -lī) A prickly nightshade: see kaṇṭakārī, &c. (-lī) A wife’s elder sister. E. kul to accumulate, ka affix, or kuṅ to sound, and lak affix, or ku the earth, and la who takes or possesses, from with ḍa aff.

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Kūla (कूल).—n.

(-laṃ) 1. A bank, a shore. 2. A heap, a mound. 3. A pond or pool. 4. The rear of an army. E. kūl to cover, ac aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kula (कुल).—n. 1. A herd, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 40, 24; a flock, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 1, 23; [Pañcatantra] 82, 20. 2. A multitude, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 1, 9, 33. 3. A caste. [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 9, 9, 43. 4. Family, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 34. 5. A house, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 82. 6. A grange, holding as much land as can be tilled by two ploughs, each drawn by six bulls, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 119. 7. Noble lineage, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 54. 8. An inspector of causes, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 169 (? Kall.).

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Kūla (कूल).—n. 1. A slope (ved.). 2. A bank, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 78.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kula (कुल).—[neuter] herd, flock, swarm, multitude, race, family, [especially] good family, nobility; guild, corporation, community, association, caste, tribe; land for one family, abode, residence, house; chief of a corporation (v. kulabhūta). °— often = chief, noble.

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Kūla (कूल).—[neuter] slope, hill; shore, bank.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kula (कुल):—n. (ifc. f(ā). ) a herd, troop, flock, assemblage, multitude, number, etc. (of quadrupeds, birds, insects, etc., or of inanimate objects e.g. go-kula, a herd of cows, [Rāmāyaṇa] etc.; mahiṣīk, a herd of female buffaloes, [Ṛtusaṃhāra]; ali-k, a swarm of bees, [Śiśupāla-vadha; Gīta-govinda] etc.; alaka-k, a multitude of curls, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa])

2) a race, family, community, tribe, caste, set, company (e.g. brāhmaṇa-k, the caste of the Brāhmans, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]; padātīnāṃ kula, infantry, [Rājataraṅgiṇī v, 247])

3) (ifc. with a [genitive case] sg.) a lot, gang (e.g. caurasya-k, a gang of thieves), [Pāṇini 6-3, 21; Kāśikā-vṛtti]

4) the residence of a family, seat of a community, inhabited country (as much ground as can be ploughed by two ploughs each drawn by six bulls [commentator or commentary] on [Manu-smṛti vii, 119])

5) a house, abode, [Mahābhārata]

6) a noble or eminent family or race, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

7) high station (in [compound] ‘chief, principal’ cf. kula-giri, etc.)

8) the body, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) the front, forepart, [Horace H. Wilson]

10) a blue stone, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) (with Śāktas) Name of Śakti and of the rites observed in her worship (cf. kaula)

12) = kula-nakṣatra q.v., [Tantrasāra]

13) m. the chief of a corporation or guild, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) = kula-vāra q.v., [Tantrasāra]

15) Name of a man, [Rāmāyaṇa vii, 43, 2]

16) Kulā (कुला):—[from kula] f. ‘a principal day’, Name of the 4th and 8th and 12th and 14th day in a pakṣa, or half-month, [Tantrasāra]

17) Kūla (कूल):—n. a declivity, slope, [Ṛg-veda viii, 47, 11]

18) a shore, bank, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv; Nirukta, by Yāska; Manu-smṛti] etc. (ifc. [Pāṇini 6-2, 121; 129 & 135]; f(ā). , [Mahābhārata xiv, 1163])

19) a heap, mound, tope, [Caraka]

20) a pond or pool, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) the rear of an army, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) Name of a locality [gana] dhūmādi

23) cf. aja-kūlā, anu-kūla, ut-k etc.; cf. also [Hibernian or Irish] cul, ‘custody, guard, defence, back part of anything’; col, ‘an impediment’; [Latin] collis?

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kula (कुल):—(laṃ) 1. n. Family, caste; a herd; a house; a body. m. An artist. f. () Wife’s elder sister. (liḥ-lī) Prickly nightshade.

2) Kūla (कूल):—(laṃ) 1. n. A bank, a heap; a pond; rear of an army.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kula (कुल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kula, Kūla.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kula in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Kula (कुल) [Also spelled kul]:—(a) total; aggregate; entire; lineage, pedigree; family; —[kalaṃka] a slur on the fair name of a family; ~[gurū] the family priest; ~[deva/devatā] Penates, the familydeity; ~[nāma] surname: ~[pati] Vice-chancellor (of a University); head of a family; —[paramparā] a family tradition; —[puruṣa] man of a respectable family; —[purohita] family priest; —[maryādā] dignity of a family; —[vadhū] woman of a dignified family; —[kā dīpaka] lit. light of the family; a son who brings honour to the family; —[kā nāma ḍubānā] to bring disgrace to the family; —[meṃ kalaṃka/dāga lagānā] to cause the family to be stigmatised, to cause a slur on the family.

2) Kūla (कूल) [Also spelled cool]:—(nm) a bank.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Kula (कुल) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Kula.

2) Kūla (कूल) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kūla.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kula (ಕುಲ):—

1) [noun] a crowd; a group; an assemblage.

2) [noun] direct descent from an ancestor; lineage; family.

3) [noun] a noble descent or family.

4) [noun] the normal place of dwelling; a house.

5) [noun] (coll.) a man or boy; a fellow.

6) [noun] a country; a region.

7) [noun] the body (of a human or animal).

8) [noun] the front part; fore-ground.

9) [noun] the blue gem.

10) [noun] (biol.) category in the classification of plants or animals, ranking above a genus and below an order and including one or more similar genera; a family.

11) [noun] ಕುಲವನ್ನು ನಾಲಗೆ ಹೇಳುತ್ತದೆ [kulavannu nalage heluttade] kulavannu nālge hēḷuttade (prov.) the family teaches one how to behave in the society; 2. a bird is known by its note and a man by his talk; 3. the tongue is the mirror of one’s culture; ಕುಲವಿದ್ದರೂ ಮಲ ಹೋಗದು [kulaviddaru mala hogadu] kulaviddarū mala hōgadu (prov.) one’s high-birth does not guarantee high-culture.

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Kuḷa (ಕುಳ):—

1) [noun] the part of a plough that cuts the soil; a plough-share.

2) [noun] an iron bar used to burn a mark on the skin; a branding-rod.

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Kuḷa (ಕುಳ):—

1) [noun] a tax or duty levied by a government to raise revenue for administration.

2) [noun] a taxpayer.

3) [noun] a man who has taken a piece of agricultural land from another on lease on the contract to pay the owner of the land a fixed amount of money or agricultural produce.

4) [noun] ಭಾರಿ ಕುಳ [bhari kula] bhāri kuḷa (n .) an important, influential or rich man.

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Kuḷa (ಕುಳ):—[noun] a measure of grains (varying fro eight to ten seers).

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Kuḷa (ಕುಳ):—[noun] the letter 'ḷ' native to Kannaḍa language.

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Kuḷa (ಕುಳ):—

1) [noun] a crowd; a group; an assemblage.

2) [noun] direct descent from an ancestor; lineage; family.

3) [noun] a noble descent or family.

4) [noun] the normal place of dwelling; a house.

5) [noun] (coll.) a man or boy; a fellow.

6) [noun] a country; a region.

7) [noun] the body (of a human or animal).

8) [noun] the front part; fore-ground.

9) [noun] the blue gem.

10) [noun] (biol.) category in the classification of plants or animals, ranking above a genus and below an order and including one or more similar genera; a family.

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Kuḷa (ಕುಳ):—[noun] (dial.) a sandal paste or a black paste made by burning the dry skin of banana fruit, used for putting a sectarian mark on the forehead.

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Kuḻa (ಕುೞ):—[noun] the condition of being perplexed; bewilderment; perplexity.

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Kuḻa (ಕುೞ):—

1) [noun] the part of a plough that cuts the soil; a plough-share.

2) [noun] an iron bar used to burn a mark on the skin; a branding-rod.

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Kūla (ಕೂಲ):—

1) [noun] = ಕೂಲ್ [kul]2.

2) [noun] collection of objects or material piled up so as to form a high; a pile; a heap.

3) [noun] the sloping margin of a river, stream, etc.; ground at the side of a river; a bank.

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Kūḷa (ಕೂಳ):—

1) [noun] a person who behaves or thinks imprudently or unwisely; a silly person; a fool; a stupid.

2) [noun] a man marked by or having a character disposed to, serious and wilful wrongdoing (often cruel and injurious acts); a morally depraved man.

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Kūḻa (ಕೂೞ):—[noun] = ಕೂಳ [kula].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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