Mandara, aka: Mandāra, Mandarā; 21 Definition(s)
Mandara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Itihasa (narrative history)
An enourmous mountain of eleven thousand yojanas in height.
(Source): Wisdom Library: Mahābhārata
"There is a mountain called Mandara adorned with cloud-like peaks. It is the best of mountains, and is covered all over with intertwining herbs. There countless birds pour forth their melodies, and beasts of prey roam about. The gods, the Apsaras and the Kinnaras visit the place. Upwards it rises eleven thousand yojanas, and descends downwards as much. "
Mahabharata, Book I, Section XVIII;
Mandara (मन्दर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.48.2) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Mandara) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
One of the Hands indicating Trees.—Mandāra, the Khaṇḍa-catura hand;(Source): archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Mandara (मन्दर):—The consequences of using various flowers in worship, (eg. mandara flowers) leads to destruction of all kinds of leprosy, according to the Bhaviṣya-purāṇa (brahmaparva, 197:1-11)(Source): Wisdom Library: Bhavishya-purana
1) Mandara (मन्दर) is the name of a mountain on the eastern side of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu. On the peak of mount Mandara stands a Kadamba tree hosting various devas, asuras and apsaras. The lake in this direction is called Aruṇoda around which are situated eleven mountains.
2) Mandara (मन्दर).—Name of a minor mountain (kṣudraparvata) situated in Bhārata, a region south of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. In the settlements (janapada) along these mountains dwell Āryas and Mlecchas who drink water from the rivers flowing there. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu.
3) Mandara (मन्दर) is another name for Kakudhra, one of the seven major mountains in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu.
Svāyambhuva Manu was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being
The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.(Source): Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
1a) Mandara (मन्दर).—(Mt.) on one side of Meru; one of Viṣkambhagiris round the Meru; sacred to Śiva; in its valleys Hiraṇyakaśipu performed austerities; used in churning the milk ocean; lest it should sink in the sea Hari in the form of Kūrma supported the mountain; was lifted up with great difficulty by the Gods and Asuras, who could not carry it to the ocean, when Hari asked Garuḍa to bear it on his back to the sea and which he did.1 Recipient of mango fruits as large as hill-tops falling from a divine mango tree, 1100 yojanas high (see Aruṇo1dā).2 Here Pṛthu died and was cremated.3 (Also known, Mandaragiri and Mandarācalam).
Bhadrāśva varṣa and Caitraratha park in;4 Śiva spent his honeymoon here with Umā after marrying her; Umā's delights in the woods.5
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 9. 51, 56, 60; Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 3. 16; III. 28. 27; V. 16. 11; VII. 3. 2; 7. 2; VIII. 5. 10; 6. 33-9; X. 40. 18; XII. 13. 2; Matsya-purāṇa 69. 1; 249. 15; 250. 26; 251. 35; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 9. 77, 84.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 16.
- 3) Ib. IV. 23. 24.
- 4) Matsya-purāṇa 83. 20, 31.
- 5) Ib. 113. 45; 154. 496, 573; 163. 87; 183. 1.
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 36; 19. 56; Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 19; 42. 14; 45. 90; 49. 51; 101. 288.
- 2) Ib. 30. 33.
- 3) Ib. 35. 16.
1c) A mountain in Bhāratavarṣa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 20; III. 27. 28.
1d) A tīrtha sacred to Kāmacāriṇī.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 28; 184. 18.
1e) Same as Kakudmān.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 122. 61.
1f) A palace of 12 floors; three-fourths of Meru; the toraṇa is 45 hastas.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 269. 28, 32, 47.
1g) A mountain in Malayadvīpa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 48. 23.
1h) A hill on the east of Ilāvṛta.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 2. 18.
2) Mandāra (मन्दार).—A Śiva gaṇa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 41. 27.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Mandara (मन्दर) refers to classification of a temple/buidling (prāsāda), according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 63. The temple is mentioned being part of the group named Nāgara, which contains twenty different Prāsādas (temples/buildings). The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.
Mandara is found in another list in the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra, chapter 60, where it is mentioned in a list of thirty-six Prāsādas (temples) having activities of the townsmen entailing Sādhārās.
Mandara is also listed in the Suprabhedāgama, which describes a list of 13 temple types. This list represents the earliest form of the classification of temples in the South Indian Vāstuśāstra literature.
Mandara is also listed in the Īśānaśivagurudevapaddhati which features a list of 52 temple types. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.
Mandara is also listed in the Matsyapurāṇa which features a list of 20 temple types. This list represents a classification of temples in Nort-India.
Mandara is also listed in the Agnipurāṇa which features a list of 45 temple types. It is listed under the group named Vairāja, featuring square-shaped temples. This list represents a classification of temples in Nort-India.(Source): Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Katha (narrative stories)
Mandāra (मन्दार) refers to a type of lake growing in Kuberasarasa at Kailāsa, according to in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 51. Accordingly, as Lava and Kuśa offended sage Vālmīki after killing a deer and playing with a lṅga: “... at Sītā’s intercession he appointed for those youths the following expiatory penance: ‘Let this Lava go quickly and bring from the lake of Kuvera golden lotuses, and mandāra flowers from his garden, then worship, both of you brothers, this liṅga with those flowers; in this way this crime of those two will be atoned for’”.
The story of Mandāra was narrated by the Vidyādharī Kāñcanaprabhā to Naravāhanadatta while in a Svayambhū temple of Śiva, in order to demonstrate that “people who possess firmness endure for a long time mutual separation to which no termination is assigned”, in other words, that “heroic souls endure separation for so long a time”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Mandāra, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.(Source): Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Mandara (मन्दर).—One of the mountains of Jambūdvīpa.—Mandara has been indemnified by Nandolal Dey, on the authority of many Purāṇas, with a hill situated in the Baṅkā sub-divisim of the district of Bhāgalapur. Kālidāsa, however, places this mountain on the Himālayas and the Mahābhārata, unlike most of the Purāṇas mentioned by Nandolal Dey, does not recognise any other Mandara except the Mandara of the Himalaya range.
In the Mahābhārata, Mandara is placed to the east and perhaps a part of Gandhamādana and on the north of Badarikāśrama. Kālidāsa places it in the vicinity of the Kāilāsa and the Gandhamādana.(Source): Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)
Mandara (मन्दर) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (eg., mandara) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.(Source): Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Mandara (मन्दर) is a Sanskrit word referring to a dwelling place or resort of the celestial nymphs (apsaras). They live chiefly on earth around rivers or on mountains, as in the courts of all the gods.(Source): Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Mandara (मंदर): The mountain used as a churning stick in Samudra manthan for churning the ocean using Vasuki nāga as rope by gods on one side and asuras on other side.(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
A mountain in Himava, mentioned together with Meru and Daddara. Ap.ii.536, 86; according to the Abhidhanappadipika (606), it is the western mountain, behind which the sun sets.(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
(Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)
Mandara (मन्दर) is the name of a mountain associated with Gahvara: the northern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.
The Guhyasamayasādhanamālā by Umāptideva is a 12th century ritualistic manual including forty-six Buddhist tantric sādhanas. The term sādhana refers to “rites” for the contemplation of a divinity.(Source): Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
India history and geogprahy
Mandara (मन्दर).—The viṣkambha mountain Mandara occurs in the Nasik eulogy of Gautamīputra Sātakarṇī. who is said to be equal in strength with this mountain along with Himavat and Meru. In the Aphsad Stone inscription of Ādityatena, Mandara is described as a traditional mountain utilized in churning the formidable Milk-ocean. Dr. Sircar enlists this mountain among the western boundaries of Cakravarti-kṣetra, which is mentioned while describing the traditional account ot digvijaya of a certain monarch, in some epigraphic or literary record.(Source): archive.org: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptions
Mandara or Vidruma is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Mandara refers to the “coral-tree” and is mentioned to beo n the bank of river Mandakini. Another name is Vidruma.
Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (eg., Mandara), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Mandara, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).(Source): Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
mandāra : (m.) name of a mountain.(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
mandara (मंदर) [or मंदराचल, mandarācala].—m (S) The name of the mountain with which the ocean was churned after the deluge.
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mandāra (मंदार).—m S See the popular form māndāra.
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māndāra (मांदार).—m (mandāra S) The coral tree, Erythrina fulgens. 2 with or without the word ruī affixed or prefixed. Gigantic swallowwort, Asclepias gigantea.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
māndāra (मांदार).—m. The coral tree.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
1) Slow, tardy, dull.
2) Thick, dense; firm.
3) Large, bulky.
-raḥ 1 Name of a mountain (used by the gods and demons as a churning stick when they churned the ocean for nectar); पृषतैर्मन्दरोद्धूतैः क्षीरोर्मय इवाच्युतम् (pṛṣatairmandaroddhūtaiḥ kṣīrormaya ivācyutam) R.4.27; अभिनवजलसुन्दर धृतमन्दर ए (abhinavajalasundara dhṛtamandara e) Gīt.1; शोभैव मन्दरक्षुब्धक्षुभिताम्भोधिवर्णना (śobhaiva mandarakṣubdhakṣubhitāmbhodhivarṇanā) Śi.2.17; Ki.5.3.
2) A necklace of pearls (of 8 or 16 strings).
4) A mirror.
5) One of the five trees in Indra's paradise; see मन्दार (mandāra).
-ram ind. Slowly, sluggishly.
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1) The coral tree, one of the five trees in Indra's paradise; हस्तप्राप्यस्तबकनमितो बालमन्दार- वृक्षः (hastaprāpyastabakanamito bālamandāra- vṛkṣaḥ) Me.77,69; V.4.35; वृन्दारकारिविजये सुरलोकलब्ध- मन्दारमाल्यमधुवासितवासभूमिः (vṛndārakārivijaye suralokalabdha- mandāramālyamadhuvāsitavāsabhūmiḥ) Rām. Ch.
2) The plant called Arka, Calotropis Gigantea.
3) The Dhattūra plant.
5) An elephant.
-ram A flower of the coral tree; विनिद्रमन्दाररजोरुणाङ्गुली (vinidramandārarajoruṇāṅgulī) Ku.5.8; R.6.23.
Derivable forms: mandāraḥ (मन्दारः).
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Māndāra (मान्दार).—A kind of tree.
Derivable forms: māndāraḥ (मान्दारः).
See also (synonyms): māndārava.(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 43 books and stories containing Mandara, Mandāra or Mandarā. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.7.63-66 < [Chapter 7 - Jagad-ānanda: The Bliss of the Worlds]
Verse 2.4.45 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha: The Spiritual Kingdom]
Verse 1.3.46 < [Chapter 3 - Prapancatita: Beyond the Material World]
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 22 - The dalliance of Śivā and Śiva on the Himālayas < [Section 2.2 - Rudra-saṃhitā (2): Satī-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 22 - Harassment by Viṣṇu’s sons < [Section 3 - Śatarudra-saṃhitā]
Chapter 26 - The attainment of higher status by the tiger (vyāghra) < [Section 7.1 - Vāyavīya-saṃhitā (1)]
The Mirror of Gesture (abhinaya-darpana) (by Ananda Coomaraswamy)
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 13: Sermon on the four gatis: gods < [Chapter IV - Padmaprabhacaritra]
Part 13: Vimala’s omniscience < [Chapter III - Vimalanāthacaritra]
Part 6: Conquest of Bharata by Subhūma < [Chapter IV - Subhūmacakravartīcaritra]
The Mahabharata - First Book (by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa)