Satya, aka: Satyā; 14 Definition(s)

Introduction

Satya means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

One of the Hands of The Seven Upper Worlds.—Satya: the Patāka hand twisted upwards is applicable.

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Satya (सत्य):—In Indian tradition, the greatness of truth is high ly valued. According to the Muṇḍakoponiṣad, it is only then power of truth through which one wins and not through falsehood. Truth prevails over untruth. It is the necessary requirement for attaining the Ultimate Reality. The Taittirīya-saṃhitā says that the truth is the Supreme of all–satyaṃ param.

The Mahābhārata deals a complete chapter to define the characteristics an d greatness of truth. There is nothing in this world superior to truth. Everything is supported and protected by truth. Truth is the foundation of dharma and hence it should not be violated. The Agni-purāṇa also states that the truth purifies speech. The Manusaṃhitā also dwells on the concept of virtue in details.

In the words of Manu, the truth is the eternal valu e of a person–dharmaḥ sanātanaḥ. The very famous citation in this relation from the Manusaṃhita is “always speak the truth, speak the pleasing word, do not sp eak the disagreeable truth and do not utter the agreeable falsehood and that is the eternal law.”

Source: Shodhganga: Facts of society in the Manusamhita
Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana

1) Satya (सत्य).—A hermit. Mention is made about this hermit who shone in the court of Yudhiṣṭhira, in Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 10.

2) Satya (सत्य).—An Agni (fire). This Agni Satya was the son of the Agni Niścyavana. He was a worker of Kāladharma (The god of Death). He reduces the pain of living beings who are suffering. So this Agni Satya got the name Niṣkṛti also. This Agni brightens the houses and gardens where people stay. It is stated in Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse 13, that this Agni had a son named Svana.

3) Satya (सत्य).—A warrior who served in the army of the King of Kaliṅga. This warrior fought against the Pāṇḍavas in the battle of Bhārata. This warrior who stood as the wheel-guard of Śrutāyus the King of Kaliṅga, was killed by Bhīmasena in the Bhārata-battle. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 54, Verse 77).

4) Satya (सत्य).—A hermit in the country of Vidarbha, This hermit who was a brahmin was a believer in ahiṃsā also. Once he performed a sacrifice without any killing. His wife Puṣkaradhāriṇī helped him in the sacrifice. Dharmadeva came there in the form of an antelope to test the non-killing principle of Satya. The animal came near Satya and said: "I am a deva (god) belonging to the Śukra-clan. I dwell in this forest as an antelope, due to the curse of Dharmadeva. Kill me and complete this sacrifice."

Though Satya heard this, he did not wish to kill the animal. At last the antelope decided to go and walked eight steps and then returned. Due to the delusive arts of the antelope Satya saw there celestial maids and the aeroplanes of Gandharvas. The antelope said that if he was killed he would attain heaven. A desire arose in Satya for killing and forthwith he lost all the attainments he got by penance. (Mahābhārata Śānti Parva. Chapter 272).

5) Satya (सत्य).—Another name of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (Mahābhārata Śānti Parva, Chapter 342, Verse 75).

6) Satya (सत्य).—The son of Vitatya, born in the dynasty of the King Vītahavya. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 30, Verse 62, that this Satya had a son called Santa.

7) Satyā (सत्या).—A wife of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Mention is made about this wife in Mahābhārata, Dākṣiṇātyapāṭha, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 38.

8) Satyā (सत्या).—The wife of the Agni called Śaṃyu. So beautiful a woman as Satyā is said to have not existed in any of the three worlds. Bharadvāja was the son born to Śaṃyu by Satyā. Bharadvāja had three sisters. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 219, Verse 4).

9) Satya (सत्य).—A group of Devas (gods). This group of devas lived in the third Manvantara. The name of the then Manu was Uttama and the King of the devas was the Indra Suśānti. There were then five Devagaṇas (groups of Gods) each consisting of twelve devas. Those gaṇas were Sudhāmās, Satyas, Japas, Pratardanas and Vaśavartis. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃśa 3, Chapter 1).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Satya (सत्य).—(Brahmaloka) see Satyaloka, one of the heavenly worlds above it, nīrāloka; six crores of yojanas above Tapoloka;1 residents of, do not return.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 1. 28: Matsya-purāṇa 184. 23: 248. 20: Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 191: 101. 18. 27, 39, 141, 208.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 27.

1b) A son of Havirdhāna.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 24. 8.

1c) A sage of the epoch of the Tenth Manu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 22: Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 2. 27.

1d) A Sudhāmāna god;1 the name of Viṣṇu born from Satyā in the Uttama epoch.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 27.
  • 2) Ib. III. 3. 115.

1e) A Tuṣita in the Svārociṣa and Nara in the Cākṣuṣa epochs.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 15.

1f) A Viśvedeva.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 30: Matsya-purāṇa 203. 13: 253. 24: Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 31.

1g) A Marut of the first gaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 91.

1h) An Amītābha god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 17: Vā 100. 17.

1i) A son of Angirasa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 196. 2: Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 105.

1j) A son of Devāpi, king of Ailas; will restore Kṣatriya supremacy in the future caturyuga.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 273. 58.

1k) The name of Vyāsa in the second dvāpara.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 119.

1l) One of the names for the third marut gaṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 126.

1m) A Rājaṛṣi becoming a Brahman.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 91. 116.

1n) A sage of the IX epoch of Manu.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III, 2. 23.

1o) A son of Sāraṇa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 15. 21.

1p) A group of twelve Gods of the Uttama epoch;1 also of Tāmasa.2

  • 1) Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 14.
  • 2) Ib. III. 1. 16.

1q) One of the seven heavenly worlds;1 Brahmaloka, the 7th loka; equal to Bhūloka in circumference; six crores of yojanas; in tapolokam; beyond is para and para at long distance;2 those who go there do not return and are rid of the saṃsāra wheel;3 after residing for several years they get one with the deity Nārāyaṇa.4

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 156: Matsya-purāṇa 61. 1.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 13, 16, 25, 38, 141, 142-44.
  • 3) Ib. IV. 2. 37.
  • 4) Ib. II. 21. 22: 35. 206-08.

1r) A god of Ābhūtaraya group.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 55.

1s) (Jayādevas) the gods of the epoch of Uttama Manu; twelve in number;1 all sons of Satyā and Uttama. These are the Yajñiyas of the Tāmasa epoch.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 1. 24: Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 27: III. 4. 29 and 318. Vāyu-purāṇa 62, 24 and 37: 66. 8: 67. 37-8.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 36 and 43.

2a) Satyā (सत्या).—The mother of Hṛdīka-(bhā. p.).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 1. 35.

2b) A queen of Manthu and the mother of Bhauvana.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 15. 15.

2c) A daughter of Nagnajit (s.v.) and a queen of Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 58. 32-55: Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 242 and 52: Matsya-purāṇa 47. 13: Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 28. 3.

2d) The mother of Hari by name Satya (yajña) in the Uttama epoch.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 115: Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 1. 38.

2e) A Svara Śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 57, 73.

2f) A daughter of Śaibya, a queen of Bṛhanmanā and mother of Vijaya.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 48. 105: Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 115-16.

2g) A daughter of Dakṣa and wife of Śiva.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 20.

2h) The mother of Satyas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 35.

2i) A devī.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 233.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Satya (सत्य) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Satyanṛsiṃha or Satyanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Satya (सत्य) or Satyasaṃhitā is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a rājasa type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas. The vaiṣṇavāgamas represent one of the three classes of āgamas (traditionally communicated wisdom).—Texts of the Pāñcara Āgamas are divided in to two sects. It is believed that Lord Vāsudeva revealed the first group of texts which are called Divya and the next group is called Muniprokta which are further divided in to three viz. a. Sāttvika. b. Rājasa (eg., Satya-saṃhitā). c. Tāmasa.

Satya is also the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a tāmasa type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (pancaratra)
Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Itihasa (narrative history)

Satya (सत्य, “truth”).—In the Ayodhya-kāṇḍa in the course of rebutting a materialistic position which also denied scriptural authority, Rama is described as having said the following: “The universe is established in Truth. The highest Dharma is Truth. Truth is the lord of the Universe. All have their roots in Truth. There is no position or abode higher than Truth. The Vedas have their foundation in Truth (or, they have their glory due to it). ‘Vedaḥ satya-pratiṣṭhanaḥ’. Therefore, one should be devoted to Truth”. This implies the Veda teaches truth and hence its authority.

Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis (itihasa)
context information

Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Satya (सत्य) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Satya (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is yellow. His face is similar to the face of an elephant. His right hand is in Pravacana-Mudrā and a viṇā in his left hand.

The illustrations (of, for example Satya) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Satya (सत्य) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped in the eastern quarter and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (eg., Satya).

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Satya (सत्य) or Dvisatya refers to the “two truths” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 95):

  1. saṃvṛti-satya (conventional truth),
  2. paramārtha-satya (ultimate truth).

The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., satya). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Satyā (सत्या) is the wife of Marudeva, who is a kulakara (law-giver) according to Digambara sources, while Śvetāmbara names his wife as Śrīkāntā. The kulakaras (similair to the manus of the Brahmanical tradition) figure as important characters protecting and guiding humanity towards prosperity during ancient times of distress, whenever the kalpavṛkṣa (wishing tree) failed to provide the proper service.

These law-givers and their wifes (eg., Satyā) are listed in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

satya (सत्य).—a (S) True, real, actual; not false, fallacious, illusory, imaginary, ideal; having real existence or being. 2 Existent, living, real and enduring. An epithet of the Deity. 3 Real, genuine, not counterfeit or imitative. 4 True, veracious, sincere, that speaks the truth. 5 Honest, upright, pure from fraudulence or guile.

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satya (सत्य).—n (S) Probity, integrity, honesty, veracity; trueness or inward pareness in the most comprehensive sense. Ex. kamīhī vipatti jhālī tarīṃ sapuruṣa āpalaṃ satya sōḍīta nāhīṃ. 2 Truth, reality, real being. 3 Ordeal or oath; declaration confirmed by obtestation of the gods. 4 The first Yuga or age, the golden age; comprising one million seven hundred and twenty-eight thousand years. 5 Used as a particle of interrogation and asseveration, --indeed, really, verily, truly, yea.

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satyā (सत्या).—m (sāta Seven.) The seven of a suit of cards. 2 See sattā m.

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sāṭyā (साट्या).—a See sāṭamāṛyā.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

satya (सत्य).—a True, real actual. Existent, real and enduring. Sincere; honest, up

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satyā (सत्या).—m The seven of a suit of cards.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Satya (सत्य).—a. [sate hitaṃ yat]

1) True, real, genuine; as in सत्यव्रत, सत्यसंध (satyavrata, satyasaṃdha).

2) Honest, sincere, truthful, faithful.

3) Fulfilled, realized.

4) Virtuous, upright.

5) Unfailing; कच्चिच्छुश्रूषसे तात पितुः सत्यपराक्रम (kaccicchuśrūṣase tāta pituḥ satyaparākrama) Rām.2.1.7.

-tyaḥ 1 The abode of Brahman and of truth, the uppermost of the seven worlds or lokas above the earth; see लोक (loka).

2) The Aśvattha tree.

3) Name of Rāma.

4) Of Viṣṇu; सत्यव्रतं सत्यपरं त्रिसत्यं सत्यस्य योनिं निहितं च सत्ये । सत्यस्य सत्यमृतसत्यनेत्रं सत्यात्मकं त्वां शरणं प्रपन्नाः (satyavrataṃ satyaparaṃ trisatyaṃ satyasya yoniṃ nihitaṃ ca satye | satyasya satyamṛtasatyanetraṃ satyātmakaṃ tvāṃ śaraṇaṃ prapannāḥ) || Bhāg.1.2.26.

5) The deity presiding over नान्दीमुखश्राद्ध (nāndīmukhaśrāddha) q. v.

6) Name of Brahman; अव्ययस्याप्रमेयस्य सत्यस्य च तथाग्रतः (avyayasyāprameyasya satyasya ca tathāgrataḥ) Mb.1.37.5.

-tyam 1 Truth; मौनात्सत्यं विशिष्यते (maunātsatyaṃ viśiṣyate) Ms.2.83; सत्यं ब्रू (satyaṃ brū) 'to speak the truth'.

2) Sincerity.

3) Goodness, virtue, purity,

4) An oath, a promise, solemn asseveration; सत्याद् गुरुमलोपयन् (satyād gurumalopayan) R.12.9; Ms.8.113.

5) A truism demonstrated truth of dogma.

6) The first of the four Yugas. or ages of the world, the golden age, the age of truth and purity.

7) Water

8) The Supreme Spirit; हिरण्मयेन पात्रेण सत्यस्यापिहितं मुखम् (hiraṇmayena pātreṇa satyasyāpihitaṃ mukham) Īśop.15.

9) Final emancipation (mokṣa); इह चेदवेदीदथ सत्यमस्ति न चेदिहावेदीन् महती विनष्टिः (iha cedavedīdatha satyamasti na cedihāvedīn mahatī vinaṣṭiḥ) Ken.2.5.

-tyam ind. Truly, really, indeed, verily, forsooth; सत्यं शपामि ते पादपङ्कजस्पर्शेन (satyaṃ śapāmi te pādapaṅkajasparśena) K.; Ku.6.19.

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Satyā (सत्या).—

1) Truthfulness, veracity.

2) Name of Sītā.

3) Of Draupadī.

4) Of Satyavatī, mother of Vyāsa; ऋषिमावाहयत् सत्या यथापूर्वमरिन्दम (ṛṣimāvāhayat satyā yathāpūrvamarindama) Mb.1.16.14.

5) Of Durgā.

6) Of Satyabhāmā, wife of Kṛṣna; Bhāg. 3.1.35.

7) Of the mother of Viṣnu; सत्यायामभवत् सत्यः सत्यरूपो जनार्दनः (satyāyāmabhavat satyaḥ satyarūpo janārdanaḥ).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Satyadeva
Satyadeva (सत्यदेव).—A prominent warrior of the army of Kaliṅga. He took part in the Bhārata-ba...
Dvisatya
Dviśatya (द्विशत्य).—a. worth or bought for two hundred. Dviśatya is a Sanskrit compound consis...
Satyasatya
1) Satyasatya (सत्यसत्य) [=satya-satya] refers to “what is wholly true” (eg., the exact reprodu...
Satya Narayana
Satyanārāyaṇa (सत्यनारायण).—1) A form of Viṣṇu. 2) A form of divinity (called Satyapīr in Bengā...
Satyasamdha
Satyasaṃdha (सत्यसंध) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.108.9) and represents one ...

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