Mandara, aka: Mandāra; 16 Definition(s)

Introduction

Mandara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Itihāsa (narrative history)

An enourmous mountain of eleven thousand yojanas in height.

"There is a mountain called Mandara adorned with cloud-like peaks. It is the best of mountains, and is covered all over with intertwining herbs. There countless birds pour forth their melodies, and beasts of prey roam about. The gods, the Apsaras and the Kinnaras visit the place. Upwards it rises eleven thousand yojanas, and descends downwards as much. "

Mahabharata, Book I, Section XVIII;

(Source): Wisdom Library: Mahābhārata
context information

Itihāsa (इतिहास) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Purāṇas, 2) the Mahābhārata and 3) the Rāmāyaṇa. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smṛti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to śruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

Nāṭyaśāstra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

One of the Hands indicating Trees.—Mandāra, the Khaṇḍa-catura hand;

(Source): archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Nāṭyaśāstra book cover
context information

Nāṭyaśāstra (नाट्यशास्त्र, natya-shastra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition of performing arts, (e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nāṭya) and poetic works (kāvya).

Purāṇa

Mandara (मन्दर):—The consequences of using various flowers in worship, (eg. mandara flowers) leads to destruction of all kinds of leprosy, according to the Bhaviṣya-purāṇa (brahmaparva, 197:1-11)

(Source): Wisdom Library: Bhavishya-purana

1) Mandara (मन्दर) is the name of a mountain on the eastern side of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu. On the peak of mount Mandara stands a Kadamba tree hosting various devas, asuras and apsaras. The lake in this direction is called Aruṇoda around which are situated eleven mountains.

2) Mandara (मन्दर).—Name of a minor mountain (kṣudraparvata) situated in Bhārata, a region south of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. In the settlements (janapada) along these mountains dwell Āryas and Mlecchas who drink water from the rivers flowing there. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu.

3) Mandara (मन्दर) is another name for Kakudhra, one of the seven major mountains in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu.

Svāyambhuva Manu was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1a) Mandara (मन्दर).—(Mt.) on one side of Meru; one of Viṣkambhagiris round the Meru; sacred to Śiva; in its valleys Hiraṇyakaśipu performed austerities; used in churning the milk ocean; lest it should sink in the sea Hari in the form of Kūrma supported the mountain; was lifted up with great difficulty by the Gods and Asuras, who could not carry it to the ocean, when Hari asked Garuḍa to bear it on his back to the sea and which he did.1 Recipient of mango fruits as large as hill-tops falling from a divine mango tree, 1100 yojanas high (see Aruṇo1dā).2 Here Pṛthu died and was cremated.3 (Also known, Mandaragiri and Mandarācalam).

Bhadrāśva varṣa and Caitraratha park in;4 Śiva spent his honeymoon here with Umā after marrying her; Umā's delights in the woods.5

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 9. 51, 56, 60; Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 3. 16; III. 28. 27; V. 16. 11; VII. 3. 2; 7. 2; VIII. 5. 10; 6. 33-9; X. 40. 18; XII. 13. 2; Matsya-purāṇa 69. 1; 249. 15; 250. 26; 251. 35; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 9. 77, 84.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 16.
  • 3) Ib. IV. 23. 24.
  • 4) Matsya-purāṇa 83. 20, 31.
  • 5) Ib. 113. 45; 154. 496, 573; 163. 87; 183. 1.

1b) A mountain of Kuśadvīpa, from waters called mandas;1 a son of Meru;2 on the other side of Gandhamādhana; its mahāvṛkṣa is Keturāṭ.3

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 36; 19. 56; Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 19; 42. 14; 45. 90; 49. 51; 101. 288.
  • 2) Ib. 30. 33.
  • 3) Ib. 35. 16.

1c) A mountain in Bhāratavarṣa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 20; III. 27. 28.

1d) A tīrtha sacred to Kāmacāriṇī.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 28; 184. 18.

1e) Same as Kakudmān.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 122. 61.

1f) A palace of 12 floors; three-fourths of Meru; the toraṇa is 45 hastas.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 269. 28, 32, 47.

1g) A mountain in Malayadvīpa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 48. 23.

1h) A hill on the east of Ilāvṛta.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 2. 18.

2) Mandāra (मन्दार).—A Śiva gaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 41. 27.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purāṇa book cover
context information

The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Vāstuśāstra (architecture)

Mandara (मन्दर) refers to classification of a temple/buidling (prāsāda), according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 63. The temple is mentioned being part of the group named Nāgara, which contains twenty different Prāsādas (temples/buildings). The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Mandara is found in another list in the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra, chapter 60, where it is mentioned in a list of thirty-six Prāsādas (temples) having activities of the townsmen entailing Sādhārās.

Mandara is also listed in the Suprabhedāgama, which describes a list of 13 temple types. This list represents the earliest form of the classification of temples in the South Indian Vāstuśāstra literature.

Mandara is also listed in the Īśānaśivagurudevapaddhati which features a list of 52 temple types. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.

Mandara is also listed in the Matsyapurāṇa which features a list of 20 temple types. This list represents a classification of temples in Nort-India.

Mandara is also listed in the Agnipurāṇa which features a list of 45 temple types. It is listed under the group named Vairāja, featuring square-shaped temples. This list represents a classification of temples in Nort-India.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vāstuśāstra book cover
context information

Vāstuśāstra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vastu-shastra) refers to the knowledge of architecture. It is a branch of ancient Indian science dealing with topics such architecture, construction, sculpture and their relation with the cosmic universe.

Kathā (narrative stories)

Mandara (मन्दर).—One of the mountains of Jambūdvīpa.—Mandara has been indemnified by Nandolal Dey, on the authority of many Purāṇas, with a hill situated in the Baṅkā sub-divisim of the district of Bhāgalapur. Kālidāsa, however, places this mountain on the Himālayas and the Mahābhārata, unlike most of the Purāṇas mentioned by Nandolal Dey, does not recognise any other Mandara except the Mandara of the Himalaya range.

In the Mahābhārata, Mandara is placed to the east and perhaps a part of Gandhamādana and on the north of Badarikāśrama. Kālidāsa places it in the vicinity of the Kāilāsa and the Gandhamādana.

(Source): Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Kathā book cover
context information

Kathās (कथा) are special kind of Sanskrit literature: they are a kind of a mix between Itihāsa (historical legends) and Mahākāvya (epic poetry). Some Kathās reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of the historical deeds of the Gods, sages and heroes.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Mandara (मन्दर) is a Sanskrit word referring to a dwelling place or resort of the celestial nymphs (apsaras). They live chiefly on earth around rivers or on mountains, as in the courts of all the gods.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Mandara (मंदर): The mountain used as a churning stick in Samudra manthan for churning the ocean using Vasuki nāga as rope by gods on one side and asuras on other side.

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

A mountain in Himava, mentioned together with Meru and Daddara. Ap.ii.536, 86; according to the Abhidhanappadipika (606), it is the western mountain, behind which the sun sets.

(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

Pali

mandāra : (m.) name of a mountain.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Vajrayāna (Tibetan Buddhism)

Mandara (मन्दर) is the name of a mountain associated with Gahvara: the northern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.

The Guhyasamayasādhanamālā by Umāptideva is a 12th century ritualistic manual including forty-six Buddhist tantric sādhanas. The term sādhana refers to “rites” for the contemplation of a divinity.

(Source): Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

India history and geogprahy

Mandara (मन्दर).—The viṣkambha mountain Mandara occurs in the Nasik eulogy of Gautamīputra Sātakarṇī. who is said to be equal in strength with this mountain along with Himavat and Meru. In the Aphsad Stone inscription of Ādityatena, Mandara is described as a traditional mountain utilized in churning the formidable Milk-ocean. Dr. Sircar enlists this mountain among the western boundaries of Cakravarti-kṣetra, which is mentioned while describing the traditional account ot digvijaya of a certain monarch, in some epigraphic or literary record.

(Source): archive.org: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptions

Mandara or Vidruma is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Mandara refers to the “coral-tree” and is mentioned to beo n the bank of river Mandakini. Another name is Vidruma.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (eg., Mandara), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Mandara, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

(Source): Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara
India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Relevant definitions

Search found 55 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Mandaragiri
Mandāragiri (मन्दारगिरि).—The Mandār or Mandāra-giri, described in the Purāṇas as situated on t...
Nishadha
Niṣadha (निषध) is the name of a mountain in Jambūdvīpa separating the regions Harivarṣa and Vid...
Meru
mēru (मेरु).—m The standing tube of a guḍaguḍī. The mountain mēru. The middle gem of a necklace...
Kumbha
kumbha (कुंभ).—m A water-jar. The sign Aquarius.
Nagara
Nagara (towns) refers to administrative divsions of viṣayas and khollas of during the rule of K...
Madana
madana (मदन).—m (S) The name of the Hindu Cupid. 2 The sexual passion, love or lust. ma0 ōvāḷaṇ...
Indra
Indra (इन्द्र, “lord”) refers to refers to one of the ten grades (ranks) of celestial beings (d...
Jambudvipa
Jambūdvīpa (जम्बूद्वीप) refers to the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), accordi...
Prasada
prasāda (प्रसाद).—m Favour, graciousness. Any- thing (a fruit, flower, rice) given by an idol, ...
Hari
Hari (हरि) or Harivarṣa refers to a region of Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-lok...
Vasuki
Vāsuki (वासुकि).—Serpent deity (nāga) of the eastern cremation ground.—In the Śmaśānavidhi 5, V...
Kurma
Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to one of the many varieties of the Śālagrāma (ammonite fossil stones).—Th...
Kapittha
Kapittha is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D)...
Vidruma
Vidruma is another of Mandara, a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th centu...
Naraka
Nāraka refers to a kind of weapon employed in warfare by the soldiers, according to Śrīnātha’s ...

Relevant text

- Was this explanation helpful? Leave a comment:

Make this page a better place for research and define the term yourself in your own words.

You have to be a member in order to post comments. Click here to login or click here to become a member.