Bhranti, Bhrānti, Bhramti: 20 definitions


Bhranti means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति, “error”) refers to one of the twenty-one sandhyantara, or “distinct characteristics of segments (sandhi)” according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. The segments are divisions of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic play (nāṭaka) and consist of sixty-four limbs, known collectively as the sandhyaṅga.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)

Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति, “illusion”) or Bhrāntimān refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—Cirañjīva has treated the figure named bhrānti. The predecessors of Cirañjīva like Mammaṭa Ruyyaka Viśvanātha and Jagannātha have given the name bhrāntimān instead of bhrānti. Infact bhrāntimān and bhrānti these two are same in nature.

Whenever a thing is perceived or taken as another thing due to similarity it is called bhrānti or illusion. This illusion happens in the practical world when a person takes a snail as silver. But how this type of illusory knowledge can be taken as a figure of speech? To answer it may be said that this mere practical illusory knowledge can not be an alaṃkāra, but this illusory knowledge when presented by a poet in his work of art it assumes beauty and it receives the designation of an alaṃkāra.

Example of the bhrānti-alaṃkāra:—

mandamākalitakaṅkaṇakkaṇaṃ cañcalena vasanāñcalena
sā tatra dīpakalikābhramānmuhuśceṣṭate maṇiśikhāvilopane

“She tries again and again to extinguish the flamelight of a jewel by the quivering veil of her garment on account of her illusion as a lamp”.

Notes: In this verse the light reflecting from the jewel is taken as lamp by the newly wedded woman. Here the light of the jewel is taken as the lamp due to illusion. So it is an example of the figure of speech bhrānti.

Kavyashastra book cover
context information

Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति) refers to “mistaken” (e.g., mistaken knowledge), according to the second recension of the Yogakhaṇḍa of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, as Bhagavat (Viṣṇu) said to Śaṃkara: “[...] O foolish one, you previously committed suicide due to (your) mistaken knowledge [i.e., bhrānti-jñāna]. You did not see (that) great body (mahāpiṇḍa) in the form of a Liṅga. I, Hari's energy, Mahālakṣmī, abide in your body. O Rudra, tell me the truth. Why have you taken refuge in me?”.

2) Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति) refers to “delusion”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] He is himself the knower who is liberated and is the eternal (reality) [i.e., śāśvata] at the End of Sound. In this way, O Lord, he should abandon delusion [i.e., bhrānti]. [...]”.

3) Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति) refers to “errors”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “(The true teacher is dedicated to) truthfulness, ritual purity and cleanliness, compassion, and forbearance; he unites with his wife when it is her season, not out of passion, but for a son for the benefit of (his) clan and lineage. [...] Moreover, he removes error [i.e., bhrānti-hartṛ], and he reveals the meaning of the Kula scripture. Previously consecrated, (such a one) should always be made (one’s) teacher”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (Shaivism)

Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति) refers to an “error” (e.g., an error committed by a human author—praṇetṛ), according to Appaya’s Śivārkamaṇidīpikā on the Brahmasūtra 2.2.38.—Appaya does not seem willing to ascribe full ‘vedicness’ to Śaivāgamas, as is clear from the following passage in his subcommentary on the same sūtra: “So it is concluded that the Śaivāgamas follow śruti with regard to the various ways of performing [Śiva’s] worship [i.e., śiva-pūjana] and Śiva’s greatness—both [features] not being taught in directly perceivable śruti [i.e. the Vedic saṃhitās]—just like Kalpasūtras (whose purpose is to expand upon different parts required by the performance of rituals, of which just a few procedures are taught in directly perceivable śruti) follow śruti with regard to various parts not taught in directly perceivable śruti. Therefore, all things taught in the Veda and Śaivāgamas are exactly the same. But the following is the difference: while in [the case of] Kalpasūtras, it is possible to doubt, with regard to those parts that are contradicted by directly perceivable śruti, that the [human] author may have committed an error [i.e., bhrānti], such doubt is not possible in the case of āgamas insofar as they have Śiva as their author”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Bhranti in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति) refers to “confusion”, according to the Haṭhapradīpikā of Svātmārāma: an influential 15th-century Sanskrit manual on Hatha-Yoga dealing with techniques to channel one’s vital energy.—Accordingly, “The compassionate Svātmārāma presents the Haṭhapradīpikā for those ignorant of Rājayoga because of their confusion (bhrānti) in the darkness of many [conflicting] opinions”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति) refers to “hallucination” and is a symptom of a (venemous) bite caused by the Ekacārin rats, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—[Cf. kaṇḍūḥ śirorugbhrāntiḥ syād ātapecchā śanair jvaraḥ]

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति) refers to “mistakes”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 31).—Accordingly, “[The Bodhisattva-mahāsattva practices the four foundations of mindfulness] [1. Mindfulness of body] [...] Pursuing the examination of the body, he says to himself: ‘Being without ‘I’ and without ‘mine’, this body is empty. Being empty, it does not have any male or female characteristics. Being without characteristics, it is not to be wished for’. Thinking thus, the Bodhisattva enters into the gate of knowledge called ‘wishlessness’. He knows that the body is not to be considered in the sense that it arises only from a complex of engendering causes and conditions. But these causes and conditions that produce the body also come from mistakes (bhrānti) and errors (viparyāsa). In these causes and conditions, the nature of cause and condition is also lacking, and the arising of causes and condtions is really a non-arising. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

bhrānti (भ्रांति).—f (S) pop. bhrānta f Mistake, misapprehension, erroneous conception or judgment. 2 Wandering, aberration, wildness or confusedness of mind. Ex. durjanā ghāluni anivāra bhrānti || bhaktā chaḷavisī tayā hātīṃ ||. 3 Doubtfulness, dubiousness, doubt.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

bhrānti (भ्रांति) [-ta, -त].—f Doubt. Mistake. Wandering of mind.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति).—[bhram-ktin] f.

1) Moving or wandering about.

2) Turning round, rolling.

3) A revolution, circular or rotatory movement; चक्रभ्रान्तिररान्तरेषु वितनोत्यन्यामिवारा- बलीम् (cakrabhrāntirarāntareṣu vitanotyanyāmivārā- balīm) V.1.5.

4) An error, a mistake, delusion, wrong notion, false idea impression; श्रितासि चन्दनभ्रान्त्या दुर्विपाकं विषद्रुमम् (śritāsi candanabhrāntyā durvipākaṃ viṣadrumam) Uttararāmacarita 1.47; षाण्मासिके तु संप्राप्ते भ्रान्तिः संजायते नृणाम् । धात्राक्षराणि सृष्टानि पत्रारूढान्यतः पुरा (ṣāṇmāsike tu saṃprāpte bhrāntiḥ saṃjāyate nṛṇām | dhātrākṣarāṇi sṛṣṭāni patrārūḍhānyataḥ purā) || Jyotistattvam.

5) Confusion, perplexity.

6) Doubt, uncertainty, suspense.

7) Unsteadiness.

Derivable forms: bhrāntiḥ (भ्रान्तिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति).—f.

(-ntiḥ) 1. Error, mistake, ignorance. 2. Going round, whirling, revolving. 3. Unsteadiness, locomotion. 4. Going about, wandering. 5. Confusion. 6. Delusion. 7. Doubt. E. bhram to go round, aff. ktin, and the vowel made long.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति).—i. e. bhram + ti, f. 1. Going round, whirling, rolling, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 4. 2. Wandering. 3. Error, Bṛhaspati ap. Cowell, Kuśumāñjali, transl. p. 65, n. †; [Pañcatantra] 50, 10 (kumuda -bhrāntiṃ janayati matsyānām, Causes the fishes to mistake him for a lotusflower). candana-, instr. Mistaking (it) for a sandal tree, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 29, 8.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति).—[feminine] roaming, wandering; moving round (—°), revolution; tottering, wavering, confusion, perplexity, uncertainty, doubt, error.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति):—[from bhram] f. wandering or roaming about, moving to and fro, driving (of clouds), quivering (of lightning), staggering, reeling, [Kāvya literature; Kāmandakīya-nītisāra]

2) [v.s. ...] turning round, rolling (of wheels), [Vikramorvaśī]

3) [v.s. ...] (ifc.) moving round, circumambulating, [Ratnāvalī]

4) [v.s. ...] perplexity, confusion, doubt, error, false opinion (ifc., false impression of, mistaking something for, supposing anything to be or to exist), [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara; Purāṇa etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति):—(ntiḥ) 2. f. Error; wandering.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Bhrānti (भ्रान्ति) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Bhaṃti.

[Sanskrit to German]

Bhranti in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Bhranti in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Bhranti in Hindi refers in English to:—(nf) error, mistake; illusion: ~[janaka] causing illusion, confusing; ~[janya] resulting from an illusion / confusion/misunderstanding; ~[mulaka] illusory; caused by an illusion, misconceived..—bhranti (भ्रांति) is alternatively transliterated as Bhrāṃti.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Bhrāṃti (ಭ್ರಾಂತಿ):—

1) [noun] a turning or spinning motion of a body around its centre.

2) [noun] the act, fact or an instance of wandering (aimlessly or uselessly).

3) [noun] perception of something objectively existing in such a way as to cause misinterpretation of its actual nature; illusion.

4) [noun] the state of having a whirling, dazed sensation; dizziness.

5) [noun] the state of being utterly confused; bewilderment.

6) [noun] lack of certainty; uncertainty; doubt.

7) [noun] (rhet.) a figure of speach delineating a wrong conception caused by illusion or bewilderment.

8) [noun] (Sāṃkhya phil.) a noticing of unimportant, secondary aspects of an object instead of the main ones.

9) [noun] a particular kind of kissing (as a foreplay arousing sexual desire).

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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