Hetu: 17 definitions

Introduction

Hetu means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Hetu (हेतु) is another name (synonym) for vibhāva, referring to “determinants”, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 6.31 and chapter 7.

2) Hetu (हेतु, “motivation”) refers to one of the thirty-six “characteristic features” (lakṣaṇa) of perfect ‘poetic compositions’ (kāvyabandha) and ‘dramatic compositions’ (dṛśyakāvya, or simply kāvya). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17, these thirty-six lakṣaṇas act as instructions for composing playwrights.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Hetu (हेतु, “causation”).—One of the thirty-six lakṣaṇa, or “excellent points of a dramatic composition”;—Description of hetu: When a brief and pleasing sentence by the force of its tactful use achieves the desired object, it is called “causation” (hetu)

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Hetu (हेतु).—A Piśāca; had a son Lanku.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 127, 129.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Hetu (हेतु).—Cause; cf. नतेः परस्योभयहेतुसंग्रहात् (nateḥ parasyobhayahetusaṃgrahāt) R. Pr.XI.2; also cf. हेतौ (hetau) P. II.3.23; हेतुहेतुमतोर्लिङ् (hetuhetumatorliṅ) P.III.3.126;

2) Hetu.—Causal agent cf. यः कारयति स हेतुः (yaḥ kārayati sa hetuḥ) Kat. II. 4.15; cf. also तत्प्रयोजको हेतुश्च (tatprayojako hetuśca) P. I. 4.55.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Hetu (हेतु, “reason”) refers to the second of five stages of syllogism (parārthānumāna) also known as “anumāna (inference) intended for another”, according to Annaṃbhaṭṭa’s Tarkasaṃgraha. Anumāna is the second of the four “means of valid knowledge” (pramāṇa), which in turn is classified as the first of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”). Parārtha-anumāna (syllogism) consists of five members. The second member is hetu or reason and it expresses the cause for the establishment of the pratijñā.

As for example:

  1. The mountain is fiery (pratijñā),
  2. Because it has smoke (hetu),
  3. Whatever has smoke is fiery. For example, a kitchen (udāharaṇa),
  4. The mountain has smoke which is invariably concomitant with fire (upanaya),
  5. Hence, the mountain is fiery (nigamana),
context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci

Hetu (हेतु) refers to “causative factors”, as mentioned in the 10th century Yogaśataka written by Pandita Vararuci.—It has been told that “only after examining hetu (causative factors) and lakṣaṇa (sign and symptoms) of disease thoroughly, treatment should be prescribed. And any kind of drug or treatment can cure the disease if it is applied in nirāma (devoid of Āma) condition”.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Hetu (हेतु, “causes”) are of six kinds according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII).

  1. associated causes (saṃprayuktaka),
  2. mutual cause (sahabhū),
  3. similar cause (sabhāga),
  4. universal cause (sarvatraga),
  5. ripening cause (vipāka),
  6. nominal cause (nāmahetu).
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Hetu (हेतु) is the thirtieth of sixty digits (decimal place) in an special enumeration system mentioned by Vasubandhu in his Abhidharmakośa (“treasury of knowledge”). The explanations of the measure of years, eons, and so forth must be comprehended through calculation based on a numerical system. Enumeration begins from one and increases by a factor of ten for each shift in decimal place. The sixtieth number in this series is called “countless”.

Among these decimal positions (eg., hetu), the first nine positions from one to one hundred million are called ‘single set enumeration’. From a billion up to, but not including countless is “the enumeration of the great companion” and is called the ‘recurring enumeration’.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Hetu, (Vedic hetu, fr. hi to impel) 1. cause, reason, condition S.I, 134; A.III, 440 sq.; Dhs.595, 1053; Vism.450; Tikp 11, 233, 239. In the older use paccaya and hetu are almost identical as synonyms, e.g. n’atthi hetu n’atthi paccayo D.I, 53; aṭṭha hetū aṭṭha paccayā D.III, 284 sq.; cp. S.III, 69 sq.; D.II, 107; M.I, 407; A.I, 55 sq., 66, 200; IV, 151 sq.; but later they were differentiated (see Mrs. Rh. D., Tikp introd. p. xi. sq.). The diff. between the two is explained e.g. at Nett 78 sq.; DhsA.303.—There are a number of other terms, with which hetu is often combined, apparently without distinction in meaning, e.g. hetu paccaya kāraṇa Nd2 617 (s. v. saṅkhā); mūla h. nidāna sambhava pabhava samuṭṭhāna āhāra ārammaṇa paccaya samudaya: frequent in the Niddesa (see Nd2 p. 231, s. v. mūla). ‹-› In the Abhidhamma we find hetu as “moral condition” referring to the 6 mūlas or bases of good & bad kamma, viz. lobha, dosa, moha and their opposites: Dhs.1053 sq.; Kvu 532 sq.—Four kinds of hetu are distinguished at DhsA.303=VbhA.402, viz. hetu°, paccaya°, uttama°, sādhāraṇa°. Another 4 at Tikp 27, viz. kusala°, akusala°, vipāka°, kiriya°, and 9 at Tikp 252, viz. kusala°, akusala°, avyākata°, in 3X3 constellations (cp. DhsA.303).—On term in detail see Cpd. 279 sq.; Dhs. translation §§ 1053, 1075.—Abl. hetuso from or by way of (its) cause S.V, 304; A.III, 417.—Acc. hetu (-°) (elliptically as adv.) on account of, for the sake of (with Gen.); e.g. dāsa-kammakara-porisassa hetu M.II, 187; kissa hetu why? A.III, 303; IV, 393; Sn.1131; Pv.II, 81 (=kiṃ nimittaṃ PvA.106); pubbe kata° by reason (or in consequence) of what was formerly done A.I, 173 sq.; dhana° for the sake of gain Sn.122.—2. suitability for the attainment of Arahantship, one of the 8 conditions precedent to becoming a Buddha Bu II.59=J.I, 14, 44. ‹-› 3. logic Miln.3.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

hētu (हेतु).—m (S) Cause:--i. e. ground or reason; occasion, spring, originating circumstance or principle; motive, impelling or inducing principle. 2 Purpose, meaning, intention, desire, wish.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

hētu (हेतु).—m Cause; motive; desire.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Hetu (हेतु).—[hi-tun Uṇ.1.73]

1) Cause, reason, object, motive; इति हेतुस्तदुद्भवे (iti hetustadudbhave) K. P.1; Māl.1.23; R.1.1; नीचैराख्यं गिरिमधिवसेस्तत्र विश्रामहेतोः (nīcairākhyaṃ girimadhivasestatra viśrāmahetoḥ) Me.25; Ś.3.12.

2) Source, origin; स पिता पितरस्तासां केवलं जन्महेतवः (sa pitā pitarastāsāṃ kevalaṃ janmahetavaḥ) R.1.24 'authors of their being'.

3) A means or instrument.

4) The logical reason, the reason for an inference, middle term (forming the second member of the fivemembered syllogism).

5) Logic, science of reasoning.

6) Any logical proof or argument.

7) A rhetorical reason (regarded by some writers as a figure of speech); it is thus defined :-हेताहतुमता सार्धमभेदो हेतुरुच्यते (hetāhatumatā sārdhamabhedo heturucyate).

8) (In gram.) The agent of the causal verb; P.I.4.55.

9) (with Buddhists) Primary cause.

1) (with Pāśupatas) The external world and senses (that cause the bondage of the soul).

11) Mode, manner.

12) Condition.

13) Price, cost; दीन्नाराणां दशशती पञ्चाशदधिकाभवत् । धान्यखारीक्रये हेतुर्देशे दुर्भिक्षविक्षते (dīnnārāṇāṃ daśaśatī pañcāśadadhikābhavat | dhānyakhārīkraye heturdeśe durbhikṣavikṣate) Rāj. T.5.71. (N. B. The forms hetunā, hetoḥ, rarely hetau, are used adverbially in the sense of 'by reason of', 'on account of', 'because of', with gen. or in comp.; tamasā bahurūpeṇa veṣṭitāḥ karmahetunā Ms. 1.49; śāstravijñānahetunā; alpasya hetorbahu hātumicchan R.2.47; vismṛtaṃ kasya hetoḥ Mu.1.1. &c.).

Derivable forms: hetuḥ (हेतुः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Hetu (हेतु).—(1) (substantially = Sanskrit id.) cause; on relation to pratyaya (1) see this; normally m. as in Sanskrit and Pali (Childers), but mss. make it f. in Mahāvastu i.43.10 (verse), intending sarvābhi (°hi) hetūbhi upasthitāhi, where Senart em. sarvehi…upasthitehi, in accord with repetition i.242.20 (where read upasthitehi instead of Senart's violent em.); six hetu, Mahāvyutpatti 2259—65 and Abhidharmakośa LaV-P. ii.245 (in different order), kāraṇa-h° (raison d'être, LaV-P.), saha- bhū- (cause mutuelle), vipāka- (cause de rétribution), saṃ- prayukta- (cause associée), sarvatraga- (cause universelle), sabhāga- (cause pareille); La V-P.'s note here, and the following pages of his translation(s), explain the terms at length; (2) hetu [Page621-b+ 71] as adv. (= Pali id.; only noted ifc. in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] but in Pali used alone with prec. gen.; according to Senart i note 536, an ‘atté- nuation’ of Sanskrit hetoḥ), for the sake of, because of, in order to: bodhihetur (for the sake of enlightenment, Tibetan byaṅ chub don du; is -r ‘Hiatus-bridger’, § 4.62? or may -hetur be m.c. for -hetor, supporting Senart's theory? a nom. sg. is impossible here) aprameya tyaktu dustyajā tvayā Lalitavistara 170.14 (verse); ārakṣahetu, for the purpose of guarding, for a guard, Mahāvastu i.204.6, 11 = ii.8.1, 6 (verses); parasya vismā- panahetu (so Tibetan, ṅo mtshar…; text viśvāp°) Kāśyapa Parivarta 126.14 (verse), to astonish another; (3) a high number: hetuḥ Mahāvyutpatti 8018.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hetu (हेतु).—m.

(-tuḥ) 1. Cause, object, motive. 2. The reason or argument for an inference or deduction. 3. Reasoning, logic. 4. Means, instrument. 5. Source, origin. 6. A figure of speech. The instantive, ablative and locative singulars of this word, viz:—“hetunā,” “heto” and “hetau,” are used as indeclinables in the sense of “on account of,” “because of,” “by reason of.” E. hi to go, Unadi aff. tun .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hetu (हेतु).—perhaps hi + tu (properly, Impulse, Chr. 18, 2), 1. Motive; abl., on account of, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 49, 39; in order to, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 173, M. M.; dat. mṛtyu -hetave, In order to kill, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 7, 1, 41. 2. Origin. 3. Cause, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 42, M. M.; reason, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 417; proof, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 2. ed. 65, 2. 4. Means, [Hitopadeśa] 114, 7; [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 310; prize, 5, 71. 5. Condition, [Draupadīpramātha] 9, 10; law, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 10. 6. The reason or middle term in an inference, Bhāṣāp. 68. 7. hetau, loc. By reason of. 8. Logic, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 180, 8.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hetu (हेतु).—[masculine] impulse, motive, cause, reason ([genetive], [dative], [locative], or —°), argument, proof; means ([instrumental] —° by means of); condition; mode, manner, way; also concr. mover, impeller, [especially] the agent of the causative ([grammar]); adj. —° caused by. Abl. [genetive], [instrumental], [dative], & [locative] by reason, on account, or for the sake of ([genetive] or —°). Abstr. † [feminine], tva† [neuter]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Hetu (हेतु):—[from hi] a etc. See p. 1303, col. 3.

2) [from heti] b m. ‘impulse’, motive, cause, cause of, reason for ([locative case], rarely [dative case] or [genitive case]; hetunā, hetoḥ, hetave, hetau, ‘for a cause or reason’, ‘by reason of’, ‘on account of’ [with [genitive case] or [compound] e.g. mama hetoḥ or mad-dhetoḥ, ‘on account of me’]; kaṃ hetum or ko hetuḥ, ‘wherefore?’ ‘why?’ [Pāṇini 2-2, 23; Patañjali]; yato hetoḥ, ‘because’; anena hetunā or iti hetoḥ, ‘for this reason’; mṛtyu-hetave, ‘in order to kill’; hetur alaukikaḥ, ‘a supernatural cause’; ifc. hetu also = ‘having as a cause or motive’, ‘caused or effected or actuated or attracted or impelled by’ e.g. karma-hetu, ‘caused by the acts [of a former existence]’ [Manu-smṛti i, 49]; māṃsa-hetu, ‘attracted by [the smell of] flesh’ [Mahābhārata x, 496]; karma-phala-hetu, ‘impelled by [the expectation of] the consequences of any act’ [Bhāgavata-purāṇa ii, 47; 49]), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

3) [v.s. ...] a logical reason or deduction or argument, the reason for an inference ([especially] applied to the second member or Avayava of the five-membered syllogism See nyāya), [Nyāya; Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 61]

4) [v.s. ...] logic (in general See hetuvidyā)

5) [v.s. ...] (in gram.) the agent of the causal verb, [Pāṇini 1-4, 55 etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] (with Buddhists) primary cause (as opp. to pratyaya q.v.), [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

7) [v.s. ...] (with Paśu-patis) that which causes the bondage of the soul id est. the external world and the senses, [ib.]

8) [v.s. ...] a means (hetubhiḥ ifc. ‘by means of’), [Mahābhārata]

9) [v.s. ...] mode, manner (hetubhiḥ ifc. ‘according to’), [ib.; Suśruta; Yājñavalkya]

10) [v.s. ...] price, cost, [Rājataraṅgiṇī v, 71]

11) [v.s. ...] condition, [Mahābhārata]

12) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) = kāvya-liṅga (q.v.), [Bharata-nāṭya-śāstra; Kāvyaprakāśa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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