Dhumra, Dhūmra, Dhūmrā: 29 definitions


Dhumra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā

Dhūmrā (धूम्रा):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Vahni, the third seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (e.g. Dhūmrā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Dhūmrā (धूम्रा) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (e.g., Dhūmrā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Dhūmra (धूम्र).—A hermit. This hermit was a luminary in the Durbar of Indra. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 7).

2) Dhūmra (धूम्र).—A warrior of Subrahmaṇya. (Mahābhārata Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 64).

3) Dhūmrā (धूम्रा).—A daughter of Prajāpati Dakṣa. She became the wife of Dharmadeva. Two sons, Dhruva and Dhara were born to the couple. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Stanza 19).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Dhūmra (धूम्र) or Dhūma refers to “smoke”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.19. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] then I began to consider proper means whereby I could see the face. Afflicted much by the cupid, I pitched upon the production of airful smoke (dhūmra) as the means thereof. I put many wet twigs into the fire. Only very little ghee did I pour into the fire. Much smoke (dhūma) arose out of the fire from the wet twigs, so much so that darkness enveloped the whole altar ground (and the neighbourhood)”

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Dhūmra (धूम्र).—A hill; of Dullola.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 75; III. 7. 443.

1b) A Vānara chief.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 235.

1c) An asura killed by Lalitā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 29. 77.

1d) The ninth Manu from Lṛ-kāra, the ninth face of the fourteen faced deva; of the colour of the smoke.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 26. 41.

2a) Dhūmrā (धूम्रा).—A Kala.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 35. 87.

2b) A Mind-born mother.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 17.

2c) A Pārāśara branch.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 87.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Dhūmra (धूम्र) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.18) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Dhūmra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Dhūmra (धूम्र) refers to the color “grey” and is used to described the [body of the] Goddess (i.e., Khageśī), according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “In the meantime, once the goddess had crossed over the most excellent Yoga and once the fifth night had passed, she emerged from the middle of the Liṅga. [...] She (also has other forms with) two or six arms and, beautiful, sits on five ghosts. In the left hand (she holds) a skull and (in her other) upraised hands (she holds a) noose and spear. Crooked, her body grey [i.e., dhūmra-vapus], she is Cāmuṇḍā, the accomplished Yoginī. [...]”.

2) Dhūmrā (धूम्रा) refers to one of the eight Yoginīs (yoginī-aṣṭaka) associated with Candrapīṭha (or Candrapīṭhapura), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra.—[...] The eight Yoginīs (yoginyaṣṭaka): Oṃkārā, Dīrghā, Dhūmrākṣī, Dhūmrā, Kalahapriyā, Vyālākṣī, Kākadṛṣtī, Tripurāntakī.—(Note the variant Dhūmākṣī).

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: The Yoginis of Narasimha Vyuha

Dhūmrā (धूम्रा) is the name of a Mātṛkā-Śakti created by Mahārudra in order to control the plague of demons created by Andhakāsura.—Accordingly, Andhaka-Asura tried to kidnap Umā (Devī Pārvatī), and was fiercely attacked by Mahārudra who shot arrows at him from his mahāpināka. when the arrows pierced the body of Andhakāsura, drops of blood fell to earth and from those drops, thousands of Andhakas arose. To control this plague of demons, Mahārudra created Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Dhūmrā] and ordered them to drink the blood of the demons and drain them dry.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: Nrisimha matrika-mandala

Dhūmrā (धूम्रा) refers to one of the various Mātṛkā-Śaktis created by Rudra in order to destroy the clones that spawned from Andhaka’s body.—Accordingly, [...] Andhakāsura attempted to abduct Girājanandinī (Pārvatī) and thus ensued a fierce battle between Andhakāsura and the great Rudra, the Lord of Umā. Like raktabīja, every drop of blood that fell from the body of Andhaka created another Asura like him and in no time, the entire world was filled with Andhakas. To destroy the growing number of Andhakas, Rudra created innumerable Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Dhūmrā]. These Śaktis of immense power at once began to drink every drop of blood that flowed from the body of Andhaka, but they could still not effectively contain the emergence of more and more demons.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Dhūmra (धूम्र) refers to “smoke-colored” types of Ketus (i.e., luminous bodies such as comets and meteors, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “Kapāla Ketu is visible on new-moon days; its tail is of the colour of smoke [i.e., sa-dhūmra-raśmi-śikha]; its course lies through the eastern half of the visible hemisphere; when it appears mankind will suffer from hunger, death, drought and disease. Raudra Ketu is a comet resembling the dagger’s end and is of a dull red colour; it appears in the south-east and travels through a third of the sky and produces the same effects as the Kapāla Ketu”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

Dhūmra (धूम्र) or Dhūmraka refers to the “smoke color” which were used as symbols for the unknowns, according to the principles of Bījagaṇita (“algebra” or ‘science of calculation’), according to Gaṇita-śāstra, ancient Indian mathematics and astronomy.—Āryabhaṭa I (499) very probably used coloured shots to represent unknowns. Brahmagupta (628) in the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta mentions varṇa as the symbols of unknowns. As he has not attempted in any way to explain this method of symbolism, it appears that the method was already very familiar. [...] In the case of more unknowns, it is usual to denote the first yāvattāvat and the remaining ones by alphabets or colours [e.g., dhūmra].—Cf. Pṛthūdakasvāmī (860) in his commentary on the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta by Brahmagupta (628) and Bhāskara II in the Bījagaṇita.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Dhūmra (धूम्र) in the Taittirīya-saṃhitā (i. 8, 21, 1) denotes ‘camel’ according to Böhtlingk’s Dictionary.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Dhūmra (धूम्र) refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Dhūmra).

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Dhūmra (धूम्र) refers to the “smokey (darkness)” [i.e., oṃ namo mahādhūmrāndhakāravapuṣāya hūṃ phaṭ], according to the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi [i.e., Cakrasamvara Meditation] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Dhumra in India is the name of a plant defined with Altingia excelsa in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Liquidambar altingiana Blume.

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Verhandelingen van het bataviaasch genootschap van kunsten en wetenschappen (1790)
· Journal of the Arnold Arboretum (1977)
· Species Plantarum (1753)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Dhumra, for example chemical composition, side effects, diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, extract dosage, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dhūmra (धूम्र).—m S Smoke.

--- OR ---

dhūmra (धूम्र).—a S Of a smoky, i. e. dusky, dingy, darkred color.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dhūmra (धूम्र).—m Smoke. a Of a smoky i. e. dusky colour.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dhūmra (धूम्र).—a. [dhūmaṃ tadvarṇaṃ rāti rā-ka]

1) Smoke-coloured, smoky, grey; हुतभुग्धूमधूम्रोपकण्ठम् (hutabhugdhūmadhūmropakaṇṭham) Bhartṛhari 3.55; R.15.16.

2) Dark-red.

3) Dark, obscured.

4) Purple.

-mraḥ 1 A mixture of red and black.

2) Incense.

3) Purple (the colour).

4) An epithet of Śiva.

5) A Camel.

6) (in astrol.) The 28th Yoga.

-mrā An epithet of Durgā.

-mram Sin, vice, wickedness; वायुना प्रेर्यमाणस्तु धूम्राय मुदमन्वगात् (vāyunā preryamāṇastu dhūmrāya mudamanvagāt) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.63.49.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhūmra (धूम्र).—mfn.

(-mraḥ-mrā-mraṃ) Of a purple or smoky colour. m.

(-mraḥ) Purple, the colour; a compound of red and black. n.

(-mraṃ) Sin, vice, wickedness. E. dhū smoke. to get, affix ka, deriv. irr.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhūmra (धूम्र).—i. e. dhūma + ra (or rather an old dhūman + a, with r for n), I. adj., f. , 1. Of a smoky colour. 2. Black red, Mahābhārata 1, 2033. 3. Gray, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 14, 24. 4. Obscured, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 29, 48. Ii. m. A proper name, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 33, 14. Iii. f. , A proper name, Mahābhārata 1, 2583.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhūmra (धूम्र).—[adjective] smoke-coloured, grey, dark-red; dim, obscured (lit. & [figuratively]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Dhūmra (धूम्र) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Quoted by Hemādri in Pariśeṣakhaṇḍa 1, 1402.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dhūmra (धूम्र):—[from dhū] mf(ā)n. smoke-coloured, smoky, dark-coloured, grey, dark-red, purple, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] dim, obscured (See below)

3) [v.s. ...] m. a camel, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā]

4) [v.s. ...] a mixture of red and black, purple (the colour), [Horace H. Wilson]

5) [v.s. ...] incense (= turuṣka), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] (in [astrology]) the 28th Yoga

7) [v.s. ...] Name of one of Skanda’s attendants, [Mahābhārata]

8) [v.s. ...] of a Dānava, [Harivaṃśa]

9) [v.s. ...] of Śiva, [Mahābhārata]

10) [v.s. ...] of a monkey or bear, [Rāmāyaṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] of an author and other men, [Catalogue(s)] (cf. dhūmrāyaṇa and dhaumr)

12) [v.s. ...] [plural] of a family of Ṛṣis, [Rāmāyaṇa]

13) Dhūmrā (धूम्रा):—[from dhūmra > dhū] f. a kind of gourd (= śaśāṇḍulī), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] Name of the mother of the Vasu Dhara, [Mahābhārata]

15) [v.s. ...] of Durgā, [Devī-māhātmya]

16) Dhūmra (धूम्र):—[from dhū] n. wickedness, sin, [Horace H. Wilson]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dhūmra (धूम्र):—(mraḥ) 1. m. Purple color. a. Purple.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Dhūmra (धूम्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Dhumma.

[Sanskrit to German]

Dhumra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Dhūmra (धूम्र):—(nm) smoke; fume; (a) smoke-coloured; ~[pāna] smoking; ~[varṇa] smoke-coloured.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Dhūmra (ಧೂಮ್ರ):—

1) [adjective] of the colour of smoke; grey.

2) [adjective] not shiny or brilliant; dull (in reflecting light); dull-looking.

--- OR ---

Dhūmra (ಧೂಮ್ರ):—

1) [noun] any achromatic colour; any colour with zero chroma, intermediate between white and black; grey colour.

2) [noun] a dark colour that is a blend of red and blue colours; purple colour.

3) [noun] a mixture or blend of red and black colours.

4) [noun] a gum resin obtained from various Arabian and African trees (genus Boswellia) of the bursera family and used in perfumes and as an incense; olibanum; frankincense.

5) [noun] the quality of a depraved, iniquitous or wicked man.

6) [noun] the grey gaseous matter arising from something burning; smoke.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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