Kula, Kūla: 23 definitions
Kula means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: DSpace at Pondicherry: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu (shaivism)
Kula (कुल).—According to the Kaulajñānanirṇaya, kula is defined as the condition in which the mind and the sight of the devotee merge and the senses lose their independence, the devotee’s own power becomes one with jīva, and his sight merges into the visible objects. Kula is identical with Śakti, who merges into Śiva, Śiva into action (kriya), Kriya into jñāna (knowledge), through icchā (desire) which merges finally into supreme Śiva.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
1) Kula (कुल) refers to “part of a village”. It is also known as haṭṭa and uṣṭa. The boundaries are defined as “as much land as can be cultivated with two ploughs”. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 7.119)
2) Kula (कुल) refers to either “member of a family” or, in a different context, “judge”. (See the Manubhāṣya, verse 8.169)
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Kūla (कूल) refers to a “slope”, and is mentioned in verse 2.40-44 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] the shadow of a slope [viz., kūla], the enemy of a king, a beast of prey, a tusked [fanged] animal, and horned cattle; intercourse with wicked, dishonourable, and over-shrewd (people and) quarrel with superiors [...] (all these things) one shall eschew. In all activities of a wise (man) the world alone (is) his teacher”.
Note: Kūla (“slope”) has been rendered by gad-kha, lit. “face of rock”; cf. Mahāvyutpatti 8599, where the synonymous taṭa has been translated this way. What is apparently meant here is a precipice composed of brittle stone and liable to landslide; at any rate, gad-pa denotes in a more specific sense what is called by geologists pudding-stone or conglomerate: water-worn fragments of rock cemented into a mass.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Yoniversum: Hinduism
Sanskrit., kula: Clan, Family, Lineage
- name of an influential and widespread group of Indian vamacara ("left hand") Tantrics
- name for a member of this "family" or "lineage", a membership gained either by birth or initiation
The prominent influence the Kula have had on the general development of Indian Tantra can be judged by the number of important scriptures that have come out of this movement; for example the Kaulavali Nirnaya Tantra, Kubjika Tantra, Kularnava Tantra, Parasurama-kalpa Sutra and Yogini Tantra.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography
Kula (कुल) refers to the “families of gods and goddesses”, according to Vajrayāna or Tibetan Buddhism.—[...] [The] Dhyāni Buddhas represent the five Skandhas or the five cosmic elements of which the world is composed. They are here described as the progenitors of the five Kulas or families of gods and goddesses. The families owe allegiance to their progenitors who are known as Kuleśas or Lords of Families. In the Guhyasamāja it is said: “The five Kulas (families) are the Dveṣa (hatred), Moha (delusion), Rāga (attachment), Cintāmaṇi (Wishing Gem), and Samaya, (convention) which conduce to the attainment of all desires and emancipation”.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Kula (कुल) refers to a “group of sects” and represents one of the ten persons suitable for rendering services, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “[...] Vajranābha acquired strong Tirthakṛt-body-making and family-karma by the twenty sthānakas as follows:—[...] The sixteenth sthāna is the rendering of service by food, drink, etc., to the ten persons, Ācārya, etc. [viz., Kula] [...]”.
Note: The 10 persons entitled to service are; [viz., Kula (a group of sects);].—(cf. Aupapātikasūtra 20, p. 43. Sthānāṅgasūtra 397, p. 299. Āvaśyakasūtra 176-78, p. 161b). [...] These 10 persons are entitled to 13 kinds of service: giving of food; of drink; giving a seat; supplying anything that may be lacking in his equipment; cleansing the feet; giving of clothes; giving of medicine; escort on the road; protection from rogues, thieves, etc.; taking the staff when he enters the house; and 3 kinds of sanitary service.—(cf. Āvaśyakasūtra p. 161b).Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
Kula (कुल, “family”) as in kula-mada refers to “pride of family” and represents one of the eight forms of vainglory (mada), according to Samantabhadra in his Ratna-Karaṇḍa-śrāvakācāra (with commentary of Prabhācandra). These eight madas are included in the twenty-five blemishes (dṛg-doṣas), which are generally held to be the eight madas, the three mūḍhatās, the six anāyatanas, and the eight doṣas.Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas
Kula (कुल).—One of the ten types of ‘nursing services’ (vaiyāvrata)? What is meant by ‘the congregation of the common disciples’ (kula) of one teacher /preceptor? The lineage of disciples initiated into the monk-hood by the same head of the congregation called the congregation of the disciples of one teacher /preceptor.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
Kūla (कूल) refers to a name-ending for place-names according to Pāṇini VI.2.129. Pāṇini also cautions his readers that the etymological meaning of place-names should not be held authoritative since the name should vanish when the people leave the place who gave their name to it.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Kula.—(LL), Jain; a particular section of the Jains. Cf. udhad8īyā-jhumpad8īya-kula (LP), ‘farmers on whom revenue is fixed in a lump sum and who live in huts’. Cf. kulam (EI 25), a land measure; equal to 2 halas. Note: kula is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Kūla.—(SITI), tax on grains and pulses; cf. Tamil kiru- kūlam. Cf. Tamil kūlam (SII 1), a market. Note: kūla is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
kula : (nt.) a family; clan; caste. || kūla (nt.), river-bank; embankment.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Kūla, (nt.) (Dhtp 271: kūla āvaraṇe) a slope, a bank, an embankment. Usually of rivers: S. I, 143=J. III, 361; A. I, 162; Sn. 977; J. I, 227; Miln. 36: udapāna° the facing of a well Vin. II, 122; vaccakūpassa k° the sides of a cesspool Vin. II, 141. See also paṃsu°, & cp. uk°, upa°, paṭi°. (Page 225)
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Kula, (nt.; but poetic pl. kulā Pv. II, 943 (Idg. *qǔel (revolve); see under kaṇṭha, cakka and carati) 1. clan, a high social grade, “good family, ” cp. Gr. (doric) fuά, Goth. kuni. A collection of cognates and agnates, in sense of Ohg. sippa, clan; “house” in sense of line or descent (cp. House of Bourbon, Homeric genέh). Bdhgh at Vism. 91 distinguishes 2 kinds of kulāni, viz. ñātikulaṃ & upaṭṭhāka-kulaṃ.—1. A. II, 249 (on welfare and ill-luck of clans); Sn. 144; 711; It. 109 sq. (sabrahmakāni, etc.); Dh. 193.—brāhmaṇa° a Brahmanic family A. V, 249; J. IV, 411, etc.; vāṇija° the household of a trader J. III, 82; kassaka° id. of a farmer J. II, 109; purāṇaseṭṭhi° of a banker J. VI, 364; upaṭṭhāka° (Sāriputtassa) a family who devoted themselves to the service of S. Vin. I, 83; sindhava° VvA. 280.—uccākula of high descent Pv III, 116, opp. nīca° of mean birth Sn. 411 (cp. °kulīno); viz. caṇḍālakula, nesāda°, veṇa°, etc. M. II, 152=A. I, 107=II. 85=III, 385=Pug. 51; sadisa° a descent of equal standing PvA. 82; kula-rūpa- sampanna endowed with “race” and beauty PvA. 3, 280.—2. household, in the sense of house; kulāni people DhA. I, 388; parakulesu among other people Dh. 73; parakule do. VvA. 66; kule kule appaṭibaddhacitto not in love with a particular family Sn. 65; cp. kule gaṇe āvāse (asatto or similar terms) Nd2 on taṇhā IV.—devakula temple J. II, 411; rāja° the king’s household. palace J. I, 290; III, 277; VI, 368; kulāni bahutthikāni (=bahuitthikāni, bahukitthī° A. IV, 278) appapurisāni “communities in which there are many women but few men” Vin. II, 256=S. II, 264=A. IV, 278; ñāti-kula (my) home Vv 3710 (: pitugehaṃ sandhāya VvA. 171).
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kula (कुल).—n (S) Family, race, tribe. 2 S A herd or flock.
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kula (कुल).—a ( A) All. In comp. as kulajamā, kulakharca, kulavasūla, kulaināma, kulakānū, kulabāba, kulabābatī. Other compounds of less obvious signification follow in order.
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kulā (कुला).—m A buttock. Pr. rikāmā sutāra kulētāsī. kulā bāhēra paḍalā A covert or delicate way of speaking about prolapsus ani (i. e. something in the neighborhood of kulā). kulē thōpaṭaṇēṃ To clap the buttocks in triumph or in joy. kulyāvara kulā yēṇēṃ To get fat. mātīcē kulē kōṭhēṃ lāvalyānēṃ lāgatāta? Can any acquirement or adventitious good sit as appropriately as an endowment or excellency of nature?
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kūḷa (कूळ).—n (kula S) A family, a race, a tribe. Pr. kuḷāsa khōḍa santānāsa vēḍa (nasāvēṃ). 2 A lessee or tenant or the contracting farmer with reference to the Surkar or lessor; a debtor with reference to the Banker; an engaging man with reference to his Security; a patient with reference to the Physician; a client with reference to the Advocate; and sometimes, a protégé with reference to his Patron; i. e. the tenant, debtor, patient &c. of. The word preeminently respects a Family or an individual paying revenue to Government. For compounds see all those under kula, changing the u into ū and the la into ळ. kūḷa uddharaṇēṃ g. of o. To curse or abuse the whole ancestry of. kuḷālā ḍāga lāvaṇēṃ To bring a stain upon the family.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
kula (कुल).—n Family, race. A herd. a All. In comp. kulajamā, kulakharca &c.
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kula (कुल) [-llā, -ल्ला].—m A buttock.
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kūḷa (कूळ).—n A family. A lessee; a debtor. kūḷa uddharaṇēṃ Curse or abuse the whole an- cestry of.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Kula (कुल).—1 A race, family; निदानमिक्ष्वाकुकुलस्य संततेः (nidānamikṣvākukulasya saṃtateḥ) R.3.1.
2) The residence of a family, a seat, house, an abode; ददर्श धीमान्स कपिः कुलानि (dadarśa dhīmānsa kapiḥ kulāni) Rām.5.5.1; वसन्नृषि- कुलेषु सः (vasannṛṣi- kuleṣu saḥ) R.12.25.
3) A high or noble family, noble descent; कुले जन्म (kule janma) Pt.5.2; कुलशीलसमन्वितः (kulaśīlasamanvitaḥ) Ms.7.54,62; so कुलजा, कुलकन्यका (kulajā, kulakanyakā) &c.
4) A herd, troop, flock; collection, multitude; मृगकुलं रोमन्थमभ्यस्यतु (mṛgakulaṃ romanthamabhyasyatu) Ś.2.6; U.2.9; अलिकुलसंकुल (alikulasaṃkula) Gīt.1; Śi.9.71; so गो°, कृमि°, महिषी° (go°, kṛmi°, mahiṣī°) &c.
5) A lot, gang. band (in a bad sense).
6) A country.
7) The body.
8) The front or fore part.
9) A tribe, caste, community.
1) A blue stone.
-laḥ The head of a guild or corporation.
-lā See कुलतिथि (kulatithi).
Derivable forms: kulam (कुलम्).
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Kulā (कुला).—f. Red arsenic (Mar. manaśīḷa).
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1) A shore, bank; राधामाधवयोर्जयन्ति यमुनाकूले रहःकेलयः (rādhāmādhavayorjayanti yamunākūle rahaḥkelayaḥ) Gīt.1; नदीवोभयकूलभाक् (nadīvobhayakūlabhāk) R.12.35,68; चुकूज कूले कलहंसमण्डली (cukūja kūle kalahaṃsamaṇḍalī) N. यथा महामत्स्य उभे कूले अनुसंचरति (yathā mahāmatsya ubhe kūle anusaṃcarati) Bṛ. Up. 4.3.18.
2) A slope, declivity.
3) Skirt, edge, border, proximity; आस्तीर्य दर्भान्प्राक्कूलान् (āstīrya darbhānprākkūlān) Bhāg.8.24.4; कुलाय- कूलेषु विलुट्य तेषु ते (kulāya- kūleṣu viluṭya teṣu te) N.1.141.
4) A pond.
5) The rear of an army.
6) A heap, mound.
Derivable forms: kūlam (कूलम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-laṃ) 1. Family, race, tribe or caste. 2. A herd, a flock, &c. of animals of the same species. 3. An inhabited country. 4. A house, an abode. 5. The body. 6. The front or fore part. 7. A blue stone: see kulattha m.
(-laḥ) An artist of celebrated descent. f. (-liḥ or -lī) A prickly nightshade: see kaṇṭakārī, &c. (-lī) A wife’s elder sister. E. kul to accumulate, ka affix, or kuṅ to sound, and lak affix, or ku the earth, and la who takes or possesses, from lā with ḍa aff.
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(-laṃ) 1. A bank, a shore. 2. A heap, a mound. 3. A pond or pool. 4. The rear of an army. E. kūl to cover, ac aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kula (कुल).—n. 1. A herd, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 40, 24; a flock, [Ṛtusaṃhāra] 1, 23; [Pañcatantra] 82, 20. 2. A multitude, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 1, 9, 33. 3. A caste. [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 9, 9, 43. 4. Family, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 34. 5. A house, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 82. 6. A grange, holding as much land as can be tilled by two ploughs, each drawn by six bulls, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 119. 7. Noble lineage, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 54. 8. An inspector of causes, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 169 (? Kall.).
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Kūla (कूल).—n. 1. A slope (ved.). 2. A bank, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 78.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kula (कुल).—[neuter] herd, flock, swarm, multitude, race, family, [especially] good family, nobility; guild, corporation, community, association, caste, tribe; land for one family, abode, residence, house; chief of a corporation (v. kulabhūta). °— often = chief, noble.
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Kūla (कूल).—[neuter] slope, hill; shore, bank.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kula (कुल):—n. (ifc. f(ā). ) a herd, troop, flock, assemblage, multitude, number, etc. (of quadrupeds, birds, insects, etc., or of inanimate objects e.g. go-kula, a herd of cows, [Rāmāyaṇa] etc.; mahiṣīk, a herd of female buffaloes, [Ṛtusaṃhāra]; ali-k, a swarm of bees, [Śiśupāla-vadha; Gīta-govinda] etc.; alaka-k, a multitude of curls, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa])
2) a race, family, community, tribe, caste, set, company (e.g. brāhmaṇa-k, the caste of the Brāhmans, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]; padātīnāṃ kula, infantry, [Rājataraṅgiṇī v, 247])
3) (ifc. with a [genitive case] sg.) a lot, gang (e.g. caurasya-k, a gang of thieves), [Pāṇini 6-3, 21; Kāśikā-vṛtti]
4) the residence of a family, seat of a community, inhabited country (as much ground as can be ploughed by two ploughs each drawn by six bulls [commentator or commentary] on [Manu-smṛti vii, 119])
5) a house, abode, [Mahābhārata]
6) a noble or eminent family or race, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
7) high station (in [compound] ‘chief, principal’ cf. kula-giri, etc.)
8) the body, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) the front, forepart, [Horace H. Wilson]
10) a blue stone, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) (with Śāktas) Name of Śakti and of the rites observed in her worship (cf. kaula)
12) = kula-nakṣatra q.v., [Tantrasāra]
13) m. the chief of a corporation or guild, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) = kula-vāra q.v., [Tantrasāra]
15) Name of a man, [Rāmāyaṇa vii, 43, 2]
16) Kulā (कुला):—[from kula] f. ‘a principal day’, Name of the 4th and 8th and 12th and 14th day in a pakṣa, or half-month, [Tantrasāra]
17) Kūla (कूल):—n. a declivity, slope, [Ṛg-veda viii, 47, 11]
18) a shore, bank, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv; Nirukta, by Yāska; Manu-smṛti] etc. (ifc. [Pāṇini 6-2, 121; 129 & 135]; f(ā). , [Mahābhārata xiv, 1163])
19) a heap, mound, tope, [Caraka]
20) a pond or pool, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
21) the rear of an army, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
22) Name of a locality [gana] dhūmādi
23) cf. aja-kūlā, anu-kūla, ut-k etc.; cf. also [Hibernian or Irish] cul, ‘custody, guard, defence, back part of anything’; col, ‘an impediment’; [Latin] collis?
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+426): Kula-brahmana, Kula-kutumbika, Kula-panjika, Kula-sutta, Kula-thera, Kulaakhatyara, Kulaakhatyara-karabhari, Kulaba, Kulababa Kulakanu, Kulabadandi, Kulabaddha, Kulabadhu, Kulabaladeva, Kulabalika, Kulabha, Kulabhara, Kulabharana, Kulabharya, Kulabhata, Kulabhava.
Ends with (+320): Acakula, Acariyakula, Acaryakula, Advaitamanjaryam ratimukula, Agni-kula, Ahinakula, Ajakula, Ajikula, Akkula, Akula, Alikula, Alikulasamkula, Amushyakula, Anakula, Andhakula, Anganukula, Anjanakula, Anjikula, Ankula, Anukula.
Full-text (+885): Kulacara, Nadikula, Kulahandaka, Kulankura, Kulayoshit, Mahakula, Kulapata, Devakula, Kulatithi, Kulajata, Kulagriha, Kulagiri, Kulatandula, Nikula, Kulavat, Kulecara, Utkula, Meshanatha, Kulin, Nishkulakri.
Search found 58 books and stories containing Kula, Kulā, Kūla, Kūḷa; (plurals include: Kulas, Kulās, Kūlas, Kūḷas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 7.119 < [Section X - Internal Administration]
Verse 8.254 < [Section XL - Disputes regarding Boundaries]
Verse 9.83 < [Section VII - The Recalcitrant Wife: Supersession, Divorce]
The Indian Buddhist Iconography (by Benoytosh Bhattachacharyya)
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 1.7.93 < [Chapter 7 - Pūrṇa (pinnacle of excellent devotees)]
Verse 1.3.80 < [Chapter 3 - Prapañcātīta (beyond the Material Plane)]
Verse 2.4.225 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha (the spiritual world)]
Bhajana-Rahasya (by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura Mahasaya)
Text 10 < [Chapter 3 - Tṛtīya-yāma-sādhana (Pūrvāhna-kālīya-bhajana–niṣṭhā-bhajana)]
Text 17 < [Chapter 5 - Pañcama-yāma-sādhana (Aparāhna-kālīya-bhajana–kṛṣṇa-āsakti)]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 3 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 1 - The Chronology of the Āḻvārs < [Chapter XVII - The Āḻvārs]
Part 2 - The Philosophy of the Āḻvārs < [Chapter XVII - The Āḻvārs]
Part 5 - The Influence of the Āḻvārs on the followers of Rāmānuja < [Chapter XVIII - An Historical and Literary Survey of the Viśiṣṭādvaita School of Thought]
The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD) (by Yashoda Devi)