Satya, Satyā, Shatya: 40 definitions


Satya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Saty.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

One of the Hands of The Seven Upper Worlds.—Satya: the Patāka hand twisted upwards is applicable.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Shodhganga: Facts of society in the Manusamhita

Satya (सत्य):—In Indian tradition, the greatness of truth is high ly valued. According to the Muṇḍakoponiṣad, it is only then power of truth through which one wins and not through falsehood. Truth prevails over untruth. It is the necessary requirement for attaining the Ultimate Reality. The Taittirīya-saṃhitā says that the truth is the Supreme of all–satyaṃ param.

The Mahābhārata deals a complete chapter to define the characteristics an d greatness of truth. There is nothing in this world superior to truth. Everything is supported and protected by truth. Truth is the foundation of dharma and hence it should not be violated. The Agni-purāṇa also states that the truth purifies speech. The Manusaṃhitā also dwells on the concept of virtue in details.

In the words of Manu, the truth is the eternal valu e of a person–dharmaḥ sanātanaḥ. The very famous citation in this relation from the Manusaṃhita is “always speak the truth, speak the pleasing word, do not sp eak the disagreeable truth and do not utter the agreeable falsehood and that is the eternal law.”

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Satya (सत्य).—A hermit. Mention is made about this hermit who shone in the court of Yudhiṣṭhira, in Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 10.

2) Satya (सत्य).—An Agni (fire). This Agni Satya was the son of the Agni Niścyavana. He was a worker of Kāladharma (The god of Death). He reduces the pain of living beings who are suffering. So this Agni Satya got the name Niṣkṛti also. This Agni brightens the houses and gardens where people stay. It is stated in Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse 13, that this Agni had a son named Svana.

3) Satya (सत्य).—A warrior who served in the army of the King of Kaliṅga. This warrior fought against the Pāṇḍavas in the battle of Bhārata. This warrior who stood as the wheel-guard of Śrutāyus the King of Kaliṅga, was killed by Bhīmasena in the Bhārata-battle. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 77).

4) Satya (सत्य).—A hermit in the country of Vidarbha, This hermit who was a brahmin was a believer in ahiṃsā also. Once he performed a sacrifice without any killing. His wife Puṣkaradhāriṇī helped him in the sacrifice. Dharmadeva came there in the form of an antelope to test the non-killing principle of Satya. The animal came near Satya and said: "I am a deva (god) belonging to the Śukra-clan. I dwell in this forest as an antelope, due to the curse of Dharmadeva. Kill me and complete this sacrifice."

Though Satya heard this, he did not wish to kill the animal. At last the antelope decided to go and walked eight steps and then returned. Due to the delusive arts of the antelope Satya saw there celestial maids and the aeroplanes of Gandharvas. The antelope said that if he was killed he would attain heaven. A desire arose in Satya for killing and forthwith he lost all the attainments he got by penance. (Mahābhārata Śānti Parva. Chapter 272).

5) Satya (सत्य).—Another name of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (Mahābhārata Śānti Parva, Chapter 342, Verse 75).

6) Satya (सत्य).—The son of Vitatya, born in the dynasty of the King Vītahavya. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 62, that this Satya had a son called Santa.

7) Satyā (सत्या).—A wife of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Mention is made about this wife in Mahābhārata, Dākṣiṇātyapāṭha, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 38.

8) Satyā (सत्या).—The wife of the Agni called Śaṃyu. So beautiful a woman as Satyā is said to have not existed in any of the three worlds. Bharadvāja was the son born to Śaṃyu by Satyā. Bharadvāja had three sisters. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse 4).

9) Satya (सत्य).—A group of Devas (gods). This group of devas lived in the third Manvantara. The name of the then Manu was Uttama and the King of the devas was the Indra Suśānti. There were then five Devagaṇas (groups of Gods) each consisting of twelve devas. Those gaṇas were Sudhāmās, Satyas, Japas, Pratardanas and Vaśavartis. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃśa 3, Chapter 1).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Satya (सत्य) or Satyaloka is the residence of Brahmā, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.15:—“[...] O foremost among sages, I [viz., Brahmā] am staying in Satyaloka (Satya). O dear one, I desired the activity of creation (sṛṣṭi) at the bidding of Siva. Even as I stood desirous of creation, the Evil creation, viz. the set of five Illusions appeared before me. It was of the nature of darkness (tamas) endowed with knowledge”.

Note: [Satya] is one of the seven lokas of the upper region. The other six lokas are “bhūḥ, bhuvaḥ, svaḥ, mahaḥ, janaḥ, tapaḥ |”. For the sanctity and position of this loka compare an unidentified quotation from the Devī Bhāgavata.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Satya (सत्य).—(Brahmaloka) see Satyaloka, one of the heavenly worlds above it, nīrāloka; six crores of yojanas above Tapoloka;1 residents of, do not return.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 1. 28: Matsya-purāṇa 184. 23: 248. 20: Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 191: 101. 18. 27, 39, 141, 208.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 27.

1b) A son of Havirdhāna.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 24. 8.

1c) A sage of the epoch of the Tenth Manu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 22: Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 2. 27.

1d) A Sudhāmāna god;1 the name of Viṣṇu born from Satyā in the Uttama epoch.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 27.
  • 2) Ib. III. 3. 115.

1e) A Tuṣita in the Svārociṣa and Nara in the Cākṣuṣa epochs.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 15.

1f) A Viśvedeva.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 30: Matsya-purāṇa 203. 13: 253. 24: Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 31.

1g) A Marut of the first gaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 91.

1h) An Amītābha god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 17: Vā 100. 17.

1i) A son of Angirasa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 196. 2: Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 105.

1j) A son of Devāpi, king of Ailas; will restore Kṣatriya supremacy in the future caturyuga.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 273. 58.

1k) The name of Vyāsa in the second dvāpara.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 119.

1l) One of the names for the third marut gaṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 126.

1m) A Rājaṛṣi becoming a Brahman.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 91. 116.

1n) A sage of the IX epoch of Manu.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III, 2. 23.

1o) A son of Sāraṇa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 15. 21.

1p) A group of twelve Gods of the Uttama epoch;1 also of Tāmasa.2

  • 1) Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 14.
  • 2) Ib. III. 1. 16.

1q) One of the seven heavenly worlds;1 Brahmaloka, the 7th loka; equal to Bhūloka in circumference; six crores of yojanas; in tapolokam; beyond is para and para at long distance;2 those who go there do not return and are rid of the saṃsāra wheel;3 after residing for several years they get one with the deity Nārāyaṇa.4

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 156: Matsya-purāṇa 61. 1.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 13, 16, 25, 38, 141, 142-44.
  • 3) Ib. IV. 2. 37.
  • 4) Ib. II. 21. 22: 35. 206-08.

1r) A god of Ābhūtaraya group.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 55.

1s) (Jayādevas) the gods of the epoch of Uttama Manu; twelve in number;1 all sons of Satyā and Uttama. These are the Yajñiyas of the Tāmasa epoch.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 1. 24: Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 27: III. 4. 29 and 318. Vāyu-purāṇa 62, 24 and 37: 66. 8: 67. 37-8.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 36 and 43.

2a) Satyā (सत्या).—The mother of Hṛdīka-(bhā. p.).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 1. 35.

2b) A queen of Manthu and the mother of Bhauvana.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 15. 15.

2c) A daughter of Nagnajit (s.v.) and a queen of Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 58. 32-55: Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 242 and 52: Matsya-purāṇa 47. 13: Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 28. 3.

2d) The mother of Hari by name Satya (yajña) in the Uttama epoch.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 115: Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 38.

2e) A Svara Śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 57, 73.

2f) A daughter of Śaibya, a queen of Bṛhanmanā and mother of Vijaya.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 48. 105: Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 115-16.

2g) A daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Śiva.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 20.

2h) The mother of Satyas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 35.

2i) A devī.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 233.
Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis (itihasa)

Satya (सत्य, “truth”).—In the Ayodhya-kāṇḍa in the course of rebutting a materialistic position which also denied scriptural authority, Rama is described as having said the following: “The universe is established in Truth. The highest Dharma is Truth. Truth is the lord of the Universe. All have their roots in Truth. There is no position or abode higher than Truth. The Vedas have their foundation in Truth (or, they have their glory due to it). ‘Vedaḥ satya-pratiṣṭhanaḥ’. Therefore, one should be devoted to Truth”. This implies the Veda teaches truth and hence its authority.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Satya (सत्य) refers to one of the twelve groups of Gods in the Uttama-Manvantara: one of the fourteen Manvantaras, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, “In the Uttama Manvantara the Sudhāmās are the Gods having twelve groups like Pratardana, Śiva, Satya, Vaśavarti etc. Sudānti was the Indra. Raja, Gotra, Ardhabāhu, Savana, Anagha, Sutapā and Śukra are the Seven sages.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Satya (सत्य) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Satyanṛsiṃha or Satyanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (pancaratra)

Satya (सत्य) or Satyasaṃhitā is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a rājasa type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas. The vaiṣṇavāgamas represent one of the three classes of āgamas (traditionally communicated wisdom).—Texts of the Pāñcara Āgamas are divided in to two sects. It is believed that Lord Vāsudeva revealed the first group of texts which are called Divya and the next group is called Muniprokta which are further divided in to three viz. a. Sāttvika. b. Rājasa (e.g., Satya-saṃhitā). c. Tāmasa.

Satya is also the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a tāmasa type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Satya (सत्य) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Satya (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of an elephant. His right hand is in Pravacana-Mudrā and a viṇā in his left hand.

The illustrations (of, for example Satya) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shilpa)

Satya (सत्य) refers to “naturalistic” and represents one of the four modes of painting (citra), according to the Citrasūtra section (on painting) from the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa.—Accordingly, “Whichever painting that bears a similarity (sādṛśya) with the world [that painting] is called satya (‘Naturalistic’)”.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Satya (सत्य) refers to one of the four division of Citra (“painting”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa the Paintings, which have the similarity with natural things is called satya. This book states that the satya type of Painting should be tall, proportionate and beautiful with a charming and attractive background.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Satya (सत्य) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped in the eastern quarter and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (e.g., Satya).

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Satya (सत्य) refers to “truthfulness”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “(The true teacher is dedicated to) truthfulness (satya), ritual purity and cleanliness, compassion, and forbearance; he unites with his wife when it is her season, not out of passion, but for a son for the benefit of (his) clan and lineage. He practices the six magical rites, bathes (regularly) and worships at the three times of day. He avoids the Śūdra and the low caste as well as (accepting food from others), whether cooked or raw. One who is endowed with such qualities is a Brahmin (vipra), not by caste or by virtue of (his) sacred thread (and the like). These are the qualities of a (true) Brahmin. He who possesses them is a (true) teacher. Moreover, he removes error, and he reveals the meaning of the Kula scripture. Previously consecrated, (such a one) should always be made (one’s) teacher”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Satya (सत्य) refers to “truth”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Satya (सत्य) refers to one of the deities to be installed in the ground plan for the construction of houses, according to the Bṛhatkālottara, chapter 112 (the vāstuyāga-paṭala).—The plan for the construction is always in the form of a square. That square is divided into a grid of cells (padas). [...] Once these padas have been laid out, deities [e.g., Satya] are installed in them. In the most common pattern 45 deities are installed.

Satya as a doorway deity is associated with the Nakṣatra called Āśleṣa and the consequence is dharma. [...] The Mayasaṃgraha (verse 5.156-187) describes a design for a 9-by-9-part pura, a residential complex for a community and its lead figure. [...] This record lists a place for gateway at Indra, Sūrya and Satya (marubhṛnmukhe traye).

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Satya (सत्य) refers to the “truth” (as opposed to Anṛta—‘false’), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 19.84-85, while describing the ritual that protect the king and his kingdom]—“The tradition is secret and confers happiness and the best of all fortune. The pleased and pious adepts strive to obtain the favor of [Mṛtyujit]. They are liberated from all suffering. What I say is true, not false (satyate satyaṃ me na anṛtaṃ vacaḥ)”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Satya (सत्य) refers to “truthfulness”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Jupiter also presides over elephants, horses, priests, rulers, ministers, marriages and health; over mercy, truthfulness (satya), cleanliness, religious observances; over learning, gifts and charity; over citizens, richmen, grammarians, Vedic students, sorcerers, lawyers, the ensigns of royalty—the umbrella, the flag-staff, the Cāmara and the like; over Śaileyaka, Mānsī, Tagara, Kuṣṭha, quicksilver, salt, beans, sweet flavour, wax and Coraka”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): (Advaita Vedanta)

Satya (सत्य) refers to the “truth (of the self)”, according to the Māṇḍūkyopaniṣatkārikā 3.31-32.—Accordingly, while discussing duality and mental activity: “All this duality which is [comprising of] whatever is moving and motionless is [just] a visible object of the mind. For when [the state of] no-mind of mind [arises], duality is not perceived. [Why is this?] When the mind does not conceptualize because [one has] realized the truth (satya) of the self, then, it goes to the state of no mind. Therefore, in the absence of perceivable objects, there is no perception [of duality]”.

Vedanta book cover
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Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Satya (सत्य) refers to one of the ten Yamas (disciplines) prescribed for forest dwelling, as mentioned in the the Vaikhānasasmārtasūtra.—The Mānasollāsa verse 9.21-24ab lists thirty Yamas and Niyamas. The Vaikhānasasmārtasūtra (8.4), whose date has been estimated between the fourth and eighth centuries, is the earliest source for a list of twenty Yamas and Niyamas [e.g., satya]. These were prescribed to a sage at the forest dwelling (vanāśrama) stage of life.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Satya (सत्य) refers to the “truths (of the Brāhmaṇas)”, according to the Śramanasatya-sūtra (Cf. Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra, chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[...] The assembly maintained silence. The Buddha entered into this assembly and preached the three truths of the Brāhmaṇas (brāhmaṇa-satya). The heretic assembly remained silent (tūṣṇīṃbhūta). The Buddha thought: ‘These angry people are in Māra Pāpīmat’s grasp. This teaching is so wondrous that none of them will try to become my disciple’”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Satya (सत्य) refers to “truth”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly as The Lord said: “O Śāriputra, in the buddha-field of the Tathāgata Ekaratnavyūha, there is a Bodhisattva, the great being Gaganagañja who is resplendent by the splendor of merit (puṇya-tejas), [...] who is adorned with recollection (smṛti) because of his learning (śruti), is adorned with truth (satya) because of his introspection (nidhyapti), who is adorned with the understanding of meaning (arthagati) because of understanding (gati), who is adorned with promises because of intention (āśaya), [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Satya (सत्य) or Dvisatya refers to the “two truths” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 95):

  1. saṃvṛti-satya (conventional truth),
  2. paramārtha-satya (ultimate truth).

The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., satya). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Satyā (सत्या) is the wife of Marudeva, who is a kulakara (law-giver) according to Digambara sources, while Śvetāmbara names his wife as Śrīkāntā. The kulakaras (similair to the manus of the Brahmanical tradition) figure as important characters protecting and guiding humanity towards prosperity during ancient times of distress, whenever the kalpavṛkṣa (wishing tree) failed to provide the proper service.

These law-givers and their wifes (e.g., Satyā) are listed in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Satyā (सत्या) or Satyabhāmā is the daughter of Jambukā and Satyaki who became the wife of Kapila (son of Dharaṇījaṭa), according to chapter 5.1 [śāntinātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, “[...] at an auspicious moment Satyaki married Satyabhāmā and Kapila with suitable ceremonies. Honored by the citizens in all the city as much as Satyaki, daily he (Kapila) enjoyed pleasures with good-tempered Satyabhāmā. The people gave him special money, rice, etc, on all the festival-days, thinking, ‘He is more to be honored even than Satyaki’. Living in this way. best of living Brāhmans, Kapila became well-endowed with money as well as good qualities.”.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Satya (सत्य) refers to “truth”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The doctrine is said to be forbearance, humility, purity, straightforwardness, truth (satya) and restraint, celibacy, asceticism, renunciation and non-possession. Anything which is undesirable for oneself is not to be done to others by the actions of [body,] speech and mind, even in a dream—such is the principal characteristic of the doctrine”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

satya (सत्य).—a (S) True, real, actual; not false, fallacious, illusory, imaginary, ideal; having real existence or being. 2 Existent, living, real and enduring. An epithet of the Deity. 3 Real, genuine, not counterfeit or imitative. 4 True, veracious, sincere, that speaks the truth. 5 Honest, upright, pure from fraudulence or guile.

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satya (सत्य).—n (S) Probity, integrity, honesty, veracity; trueness or inward pareness in the most comprehensive sense. Ex. kamīhī vipatti jhālī tarīṃ sapuruṣa āpalaṃ satya sōḍīta nāhīṃ. 2 Truth, reality, real being. 3 Ordeal or oath; declaration confirmed by obtestation of the gods. 4 The first Yuga or age, the golden age; comprising one million seven hundred and twenty-eight thousand years. 5 Used as a particle of interrogation and asseveration, --indeed, really, verily, truly, yea.

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satyā (सत्या).—m (sāta Seven.) The seven of a suit of cards. 2 See sattā m.

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sāṭyā (साट्या).—a See sāṭamāṛyā.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

satya (सत्य).—a True, real actual. Existent, real and enduring. Sincere; honest, up

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satyā (सत्या).—m The seven of a suit of cards.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Satya (सत्य).—a. [sate hitaṃ yat]

1) True, real, genuine; as in सत्यव्रत, सत्यसंध (satyavrata, satyasaṃdha).

2) Honest, sincere, truthful, faithful.

3) Fulfilled, realized.

4) Virtuous, upright.

5) Unfailing; कच्चिच्छुश्रूषसे तात पितुः सत्यपराक्रम (kaccicchuśrūṣase tāta pituḥ satyaparākrama) Rām.2.1.7.

-tyaḥ 1 The abode of Brahman and of truth, the uppermost of the seven worlds or lokas above the earth; see लोक (loka).

2) The Aśvattha tree.

3) Name of Rāma.

4) Of Viṣṇu; सत्यव्रतं सत्यपरं त्रिसत्यं सत्यस्य योनिं निहितं च सत्ये । सत्यस्य सत्यमृतसत्यनेत्रं सत्यात्मकं त्वां शरणं प्रपन्नाः (satyavrataṃ satyaparaṃ trisatyaṃ satyasya yoniṃ nihitaṃ ca satye | satyasya satyamṛtasatyanetraṃ satyātmakaṃ tvāṃ śaraṇaṃ prapannāḥ) || Bhāgavata 1.2.26.

5) The deity presiding over नान्दीमुखश्राद्ध (nāndīmukhaśrāddha) q. v.

6) Name of Brahman; अव्ययस्याप्रमेयस्य सत्यस्य च तथाग्रतः (avyayasyāprameyasya satyasya ca tathāgrataḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.37.5.

-tyam 1 Truth; मौनात्सत्यं विशिष्यते (maunātsatyaṃ viśiṣyate) Manusmṛti 2.83; सत्यं ब्रू (satyaṃ brū) 'to speak the truth'.

2) Sincerity.

3) Goodness, virtue, purity,

4) An oath, a promise, solemn asseveration; सत्याद् गुरुमलोपयन् (satyād gurumalopayan) R.12.9; Manusmṛti 8.113.

5) A truism demonstrated truth of dogma.

6) The first of the four Yugas. or ages of the world, the golden age, the age of truth and purity.

7) Water

8) The Supreme Spirit; हिरण्मयेन पात्रेण सत्यस्यापिहितं मुखम् (hiraṇmayena pātreṇa satyasyāpihitaṃ mukham) Īśop.15.

9) Final emancipation (mokṣa); इह चेदवेदीदथ सत्यमस्ति न चेदिहावेदीन् महती विनष्टिः (iha cedavedīdatha satyamasti na cedihāvedīn mahatī vinaṣṭiḥ) Ken.2.5.

-tyam ind. Truly, really, indeed, verily, forsooth; सत्यं शपामि ते पादपङ्कजस्पर्शेन (satyaṃ śapāmi te pādapaṅkajasparśena) K.; Kumārasambhava 6.19.

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Satyā (सत्या).—

1) Truthfulness, veracity.

2) Name of Sītā.

3) Of Draupadī.

4) Of Satyavatī, mother of Vyāsa; ऋषिमावाहयत् सत्या यथापूर्वमरिन्दम (ṛṣimāvāhayat satyā yathāpūrvamarindama) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.16.14.

5) Of Durgā.

6) Of Satyabhāmā, wife of Kṛṣna; Bhāg. 3.1.35.

7) Of the mother of Viṣnu; सत्यायामभवत् सत्यः सत्यरूपो जनार्दनः (satyāyāmabhavat satyaḥ satyarūpo janārdanaḥ).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śatya (शत्य).—mfn.

(-tyaḥ-tyā-tyaṃ) Bought with a hundred, &c.: see śatika .

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Satya (सत्य).—mfn.

(-tyaḥ-tyā-tyaṃ) 1. True. 2. Sincere, honest, speaking the truth. n.

(-tyaṃ) 1. Truth. 2. An oath. 3. The first Yuga or age, the golden age, comprising one million seven hundred and twety-eight thousand years. 4. Demonstrated conclusion. m.

(-tyaḥ) 1. Rama- Chandra. 2. The uppermost of the seven Lokas or worlds, the abode of Brahma, and heaven of truth. f.

(-tyā) 1. Sita, the wife of Rama. 2. The mother of Vyasa. 3. Draupadi. 4. Durga. 5. Satyabhama. 6. Speaking the truth, sincerity, veracity. Ind. (satyam) Indeed, verily, a particle of interrogation and asseveration. E. sat being, and yat aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Satya (सत्य).—i. e. sant (ptcple. pres. of 1. as), + ya, I. adj. 1. True, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 4, 104; superl. satyatama, Quite true, [Hitopadeśa] 87, 7, M. M.; realised, Chr. 48, 11; satyaṃ kṛ, To fulfli, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 53, 8. 2. Sincere, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 2. ed. 29, 19; honest. Ii. ºyam, adv. 1. Truly, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 71, 18; indeed, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 86; yes, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 196. 2. A particle of interrogation. Iii. m. 1. Rāmacandra. 2. The uppermost of the seven worlds, the abode of Brahman. Iv. f. . 1. Veracity. 2. Sītā. V. n. 1. Truth, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 53, 20. 2. An oath, Chr. 58, 3; [Pañcatantra] 97, 17. 3. Demonstrated conclusion. 4. The first Yuga, the golden age.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śatya (शत्य).—[adjective] consisting of a hundred.

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Satya (सत्य).—[adjective] real, true, genuine; serious, valid, effective, sincere, faithful, honest, good. [masculine] [Epithet] of Kṛṣṇa, [Name] of a genius etc. [feminine] ā [Epithet] of Durgā, [Name] of a daughter of Dharma etc. [neuter] the real or true, reality, truth; true character, sincerity, faithfulness; vow, promise, oath; also [adverb] really, truly, indeed, yes, very well; of course, it is true (also yatsatyam)—yet (tu, kiṃ tu or tathāpi). Instr. satyena according to truth; tena satyena (±yathā) as truly as this, by this truth, on this account or for this reason.

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Sātya (सात्य).—[adjective] whose nature is truth.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Satya (सत्य) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Quoted by Aparārka on Yājñavalkya 1, 256; by Hemādri in Pariśeṣakhaṇḍa 2, 907. 908.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śatya (शत्य):—[from śata] mfn. consisting of a hundred, [Yājñavalkya]

2) [v.s. ...] = śatika, bought with a hundred etc., [Pāṇini [Scholiast or Commentator]]

3) Śāṭya (शाट्य):—mfn. born in Śaṭa [gana] śaṇḍikādi

4) [patronymic] [from] śata [gana] gargādi.

5) Satya (सत्य):—[from sat] a mf(ā)n. true, real, actual, genuine, sincere, honest, truthful, faithful, pure, virtuous, good, successful, effectual, valid (satyaṃ-√kṛ, ‘to make true, ratify, realise, fulfil’), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

6) [v.s. ...] m. the uppermost of the seven Lokas or worlds (the abode of Brahmā and heaven of truth; See loka), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of the ninth Kalpa (q.v.), [Purāṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] the Aśvattha tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] Name of Viṣṇu, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] of Rāma-candra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] of a supernatural being, [Gautama-dharma-śāstra; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

12) [v.s. ...] of a deity presiding over the Nāndī-mukha Śrāddha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] of one of the Viśve Devāḥ, [Catalogue(s)]

14) [v.s. ...] of a Vyāsa, [Catalogue(s)]

15) [v.s. ...] of a son of Havir-dhāna, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

16) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vitatya, [Mahābhārata]

17) [v.s. ...] of one of the 7 Ṛṣis in various Manvantaras, [Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa]

18) [v.s. ...] (with ācārya) Name of an astronomer (author of the Horā-śāstra), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

19) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of a class of gods in various Manvantaras, [Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa]

20) Satyā (सत्या):—[from satya > sat] a f. speaking the truth, sincerity, veracity, [Horace H. Wilson]

21) [v.s. ...] a [particular] Śakti, [Pañcarātra]

22) [v.s. ...] Name of Durgā, [Catalogue(s)]

23) [v.s. ...] of Śītā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) [v.s. ...] of Satyavatī (mother of Vyāsa), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) [v.s. ...] = satya-bhāmā, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Śiśupāla-vadha]

26) [v.s. ...] of the family deity of the Kutsas and Atharvans, [Catalogue(s)]

27) [v.s. ...] of a daughter of Dharma (and wife of Śaṃ-yu), [Mahābhārata]

28) [v.s. ...] of the mother of Satya (= tuṣita), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

29) [v.s. ...] of the wife of Manthu (and mother of Bhauvana), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

30) [v.s. ...] of a daughter of Nagna-jit (and wife of Kṛṣṇa), [ib.]

31) Satya (सत्य):—[from sat] n. truth, reality (satyena, ‘truly’, ‘certainly’, ‘really’; kasmāt satyāt, ‘for what reason, how is it that?’ tena satyena, ‘for that reason, so truly’; yathā-tena [or evaṃ] satyena, ‘as-so truly’; with Buddhists truth is of two kinds, viz. saṃvṛtiand paramārtha-satyam, ‘truth by general consent’ and ‘self-evident truth’ [Dharmasaṃgraha 95]; for the four fundamental truths of Buddhists See, [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 43; 56]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

32) [v.s. ...] speaking the truth, sincerity, veracity, [Kena-upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

33) [v.s. ...] a solemn asseveration, vow, promise, oath (satyaṃ cikīrṣamāṇa, ‘wishing to fulfil one’s promise or keep one’s word’), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc.

34) [v.s. ...] demonstrated conclusion, dogma, [Horace H. Wilson]

35) [v.s. ...] the quality of goodness or purity or knowledge, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

36) [v.s. ...] the first of the four Yugas or ages (= 1. -kṛta q.v.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

37) [v.s. ...] a [particular] mythical weapon, [Rāmāyaṇa]

38) [v.s. ...] the uppermost of the 7 Lokas (See under m.), [Vedāntasāra; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

39) [v.s. ...] one of the 7 Vyāhṛtis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

40) [v.s. ...] [particular] Satya-formula, [Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

41) [v.s. ...] = udaka, water, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 12]

42) [v.s. ...] (also with prajāpateḥ) Name of Sāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa; ???]

43) Satyā (सत्या):—[from sat] b in [compound] for satya.

44) Satya (सत्य):—b etc. See p. 1135, col. 3.

45) Sātya (सात्य):—mfn. ([from] satya, of which it is also the vṛddhi form in [compound]) one whose nature is truth, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

46) n. Name of a Sāman, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śatya (शत्य):—[(tyaḥ-tyā-tyaṃ) a.] Bought with a hundred.

2) Śāṭya (शाट्य):—(ṭhyaṃ) 1. n. Wickedness.

3) Satya (सत्य):—(tyaṃ) 1. n. Reality, truth; oath; golden age. m. Rāma; highest heaven. 1. f. Sitā; mother of Vyāsa; Sincerity. a. Real, true, sincere. adv. Indeed, verily.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Satya (सत्य) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Sacca, Saccā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Satya in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Satya (सत्य) [Also spelled saty]:—(a) true, veritable; (nm) veracity, truth, verity; ~[kāma] truth-loving; ~[ta]: truly, in fact/reality, really; ~[] truth; verity, veracity; ~[darśī] discerning, seeing through the truth; ~[niṣṭha] veridical, dedicated to truth; solemn; ~[para/parāyaṇa] thoroughly honest, ~[bhāṣī] veridicious, speaking the truth; ~[yuga] see [satayuga] under [sata; ~yugī] see [satayugī]; ~[vācaka/vācī/vādī] see ~[bhāṣī]; ~[vrata] strictly truthful, who has taken a vow to be truthful; ~[śīla] disposed to truth, temperamentally truthful; ~[śīlatā] disposition towards truth, temperamental truthfulness.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Satya (सत्य) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Śasta.

2) Satya (सत्य) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Śastra.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Satya (ಸತ್ಯ):—

1) [adjective] true; real; actual; genuine.

2) [adjective] honest; truthful.

3) [adjective] pure; virtuous.

4) [adjective] good; right; proper.

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Satya (ಸತ್ಯ):—

1) [noun] the quality or fact of being real; reality.

2) [noun] habitual truthfulness; speaking the truth; sincerity; veracity.

3) [noun] a law, rule or other order prescribed by authority, esp. to regulate conduct; a regulation.

4) [noun] the abode of Brahma, the uppermost of the seven worlds.

5) [noun] a solemn pledge (to oneself or to another or to a deity) to do something or to behave in a certain manner; a vow.

6) [noun] the first of the four mythological divisions of the age; Křtayuga (a duration of 17,28,000 years).

7) [noun] the quality of goodness or purity or knowledge (as the fundamental principle of Brahma).

8) [noun] a truthful, honest, veracious man.

9) [noun] (jain.) one of the ten basic qualities of the Soul, the immortal entity of all beings.

10) [noun] veraciousness or being habitually truthful, as one of the five principles a householder has to observe.

11) [noun] ಸತ್ಯವಿದ್ದರೆ ಎತ್ತಲೂ ಭಯವಿಲ್ಲ [satyaviddare ettalu bhayavilla] satyaviddare ettalū bhayavilla (prov.) truth ever conquers.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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