Mandara, aka: Mandāra; 16 Definition(s)
Mandara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Itihāsa (narrative history)
An enourmous mountain of eleven thousand yojanas in height.
(Source): Wisdom Library: Mahābhārata
"There is a mountain called Mandara adorned with cloud-like peaks. It is the best of mountains, and is covered all over with intertwining herbs. There countless birds pour forth their melodies, and beasts of prey roam about. The gods, the Apsaras and the Kinnaras visit the place. Upwards it rises eleven thousand yojanas, and descends downwards as much. "
Mahabharata, Book I, Section XVIII;
Itihāsa (इतिहास) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Purāṇas, 2) the Mahābhārata and 3) the Rāmāyaṇa. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smṛti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to śruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
Nāṭyaśāstra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
One of the Hands indicating Trees.—Mandāra, the Khaṇḍa-catura hand;(Source): archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Nāṭyaśāstra (नाट्यशास्त्र, natya-shastra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition of performing arts, (e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nāṭya) and poetic works (kāvya).
Mandara (मन्दर):—The consequences of using various flowers in worship, (eg. mandara flowers) leads to destruction of all kinds of leprosy, according to the Bhaviṣya-purāṇa (brahmaparva, 197:1-11)(Source): Wisdom Library: Bhavishya-purana
1) Mandara (मन्दर) is the name of a mountain on the eastern side of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu. On the peak of mount Mandara stands a Kadamba tree hosting various devas, asuras and apsaras. The lake in this direction is called Aruṇoda around which are situated eleven mountains.
2) Mandara (मन्दर).—Name of a minor mountain (kṣudraparvata) situated in Bhārata, a region south of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. In the settlements (janapada) along these mountains dwell Āryas and Mlecchas who drink water from the rivers flowing there. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu.
3) Mandara (मन्दर) is another name for Kakudhra, one of the seven major mountains in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu.
Svāyambhuva Manu was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being
The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.(Source): Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
1a) Mandara (मन्दर).—(Mt.) on one side of Meru; one of Viṣkambhagiris round the Meru; sacred to Śiva; in its valleys Hiraṇyakaśipu performed austerities; used in churning the milk ocean; lest it should sink in the sea Hari in the form of Kūrma supported the mountain; was lifted up with great difficulty by the Gods and Asuras, who could not carry it to the ocean, when Hari asked Garuḍa to bear it on his back to the sea and which he did.1 Recipient of mango fruits as large as hill-tops falling from a divine mango tree, 1100 yojanas high (see Aruṇo1dā).2 Here Pṛthu died and was cremated.3 (Also known, Mandaragiri and Mandarācalam).
Bhadrāśva varṣa and Caitraratha park in;4 Śiva spent his honeymoon here with Umā after marrying her; Umā's delights in the woods.5
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 9. 51, 56, 60; Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 3. 16; III. 28. 27; V. 16. 11; VII. 3. 2; 7. 2; VIII. 5. 10; 6. 33-9; X. 40. 18; XII. 13. 2; Matsya-purāṇa 69. 1; 249. 15; 250. 26; 251. 35; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 9. 77, 84.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 16.
- 3) Ib. IV. 23. 24.
- 4) Matsya-purāṇa 83. 20, 31.
- 5) Ib. 113. 45; 154. 496, 573; 163. 87; 183. 1.
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 36; 19. 56; Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 19; 42. 14; 45. 90; 49. 51; 101. 288.
- 2) Ib. 30. 33.
- 3) Ib. 35. 16.
1c) A mountain in Bhāratavarṣa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 20; III. 27. 28.
1d) A tīrtha sacred to Kāmacāriṇī.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 13. 28; 184. 18.
1e) Same as Kakudmān.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 122. 61.
1f) A palace of 12 floors; three-fourths of Meru; the toraṇa is 45 hastas.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 269. 28, 32, 47.
1g) A mountain in Malayadvīpa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 48. 23.
1h) A hill on the east of Ilāvṛta.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 2. 18.
2) Mandāra (मन्दार).—A Śiva gaṇa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 41. 27.
The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Mandara (मन्दर) refers to classification of a temple/buidling (prāsāda), according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 63. The temple is mentioned being part of the group named Nāgara, which contains twenty different Prāsādas (temples/buildings). The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.
Mandara is found in another list in the Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra, chapter 60, where it is mentioned in a list of thirty-six Prāsādas (temples) having activities of the townsmen entailing Sādhārās.
Mandara is also listed in the Suprabhedāgama, which describes a list of 13 temple types. This list represents the earliest form of the classification of temples in the South Indian Vāstuśāstra literature.
Mandara is also listed in the Īśānaśivagurudevapaddhati which features a list of 52 temple types. This list represents the classification of temples in South-India.
Mandara is also listed in the Matsyapurāṇa which features a list of 20 temple types. This list represents a classification of temples in Nort-India.
Mandara is also listed in the Agnipurāṇa which features a list of 45 temple types. It is listed under the group named Vairāja, featuring square-shaped temples. This list represents a classification of temples in Nort-India.(Source): Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vāstuśāstra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vastu-shastra) refers to the knowledge of architecture. It is a branch of ancient Indian science dealing with topics such architecture, construction, sculpture and their relation with the cosmic universe.
Kathā (narrative stories)
Mandara (मन्दर).—One of the mountains of Jambūdvīpa.—Mandara has been indemnified by Nandolal Dey, on the authority of many Purāṇas, with a hill situated in the Baṅkā sub-divisim of the district of Bhāgalapur. Kālidāsa, however, places this mountain on the Himālayas and the Mahābhārata, unlike most of the Purāṇas mentioned by Nandolal Dey, does not recognise any other Mandara except the Mandara of the Himalaya range.
In the Mahābhārata, Mandara is placed to the east and perhaps a part of Gandhamādana and on the north of Badarikāśrama. Kālidāsa places it in the vicinity of the Kāilāsa and the Gandhamādana.(Source): Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Kathās (कथा) are special kind of Sanskrit literature: they are a kind of a mix between Itihāsa (historical legends) and Mahākāvya (epic poetry). Some Kathās reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of the historical deeds of the Gods, sages and heroes.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Mandara (मन्दर) is a Sanskrit word referring to a dwelling place or resort of the celestial nymphs (apsaras). They live chiefly on earth around rivers or on mountains, as in the courts of all the gods.(Source): Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Mandara (मंदर): The mountain used as a churning stick in Samudra manthan for churning the ocean using Vasuki nāga as rope by gods on one side and asuras on other side.(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
A mountain in Himava, mentioned together with Meru and Daddara. Ap.ii.536, 86; according to the Abhidhanappadipika (606), it is the western mountain, behind which the sun sets.(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
mandāra : (m.) name of a mountain.(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Vajrayāna (Tibetan Buddhism)
Mandara (मन्दर) is the name of a mountain associated with Gahvara: the northern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.
The Guhyasamayasādhanamālā by Umāptideva is a 12th century ritualistic manual including forty-six Buddhist tantric sādhanas. The term sādhana refers to “rites” for the contemplation of a divinity.(Source): Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
India history and geogprahy
Mandara (मन्दर).—The viṣkambha mountain Mandara occurs in the Nasik eulogy of Gautamīputra Sātakarṇī. who is said to be equal in strength with this mountain along with Himavat and Meru. In the Aphsad Stone inscription of Ādityatena, Mandara is described as a traditional mountain utilized in churning the formidable Milk-ocean. Dr. Sircar enlists this mountain among the western boundaries of Cakravarti-kṣetra, which is mentioned while describing the traditional account ot digvijaya of a certain monarch, in some epigraphic or literary record.(Source): archive.org: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptions
Mandara or Vidruma is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Mandara refers to the “coral-tree” and is mentioned to beo n the bank of river Mandakini. Another name is Vidruma.
Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (eg., Mandara), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Mandara, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).(Source): Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
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Search found 45 books and stories containing Mandara or Mandāra. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.7.63-66 < [Chapter 7 - Jagad-ānanda: The Bliss of the Worlds]
Verse 2.4.45 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha: The Spiritual Kingdom]
Verse 1.3.46 < [Chapter 3 - Prapancatita: Beyond the Material World]
Yoga Vasistha Volume 3, Part II (by Vālmīki)
Chapter CVII - The advent of false Indra in the cottage of the happy pair < [Book VI - Nirvana Khanda (Nirvāṇa Khaṇḍa)]
Chapter CVI - Marriage of Chūdālā with Sikhidhwaja < [Book VI - Nirvana Khanda (Nirvāṇa Khaṇḍa)]
Chapter XVII - Description of Bhusunda's Person < [Book VI - Nirvana Khanda (Nirvāṇa Khaṇḍa)]
Yoga Vasistha Volume 2, Part II (by Vālmīki)
Chapter XXXI - Prahlāda’s Faith in Vishnu < [Book V - Upasama Khanda (Upaśama Khaṇḍa)]
Chapter XXV - Narrative of Dāma, Vyāla and Kata < [Book IV - Sthiti Prakarana (Sthiti Prakaraṇa)]
Chapter VI - Elysium of Bhārgava < [Book IV - Sthiti Prakarana (Sthiti Prakaraṇa)]
The Mahabharata - First Book (by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa)
Section XVIII < [Astika Parva]
Section LXVIII < [Sambhava Parva]
Section XIX < [Astika Parva]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
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