Shiva, Śivā, Sivā, Śiva, Siva, Sīva: 65 definitions


Shiva means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śivā and Śiva can be transliterated into English as Siva or Shiva, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Elements of Hindu Iconograpy

1) Śiva (शिव):—One of the eight names of Rudra, given to him by Brahmā, according to the Pādma-purāṇa. This aspect became the presiding deity over the earth. The corresponding name of the consort is Śivā. His son is called Manojava.

2) Śivā (शिवा):—The consort of Śiva (Śiva is an aspect of Śiva, as in, one of the eight names of Rudra) according to the Pādma-purāṇa.

3) Śiva:—Second of the eleven emanations of Rudra (ekādaśa-rudra), according to the Aṃśumadbhedāgama and the Śilparatna. The images of this aspects of Śiva should have three eyes, four arms, jaṭāmakuṭas and be of white colour. It should be draped also in white clothes and be standing erect (samabhaṅga) on a padmapīṭha. It should be adorned with all ornaments and with garlands composed of all flowers and it should keep their front right hand in the abhaya and the front left hand in the varada poses, while it should carry in the back right hand the paraśu and in the back left hand the mṛga.

4) Śiva:—Of the five faces of this deity (Śiva),

  1. the one facing the east is that of Īśāna,
  2. that facing the south, of Īśvara,
  3. the west, of Brahmā,
  4. the north, of Īśa
  5. and the top of Sadāśiva.

All ceremonials, such as installation (sthāpana), should be done only for the Īśāna face and not for the other faces. The other faces are meant for the meditation of those who have attained perfection in yoga, mantra-siddhi, etc. It is from these five faces the Śaivāgamas were given out to the world.

5) Śiva:—We learn from the Liṅga-purāṇa that Śiva is to the universe what clay and the potter are to the pot, namely the upādāna-kāraṇa (material cause) and the nimitta-kāraṇa (instrumental or generative cause). Such a Being manifests himself in five different forms

  1. He who is the soul of the universe is called Īśāna.
  2. The illusory (māyā) material world is Tatpuruṣa;
  3. Buddhi with its eight components beginning from dharma is Aghora;
  4. Vāmadeva pervades the whole of the universe in the form of ahaṅkara
  5. and the manas-tatva (mind) is Sadyojāta.
Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Trinity

Śiva is the embodiment of Tamas, the centrifugal inertia, the tendency towards disintegration, dispersal, annihilation, non-existence, darkness, the Void. The dispersion is the final outcome of all differentiation, all time and space.

In terms of consciousness Śiva is experienced in the emptiness of dreamless sleep — the state of Suṣupti. Perception of the formless transcendental Reality is achieved only in the state of deep silence, in the emptiness of the mind. (Suṣupti = Śiva).

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Śiva is the name of a deity depicted in the Aruṇācaleśvar or Arunachaleswara Temple in Thiruvannamalai (Tiruvaṇṇāmalai) which is one of the Pañcasabhā or “five halls where Śiva is said to have danced”.—Śiva is found standing with four hands. The upper right hand holds paraśu and the upper left hand holds mṛga in kartarīmukha-hasta. The lower right hand is in kaṭaka and the lower left hand is in varada-hasta. In dance, Śiva is depicted as standing in samapāda-sthānaka with four hands. The upper hands hold kartarīmukha, the lower right hand is in kapittha and the lower left hand is in patāka inverted.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra (shilpa)

Śiva (शिव) iconography within the Mantramārga texts.—The large body of Sanskrit texts associated with the mantramārga present an archetypal Śiva who lives in the cremation ground and bears human skulls. In the Bhairava Tantras, Śiva takes on a terrifying and ecstatic form. He surrounds himself with goddesses, yoginīs, demons, and other supernatural creatures

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (shilpa)

Śivā (शिवा) is the wife of Vāyu, whose iconography is described in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—According to the Śabdakalpadruma, Vāyu is the lord of the north western side of the globe. [...] The image of his wife Śivā is also placed in the left side of the image of Vāyu. According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, the image of Pavana is also made along with the image of Vāyu. The image of Pavana should be made as like Pavana holds the edge of the attire of Vāyu. The Śilparatna does not talk about the wife of Vāyu as well as of Pavana.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

Śivā (शिवा):—One of the sixteen yoginīs representing the sixteen petals of the Dūtīcakra. The sixteen petals comprise the outer furnishment, whereupon the abode of the Dūtīs is situated. The Dūtīs refer to the eighty-one “female messengers/deties” of the Dūtīcakra.

Source: HAL: The alphabet goddess Mātṛkā in some early Śaiva Tantras

Śiva (शिव) represents mantras.—Two verses attribute the power of mantras to Śiva and identify the god with them: “all gods are made of mantras and all mantras are made of Śiva. Knowing this [world] to be made of Śiva, one should always meditate on Śiva. To release [people] from the bonds of Māyā, seventy million mantras, endowed with Śiva’s power, were produced from the imperishable Soul, the Lord.”

Another passage, however, suggests that it is Śiva’s power as a separate entity that ensures the efficacity of mantras: “All the female mantras that are associated with the [supernatural] effects of being infinitely small etc. and depend on the mastery of magic possess the power / a part (kalā) of Śiva. All these [mantras] are parts of Śiva’s power / parts of Śiva and Śakti and have been taught by the Omniscient. They are auspicious and bestow magic effects, liberation, happiness, lordship, money and virility.”

Thus, The Raurava’s description may represent a transition between the idea thatŚiva isthe source of mantras and the concept of Mātṛkā as Śiva’s Śakti.

Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śaivism)

Śiva (शिव).—By reading the Śivapurāṇa we get a clear idea that Śiva has two aspects: formlessness (niṣkala) and embodied form (sakala). Śiva appearing in the middle of a luminous pillar and Śiva carrying a Liṅga on his shoulders are the expressions of Īśatva and brahmatva, the two aspects of one and the same Lord Śiva. In other words, they represent “niṣkala-sakala and sakala-niṣkala” forms. Śiva carrying Liṅga on his shoulder can be said as “Sakala-Niṣkala liṅga”.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Śiva (शिव) is the name of a deity who was imparted with the knowledge of the Makuṭāgama by Sadāśiva through parasambandha, according to the pratisaṃhitā theory of Āgama origin and relationship (sambandha). The makuṭa-āgama, being part of the eighteen Rudrabhedāgamas, refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu.

Śiva in turn transmitted the Makuṭāgama (through mahānsambandha) to Mahādeva who then, through divya-sambandha, transmitted it to the Devas who, through divyādivya-sambandha, transmitted it to the Ṛṣis who finally, through adivya-sambandha, revealed the Makuṭāgama to human beings (Manuṣya). (also see Anantaśambhu’s commentary on the Siddhāntasārāvali of Trilocanaśivācārya)

Śiva was also imparted with the knowledge of the Vātulāgama, which was in turn, through mahānsambandha transmitted to Mahākāla.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (shaivism)

Śiva is conceived in two states. One is the kaḍandanilai and the other is the kalandanilai. Kaḍandanilai is the nirguṇa or svarūpa (absolute) state, which is amorphous, devoid of qualities and distinguishing marks and can be realized only by transcendental experience. Kalandanilai is the saguṇa (integrated state), that is, the existence of primal energy within the various forms and manifestations of reality in the universe with distinguishing names. The devotee meditates on each form according to his/her mental level. This primal energy is called puruṣa or Śiva and the prakṛti or nature is called Śakti. Thus, it is believed that the creation of the universe takes place when Śiva and Śakti unite.

Śiva is manifested in various forms such as Ardhanārīśvar, Naṭarāja, Bhikṣātana, Bhairava, Kālāntaka, Vīrabhadra, Vīṇādhara, Dakṣiṇāmūrti, Candraśekar, Kalyaṇa Sundareśvarand many more. In these forms, the primary substance is Śiva, with various other forms and attributes. The manifestations of Śiva, with their respective characteristics, have their own peculiarity and individuality. Each divinity has a specific attribute of its own. Amongst all his manifestations, the form of Śiva–Naṭarāja is very special in appearance and it connotes high philosophical meanings.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Śiva (शिव) is another name for Deveśa or Amṛteśa, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 9.5-11, while explaining the universality of Amṛteśa]—“[...] Thus, in this way, Deveśa [is found in all] Āgamas. He gives of all Sādhakas the benefits [of worship] from all directions [i.e., no matter what their tradition]. Because of him, splendid gems light up [differently] under different conditions, giving the fruits of all Āgamas in all streams. Thus, he is Śiva, Sadāśiva, Bhairava, Tumburu, Soma, and Sūrya, with his own form arising bearing no form”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Śiva (शिव)—One of the eleven other names of Rudra, according to the Bhāgavata Purāṇa 3.12.12.

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Śivā (शिवा) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (e.g., Śivā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

1) Śivā (शिवा).—A river mentioned in a list of rivers flowing from the five great mountains (Śailavarṇa, Mālākhya, Korajaska, Triparṇa and Nīla), according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 82. Those who drink the waters of these rivers live for ten thousand years and become devotees of Rudra and Umā.

2) Śivā (शिवा).—One of the seven major rivers in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. It is also known by the name Yaśodā. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

One of the five mountains situated near Bhadrāśva, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 82. The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, instructions for religious ceremonies and a whole range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The original text is said to have been composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Śiva (शिव).—(rudra) One of the Trinity. Birth. The seers or spiritual giants of India imagined three forms to God, dividing all the activities into three departments, i.e. creation, sustenance and destruction or annihilation. Brahmā, for creation, Viṣṇu, for sustenance and Śiva, for annihilation-they are the Trinity. Viṣṇu was born first, Brahmā next and Śiva last. The essence of Indian spiritualistic thought is that these three visible forms of God will, at the close of the Kalpa cease to be and become one with the cosmic power, and that the trinity will be born again at the commencement of the Kalpa and will take up their respective functions. (See full article at Story of Śiva from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Śivā (शिवा).—Wife of Aṅgiras. Consumed by lust she once slept with Agnideva and then flew away in the form of a she-kite. (Vana Parva, Chapter 225).

3) Śivā (शिवा).—Wife of the Vasu called Anila and mother of two sons called Manojava and Avijñātagati. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 25).

4) Śivā (शिवा).—The very noble wife of Aṅgiras. (Vana Parva, Chapter 225 Verse 1)

5) Śivā (शिवा).—A river in India made famous in the Purāṇas. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 9, Verse 25).

6) Śiva (शिव).—One of the seven sectors of Plakṣa island. Śivam Yavasam, Subhadram, Śāntam, Mokṣam, Amṛtam and Abhayam are the seven sectors. (Bhāgavata, 5th Skandha.

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Śiva (शिव) refers to a deity that was once worshipped in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Praised highly in the latter one-third of the Nīlamata, Śiva occupies a position second to that of Viṣṇu in the earlier two-thirds of the work. The Nīlamata refers to Śiva as a member of the triad of deities and describes his three forms creating, protecting and destroying the world.

The names given to Śiva according to the Nīlamata: Rudra, Śarva, Mahādeva, Bhava, Hara, Īśvara, Maheśvara, Śambhu, Śaṅkara, Śiva, Virūpākṣa, Bhīma, Bhuśuṇḍa, Kratha, Krathana, Śīghra, Mahāhaṃsa, Samudra and Mahānadīśvara.

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Śiva (शिव) refers to one of the eight names of Śiva (śivanāma) and is mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.20 while explaining the mode of worshipping an earthen phallic image (pārthiva-liṅga) according to the Vedic rites:—“[...] the eight names of Śiva viz:—Hara, Maheśvara, Śambhu, Śūlapāṇi, Pinākadhṛk, Śiva, Paśupati and Mahādeva shall be used respectively for the rites of bringing the clay, kneading, installation, invocation, ceremonial ablution, worship, craving the forbearance and ritualistic farewell. Each of the names shall be prefixed with Oṃkāra. The name shall be used in the dative case and Namaḥ shall be added to them. The rites shall be performed respectively with great devotion and joy. [...]”.

2) Śivā (शिवा) is the Goddess-counterpart of Śiva who incarnated as Satī and then Pārvatī, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.16:—“[...] the goddess of speech is of Rājasic nature; Satī is of the Sāttvika nature and Lakṣmī is of Tamasic nature; the great goddess Śivā is of the three natures. Śivā became Satī and Śiva married her. At the sacrifice of her father she cast off her body which she did not take again and went back to her own region. Śivā incarnated as Pārvatī at the request of the Devas. It was after performing a severe penance that she could attain Śiva again”.

Śivā came to be called by various names such as Kālī, Caṇḍikā, Cāmuṇḍā, Vijayā, Jayā, Jayantī, Bhadrakālī, Durgā, Bhagavatī, Kāmākhyā, Kāmadā, Ambā, Mṛḍānī and Sarvamaṅgalā. These various names confer worldly pleasures and salvation according to qualities and action. The name Pārvatī is very common.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śiva (शिव).—(also Giritra): several names of the god are mentioned: master of all Gaṇas and Bhūtas, and a god of wrath, worshipped for learning;1 Parīkṣit compared to him for liberality in granting boons: awarded his own missile to Arjuna: a great Yogin. Resident of Kailāsa; worships Sankaṛṣaṇa in Ilāvṛta.2 Met by Pracatas and venerated by Kṛṣṇa; knew Vāsudeva's glory and the dharma ordained by Hari;3 pleased with Bāṇa, guarded his city, and fought with Kṛṣṇa. Insulted by Dakṣa and Bhṛgu in the sacrifice of Prajāpatis: warned Satī against attending Dakṣa's sacrifice where he was deprived of his share. Heard from Nārada of Satī's sacrifice and grew angry, out sprang Vīrabhadra to ruin the sacrifice; cut off Dakṣa's head; waited on by Brahmā and consoled, agreed to attend and praised Viṣṇu, and felt obliged to him.4 Appeared before the Pracetasas and initiated them into the Rudragītā in glory of Hari and left them;5 praised Aditi and Vāmana's exploits and was present when he was anointed Upendra;6 praised Nṛsimha, and prayed to, by Prahlāda. His discomfiture at Maya who built three cities for the safety of the Asuras. Them he killed. But Maya brought back all of them to life by the immortalised waters which he discovered in a well. Śiva was worried when Brahmā and Hari drank the whole of the liquid. Induced by them he attacked Tripura with success.7

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 12. 12; IV. 29. 42; VIII. 5. 39; II. 2. 7; IV. 2. 32; 3. 7.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 12. 23; 15. 12; 18. 14; V. 17. 16-24.
  • 3) Ib. IV. 24. 16; X. 44. 13; I. 9. 19; VI. 3. 20.
  • 4) Ib. VI. 18. 18; IV. Chh. 2-7 (whole); 21. 29; IX. 10. 10.
  • 5) Ib. IV. 24. 25-68; 25. 1; 29. 42.
  • 6) Ib. VIII. 23. 20-27.
  • 7) Ib. VII. 8. 41; 10. 32, 51-68.

1b) One of the seven divisions of Plakṣa with mountains and rivers.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 20. 3.

1c) A son of Medhātithi and founder of the Kingdom of Śiva in Plakṣadvīpa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 37-9; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 33; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 4 and 5.

1d) A lake near Vyāsasaras.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 13. 52.

1e) A sage of the Auttama epoch.

1f) The name of a gaṇa attributed to Viśravas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 28.

1g) A Mahāpurāṇa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 6. 21.

1h) A group of 12 gods of the epoch of Uttama Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 27, 33.

1i) The region adjoining the Somaka hill in Plakṣa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 39; 19. 16; Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 14.

2a) Śivā (शिवा).—A wife of Īśāna, the son of Manojava.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 10. 78; Vāyu-purāṇa 27. 52.

2b) A river in Kuśadvīpa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 61; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 43.

2c) A daughter of Hari and (Khaśā, Vāyu-purāṇa) the wife of Anila: (Anala, Matsya-purāṇa) a Vasu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 26. Matsya-purāṇa 5. 25; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 25; 69. 170.

2d) A daughter of Khaśa and a Rākṣasī; of Śaiveya clan.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 138.

2e) A Śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 75.

2f) A mind-born mother.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 10.

2g) A consort of Vāyu.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 8. 8; 15. 114.

2h) Disturbed Dhruva's penance.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 12. 26.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Śiva (शिव) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. XIV.8.13, XIV.8, XIV.8.28, XIV.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Śiva) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Śivā also refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.24).

Śivā also refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.24).

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

1) Śiva (शिव) refers to the “highest truth”, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, In the second chapter the Sun declares Śiva as the highest truth, established in the Śruti. All the words are uttered by him. He is the soul of all beings. Though one he appears to be many by his sport (lilayā). He sports with his consort Pārvatī (Gaurī). In the first creation (ādisarga) he created Brahman from his right limb and gave the latter all the Vedas and Purāṇas. He then created Vāsudeva (Viṣṇu) for the preservation and Kāla-Rudra for destruction. From him the world proceeded and in him it would merge.

Śiva exists firstly as the unmanifested infinite, unknowable and ultimate director, according to the Saurapurāṇa while discussing the topic of sarga (creation or evolution of the Universe).—But He is also called the unmanifested, eternal, cosmic cause which is both being and nonbeing and is indentified with Prakṛti. In this aspect. He is regarded as Para-Brahman, the equilibrium of the three guṇas.

2) Śiva (शिव) refers to one of the many sons of Cākṣuṣamanu and grandson of Puṣkarinī and Cakṣuṣa, according to the Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the Saurapurāṇa.—Accordingly, [...] Bṛhatī the wife of Ripu gave birth to Cakṣuṣa. Puṣkariṇī gave birth to Cākṣuṣamanu, the son of Cakṣuṣa. In his race there were born Aṅga, Kradu, Śiva and many others.

3) Śiva (शिव) refers to one of the twelve groups of Gods in the Uttama-Manvantara: one of the fourteen Manvantaras.—Accordingly, “In the Uttama Manvantara the Sudhāmās are the Gods having twelve groups like Pratardana, Śiva, Satya, Vaśavarti etc. Sudānti was the Indra. Raja, Gotra, Ardhabāhu, Savana, Anagha, Sutapā and Śukra are the Seven sages.

4) Śiva (शिव) is the deity to be worshipped in the month Vaiśākha for the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-Vrata, according to the Saurapurāṇa.—Accordingly, the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-vrata is observed in honour of Śiva for acquiring virtue, great fortune, wealth and for destruction of sins [...] This vrata is to be performed for a year from Mārgaśīra.—In Vaiśākha, food is kuśodaka, deity is Śiva and the result is that of naramedha sacrifice.

5) Śiva (शिव) refers to one of the names for the “sun” [viz., Sūrya], according to the eulogy of the Sun by Manu in the Saurapurāṇa.—Accordingly, the Saurapurāṇa which is purely a Śaivite work, though it purports to be revealed by the Sun, contains some references to practices of Saura Sects, and here and there it identifies Śiva with the Sun. From the eulogy of the Sun by Manu it appears that the sun is the Supreme deity. He is [viz., Śiva] [...] In another passage Manu while eulogizing the Sun god expresses that the Sun is another form of Lord Śiva. [...]

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of shiva or siva in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

1) Śivā (शिवा, “Auspicious”):—One of the female offspring from Mahāsarasvatī (sattva-form of Mahādevī). Mahāsarasvatī is one of the three primary forms of Devī, the other two being Mahālakṣmī and Mahākālī. Not to be confused with Sarasvatī, she is a more powerful cosmic aspect (vyaṣṭi) of Devi and represents the guṇa (universal energy) named sattva. Also see the Devī Māhātmya, a Sanskrit work from the 5th century, incorporated into the Mārkaṇḍeya-Purāṇa.

2) Śivā (शिवा, “prosperous”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.

Her mantra is as follows:

ॐ शिवायै नमः
oṃ śivāyai namaḥ.

A similar mantra is mentioned by the same text, prefixed with ह्रीं (hrīṃ), to be worshipped at the goddess’s right.

3) Śivā (उमा, “auspicious”).—One of the names of the Goddess, Devī, who is regarded as the female principle of the divine; the embodiement of the energies of the Gods.

Source: Google Books: Lalita Sahasranama

Śivā (शिवा) means the energy of Śiva personified as His consort.

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Śivā (शिवा) is an epithet for the Goddess according to the Bhairavīstotra in the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “Victory! Victory (to you) O goddess (bhagavatī)! [...] Dweller in cremation grounds! You who delight in the play of dance! Experienced in wonderfully diverse behaviour! Mahālakṣmī! Subtle one! Śivā! Victory to you who have merged the entire universe into a single vibrant state of oneness filling (thereby every) discontinuity! [...]”.

2) Śiva (शिव) refers to one of the eight sacred fields (kṣetra), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra.—Accordingly, “The man of knowledge should mark the sacred fields located in the towns. [...] Obstacles (vighna), Siddhas and Yoginīs that have penetrated the wind enter the adept having identified (his) weak spot, and lay hold of the best (within him) for no reason. (The adept) abides in (each) place in the (eight) sacred fields, (namely) Gaṇikā, Śiras, Kālī, Kāla, Ālaya, Śiva, Kāliñjara, and Mahākāla”.

3) Śivā (शिवा) refers to one of the eight Kaula consorts (dūtī-aṣṭaka) associated with Oṃkārapīṭha (also called Oḍḍiyāna, Ādipīṭha or Uḍapīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight Kaula consorts (dūtī-aṣṭaka): Śivā, Ahutyagnidūtī, Koṭarākṣī, Kapālinī, Muktakeśī, Devadūtī, Tīkṣṇadaṃṣṭrā, Bhayaṃkarī.

Source: Red Zambala: The 10 Great Wisdom Goddesses

As absolute eternal time, Śiva is transcendent. He is the “Beyond the beyond” (parat paraḥ) of the Upanishads. The term Śiva can be derived from the root Sin, which means “to sleep.” Hence Śiva is described as he in whom “all goes to sleep,” “he who puts all things to sleep,” etc. His power is represented by the eternal night in which all goes to sleep.

Source: DSpace at Pondicherry: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu (shaktism)

Śiva (शिव).—According to the Śaradātilaka, Śiva is both nirguṇa and saguṇa, the two aspects being conceived in terms of difference from and identitical with Prakṛti. When Śiva is identical with Śakti or Prakṛti, he is saguṇa. From Śakti or Prakṛti evolves nāda (apara) and from this nāda arises bindu. The latter is subdivided into bindu (apara), bīja and nāda (para). The first is again identified with Śiva, the second with Śakti and third with both in identical relation.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

1) Śiva (शिव) was visited by Sūryaprabha after he ascended through the mountain Kailāsa in order to invite Śiva and Ambikā for his coronation, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 50. Accordingly: “... then, in one part of it [Svarga], Sūryaprabha beheld with joy the great god Śiva, seated on a throne of crystal, three-eyed, trident in hand, in hue like unto pure crystal, with yellow matted locks, with a lovely half-moon for crest, adored by the holy daughter of the mountain, who was seated at his side. And he advanced, and fell at the feet of him and the goddess Durgā. Then the adorable Hara placed his hand on his back, and made him rise up, and sit down, and asked him why he had come”.

2) Śiva (शिव) is the name of a theif, who, together with Mādhava, came from the city Ratnapura and used to rob the rich men by means of trickery, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 24. Their story was told by princess Kanakarekhā to her father Paropakārin in order to demonstrate that “all kinds of deceptions are practised on the earth by rogues”.

3) Śivā (शिवा) is one of the epithets of Durgā, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 53. Accordingly, as Vīravara praised Durgā: “... thou art the principle of life in creatures; by thee this world moves. In the beginning of creation Śiva beheld thee self-produced, blazing and illuminating the world with brightness hard to behold, like ten million orbs of fiery suddenly produced infant suns rising at once, filling the whole horizon with the circle of thy arms, bearing a sword, a club, a bow, arrows and a spear. And thou wast praised by that god Śiva in the following words ... [Śivā, etc...]”.

Also, “... when Skanda, and Vasiṣṭha, and Brahmā, and the others heard thee praised, under these [eg., Śivā] and other titles, by Śiva well skilled in praising, they also praised thee. And by praising thee, O adorable one, immortals, Ṛṣis and men obtained, and do now obtain, boons above their desire. ”

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Śiva, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha

Śiva (शिव).—Śiva along with Brahmā and Viṣṇu make up the Hindu Triad. He is the most favourite deity of Soḍḍhala whom he invokes in the Beginning of his work, “Victorious is the three-eyed god, who is the primal cause and the pillar of the great house called the universe charming with three worlds (also three storeys) and in whose body shines forth the Goddess, the daughter of the king of mountains (Pārvatī) as a decorative image”.

The names and attributes that are assigned to him bring out well his powerful character. They are Trinetra, Aṣṭamūrti, Bhava, Umeśa, Mahādeva, Śiva, Ambikānātha, Dhurjati, Purajit, Candraketu, Śambhu, Ardhenduśekhara, Maheśvara, Śaṅkara, Caṇḍiśa, Andhakāri, Andhakavipāṭaka, Hāṭakeśvara, Somanātha, Candravibhūṣaṇa and Pinākin.

Several temples were dedicated to Śiva. Kālidasa refers to a Jyotirliṅga called Mahākāla at Ujjayinī, and of Viśveśvara or Viśvanātha at Banares.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Śivā (शिवा) refers to “jackals”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 224-228).—Accordingly, “[Then he notices the dvārapāla (guardian of the gate), about which it is said that] [Caṇḍikā] had protected her entrance with an iron buffalo installed in front, which, because of the fact that it had been marked by palms [dyed with] red-sandalwood, seemed to have been stamped by Yama’s hand-prints red with blood, the red eyes of which were being licked by jackals (śivā) greedy for drops of blood”.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Śiva (शिव) is the name of a ancient authority on the science of Sanskrit metrics (chandaśāstra) mentioned by Yādavaprakāśa (commentator on Chandaśśāstra of Piṅgala).—Śiva is the originator of chanda school of Sanskrit, mentioned by Yādavaprakāśa as Bhava.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Śivā (शिवा) is another name for Rudrajaṭā, a medicinal plant identified with Aristolochia indica (Indian birthwort or duck flower) from the Aristolochiaceae or “birthwort family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.79-81 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Śivā and Rudrajaṭā, there are a total of sixteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Nirukta (Sanskrit etymology)

Source: Shiva Purana (nirukta)

Śiva (शिव) signifies him who controls everything and whom none can control, (Śiva Vaśī) just as Siṃha signifies the creature who attacks other animals and whom other animals cannot attack (Siṃha= Hiṃsa). The word Śiva is given another interpretation. The syllable Ś means Permanent Bliss. The letter “I” means Puruṣa (the primordial male energy), the syllable “Va” means Śakti (the primordial female energy). A harmonious compound of these syllables is Śiva. The devotee shall likewise make his own soul a harmonious whole and worship Śiva.

context information

Nirukta (निरुक्त) or “etymology” refers to the linguistic analysis of the Sanskrit language. This branch studies the interpretation of common and ancient words and explains them in their proper context. Nirukta is one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Śiva (शिव) refers to “(1) Auspicious (2) The destroyer of the material creation and the presiding deity of the mode of ignorance”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Śiva (शिव) refers to:—An expansion of the Lord in a category of His own: Śiva-tattva, which is that neither of God nor jīva; one of the three guṇa-avatāras, in charge of the mode of ignorance; both the material creation and destruction are enacted through him. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Siva Gita A Critical Study

Śiva (शिव) or Śivagītā refers to one of the sixty-four Gītās commonly referred to in Hindu scriptures.—Gītā is the name given to certain sacred writings in verse (often in the form of a dialogue) which are devoted to the exposition of particular religious and theosophical doctrines. Most of these Gītās [i.e., Śiva-gītā] originate from the Mahābhārata or the various Purāṇas.

Vedanta book cover
context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Śiva (शिव) refers to “prosperity”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the two horns of the moon should appear but slightly raised and far from each other presenting the appearance of a boat, she brings trouble on the sailors but prosperity [i.e., śiva] on mankind at large. If the northern horn of the moon should be higher than the other by one-half, the moon appearing like a plough, ploughmen will then suffer. They and their prince will be friendly and there will be prosperity in the land. If the southern horn should be higher than the other by one half, the appearance of the moon is also said to be plough like but of evil consequences. The ruler of Southern India will die and his army will engage in war”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: A History of Indian Philosophy

According to the Vatula-tantra, Śiva may be distinguished in ten ways:

  1. tattva-bheda,
  2. varṇa-bheda,
  3. cakra-bheda,
  4. varga-bheda,
  5. mantra-bheda,
  6. praṇava,
  7. brahma-bheda,
  8. aṅga-bheda,
  9. mantra-jāta,
  10. kīla.

Śiva is called niṣkala when all His kalās, that is parts or organs or functions, are concentrated in a unity within Him. Śiva through His energy can know and do all things. Śiva creates all things by His simple saṃkalpa and this creation is called the śuddhādhva.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Shiva is the destructive aspect of the supreme Trinity. His consort is Parvati. His sons are Skanda, the commander of the army of Devas, and Ganapati, who is also known as Vinayaka.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Siva. The name of a god (Cv.xciii. 9, 10). A devaputta, named Siva, is mentioned in the Samyutta (S.i.56) as visiting the Buddha and speaking several verses on the benefit of consorting only with the good. It is interesting that Buddhaghosa makes no particular comment on the name in this context. In the Samantapasadika, however, he refers to the worship of the Sivalinga. Sp.iii.626; cf. UdA.351, where mention is made of Khandadeva Sivadi paricaranam.

2. Siva. See Sivi.

3. Siva. A palace guard, paramour of Anula. He reigned for fourteen months, at the end of which time he was killed in favour of Vatuka. Mhv.xxxiv.18.

4. Siva. One of the eleven children of Panduvasudeva and Kaccana. Dpv.x.3.

5. Siva. One of the ten sons of Mutasiva (Dpv.xi.7; xvii.76). He reigned for ten years and established the Nagarangana vihara. Dpv.xviii.45.

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1. Siva Thera. A monk of Ceylon, an eminent teacher of the Vinaya. Vin.v.3.

2. Siva. See Mahasiva, Culasiva, Tanasiva, Bhayasiva, etc.

3. Siva. King of Ceylon (522 A.C.). He was the maternal uncle of Kumaradhatusena, whom he killed in order to seize the throne. He reigned only twenty five days, and was killed by Upatisssa. Cv.xli.1-5.

4. Siva - A village near Giritimbilatissa pabbata. Ras.ii.42.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Śivā (शिवा) is mentioned as the wife of king Candrapradyota in the Śivājātaka, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter L.—Accordingly, “thus Che-p’o (Śivā), for an offering to Kia-tchan-yen (Kātyāyana), obtained in the present existence a fruit of retribution: she is the main wife of king Tchan-t’o-tccheou-t’o (Candrapradyota)”.

Notes: For having made a gift to the great disciple Mahākātyāyana, then chaplain to Caṇḍapradyota, king of Avanti, Śiva, otherwise unknown, became the king’s wife.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Śivā (शिवा) refers to “Jackals”, according to the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, [while describing the Merit Circle (guṇacakra)]: “[...] The charnel grounds on the Innate Layer (sahajacakra) are explained here—[...] The charnel grounds are terrifying in appearance with howlings of Vetālas, Bhūtas, and jackals (śivā). The eight charnel grounds should be placed in this order. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Śiva (शिव) is the father of Puruṣasiṃha: the fifth Vāsudeva (“violent heroes”) according to both Śvetāmbara and Digambara sources. Since they enjoy half the power of a Cakravartin (universal monarch) they are also known as Ardhacakrins. Jain legends describe nine such Vāsudevas usually appearing together with their “gentler” twins known as the Baladevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).

The stories of king Śiva, queen Ammayā and their son, Puruṣasiṃha are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Śiva (शिव) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Śiva] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1a) Śiva (शिव) is the father of Puruṣasiṃha: one of the nine black Vāsudevas, according to chapter 1.6 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly: “[...] There will be nine black Vāsudevas, enjoyers of three parts of the earth, with half so much power as the Cakrins. [...] In Aśvapura, Puruṣasiṃha will live in the time of Dharmanātha, forty-five bows tall, son of Śiva and Rājāmṛtā. After completing a life of ten lacs of years, he will go to the sixth hell”.

1b)  Śiva (शिव) is the name of an ancient king from Aśvapura and father of Sudarśana and Puruṣasiṃha, according to chapter 4.5 [dharmanātha-caritra].—Accordingly:—“Now in the city Aśvapura in this same Bharata, there was a king named Śiva, the sole abode of happiness. He had two wives, Vijayā and Ammakā, extremely dear, like Fame and Fortune embodied. Puruṣavṛṣabha’s soul fell from Sahasrāra and entered Vijayā’s womb, with the birth of a Bala indicated by four dreams. [...]”.

2) Śivā (शिवा) refers to one of the 32 mountains between the lotus-lakes situated near the four Añjana mountains, which are situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3.—Accordingly, “In the four directions from each of the Añjana Mountains there are lotus-lakes, 100,000 yojanas square: [...]. Between each two lotus-lakes there are 2 Ratikara Mountains so there are 32 Ratikara Mountains (e.g., Śivā). [...]”.

Source: JAINpedia: Women in the Jain tradition: Soḷ satī

Śivā (शिवा) refers to one of the 16 Satīs mentioned in the Brāhmī Candanbālikā.—In Jain contexts “Satī” revolves around fidelity to the Jain religion. Although Jains call many virtuous Jain women satīs, among Śvetāmbara Jains there is a group of satīs called the soḷ satī or 16 Satīs (i.e., Śivā). These Jain Satīs are revered as role models for women and their stories are widely known. Even though the general group of Satī grows over time, the group of 16 Satīs is unchanging.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Śiva (शिव) refers to “liberation”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “There is nothing like the doctrine which is productive of all prosperity, the root of the tree of bliss, beneficial, venerable and grants liberation (śiva-prada). Snakes, fire, poison, tigers, elephants, lions, demons and kings, etc. do not hurt those whose selves are settled in the doctrine”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Social Life In Medieval Rajasthan

Śiva (शिव).—Of all the deities Śiva was considered to be the highest as it is evident from several inscriptions. Early concepts of the god were Ekalinga, Śiva, Girisutāpati as recorded in the Nāth Inscription of V.S.1028 (971 A.D.). The Chirvā Inscription of V.S. 1331 (1274 A.D.) opens with a eulogy of the god Yogarājeśvara. In the Rasiyā-ki-Chhatri Inscription of V.S. 1331 (1274 A.D.) the poet invokes the blessing of Śiva by addressing him as Samidheśvara and Candra-cūda. In the opening verses of the Acaleśvara Inscription V. S. 1342 (1285 A.D.), obeisance is first made to Śiva and he is addressed as Deva, Prabhu, Acaleśvara, Bhavanipati, and Ekalinga. Homage is paid to him in other mediaeval inscriptions naming him as Pinākin, Śambhu and Svayambhū.

Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras

Temples of Śivaconstructed by the Śilāhāra dynasty (r. 765-1215 A.D.).—In the Śiva-temples the object of worship is the Śiva-liṅga, but images of the god are affixed to their walls, the principal one being in the niche on the hind wall of the garbha-gṛha. In the temple at Ambarnāth this image of Śiva is three-faced. Besides this, other forms of Śiva such as the Ardhanārīśvara and the Kalyāṇasundara are noticed in the Ambarnath temple.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Śiva.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘eleven’. (SITI), title applied to a Śaiva devotee; often śiva, śambhu etc., are used as the ending of the names of Śaiva ascetics. Note: śiva is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Śiva.—cf. śrīvijaya-śiva-Mṛgeśavarman; used as an honorific. Cf. śrī, vijaya, vijayaśiva. Note: śiva is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Siva in India is the name of a plant defined with Hymenodictyon orixense in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Benteca rheedei Roem. & Schult. (among others).

2) Siva is also identified with Prosopis cineraria It has the synonym Adenanthera aculeata Roxb. (etc.).

3) Siva is also identified with Terminalia chebula It has the synonym Myrobalanus chebula Gaertn. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Plant Systematics and Evolution (1996)
· Observationes Botanicae (1789)
· Taxon (1982)
· Hortus Bengalensis, or ‘a Catalogue of the Plants Growing in the Hounourable East India Company's Botanical Garden at Calcutta’ (1814)
· Proceedings, Indian Academy of Sciences. Section B, Biological Sciences (1981)
· Taxon (1979)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Siva, for example side effects, chemical composition, diet and recipes, health benefits, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

siva : (adj.) sheltering; safe. (m.), the God Siva. (nt.), a safe place; the Nirvāna.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sivā, (f.) (Sk. śivā) a jackal DA. I, 93. (Page 711)

— or —

Siva, (adj. -n.) (Vedic śiva) auspicious, happy, fortunate, blest S. I, 181; J. I, 5; II, 126; Miln. 248; Pv IV. 33; Vv 187.—2. a worshipper of the god Siva Miln. 191; the same as Sivi J. III, 468.—3. nt. happiness, bliss Sn. 115, 478; S. IV, 370.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śiva (शिव).—m (S) The deity Shiva, the third of the Hindu triad. He is represented as irascible, vindictive, and altogether terrible. He is the particular god of the Tantrikas or followers of the books called tantra. The adoration of which he is the object is of a more gloomy nature than that of the others; and it is more popular or more extensively prevalent. His office is that of destruction. He is usually drawn with a third eye and in the middle of his forehead, with a crescent on his forehead, the Ganges flowing from his head, a necklace of human skulls, and a blue throat occasioned by his drinking the poison produced at the churning of the ocean. 2 Shiva, as distinguished from jīva (Jiva), and viewed as the pure soul or divine emanation, the vivifying, actuating, and sustaining principle in animated beings. 3 The twentieth of the twenty-seven astronomical Yogas. 4 S Final emancipation from separate existence. 5 Generally with repetition. Used as an interjection of disgust or disapprobation. śiva śiva karaṇēṃ Uttered as an interjection of disgust or abhorrence. v kara, mhaṇa. Also śivā śivā. śivāvaracā bēla ucalaṇēṃ-kāḍhaṇēṃ-ghēṇēṃ To take the Belleaf from off the image of Shiva. A form of swearing. See under śapatha. śivāvaracā bēla cukēla parantu hēṃ cukaṇāra nāhīṃ A phrase implying that a particular observance, rite, privilege, practice &c. will never fail or cease.

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śiva (शिव).—m The name of a small fish of the creeks.

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śīva (शीव) [or शींव, śīṃva].—f (sīmā S) A boundary, border, limit. śiṃvāṇīṃ ubhā na karaṇēṃ or na rāhūṃ dēṇēṃ Not to suffer to stand in the presence of; to hold at a distance. śiṃvāṇa as nominative is obsolete.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śiva (शिव).—m The deity śiva. Final emancipa- tion from separate existence. śivaśiva An interj of disgust. śivāvaracā bēla ucalaṇēṃ-kāḍhaṇēṃ-ghēṇēṃ A form of swearing.

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śīva (शीव).—f A boundary, limit.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śiva (शिव).—a. [śyati pāpaṃ śo-van pṛṣo°]

1) Auspicious, propitious, lucky; इयं शिवाया नियतेरिवायतिः (iyaṃ śivāyā niyaterivāyatiḥ) Kirātārjunīya 4.21;1.38; R.11.33.

2) In good health or condition, happy, prosperous, fortunate; तीर्थेन मूर्ध्न्यधिकृतेन शिवः शिवोऽभूत् (tīrthena mūrdhnyadhikṛtena śivaḥ śivo'bhūt) Bhāg. 3.28.22; शिवानि वस्तीर्थजलानि कच्चित् (śivāni vastīrthajalāni kaccit) R.5.8. (= anupaplavāni, 'undisturbed'); शिवास्ते पन्थानः सन्तु (śivāste panthānaḥ santu) 'a happy journey to you', 'God bless (or speed) you on your journey'.

-vaḥ 1 Name of the third god of the sacred Hindu Trinity, who is entrusted with the work of destruction, as Brahman and Viṣṇu are with the creation and preservation, of the world; एको देवः केशवो वा शिवो वा (eko devaḥ keśavo vā śivo vā) Bhartṛhari 2.115.

2) The male organ of generation, penis.

3) An auspicious planetary conjunction.

4) The Veda; अट्टशूलाः जनपदाः शिवशूलाश्चतुष्पथाः (aṭṭaśūlāḥ janapadāḥ śivaśūlāścatuṣpathāḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.188.42.

5) Final beatitude.

6) A post to which cattle are tied.

7) A god, deity.

8) Quick-silver.

9) Bdellium.

1) The black variety of thorn-apple.

11) Rum, spirit.

12) Buttermilk.

13) A ruby.

14) Time (kāla).

-vau (m. dual) Śiva and Pārvatī; कथयति शिवयोः शरीरयोगं विषमपदा पदवी विवर्तनेषु (kathayati śivayoḥ śarīrayogaṃ viṣamapadā padavī vivartaneṣu) Kirātārjunīya 5.4.

-vam 1 Prosperity, welfare, well-being, happiness; तं धर्मेऽग्निषु पुत्रेषु शिवं पृष्ट्वा (taṃ dharme'gniṣu putreṣu śivaṃ pṛṣṭvā) Rām.7.33.13; तव वर्त्मनि वर्ततां शिवम् (tava vartmani vartatāṃ śivam) N.2.62; Ratnāvalī 1.2; R.1.6.

2) Bliss, auspiciousness.

3) Final beatitude.

4) Water.

5) Seasalt.

6) Rock-salt.

7) Refined borax.

8) Iron.

9) Myrobalan.

1) Sandal.

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Śivā (शिवा).—

1) Name of Pārvatī.

2) A jackal (in general); जहासि निद्रामशिवैः शिवारुतैः (jahāsi nidrāmaśivaiḥ śivārutaiḥ) Kirātārjunīya 1.38; हरेरद्य द्वारे शिव शिव शिवानां कलकलः (hareradya dvāre śiva śiva śivānāṃ kalakalaḥ) Bv.1.32; R.7.5;11.61;12.39.

3) A fortunate woman.

4) Final beatitude.

5) The Śamī tree.

6) The yellow myrobalan.

7) Dūrvā grass.

8) A kind of yellow pigment.

9) Turmeric.

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Siva (सिव).—A sewer, sticher.

Derivable forms: sivaḥ (सिवः).

See also (synonyms): sivaka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śiva (शिव).—mfn.

(-vaḥ-vā-vaṃ) Prosperous, happy. m.

(-vaḥ) 1. The deity Siva, the most formidable of the Hindu triad, the destroyer of creation: the adoration of which he is the object, is of a more gloomy nature in general than that of the rest, and he is the particular god of the Tantrikas or followers of the books called Tantras. 2. Final emancipation from existence, enternal happiness. 3. A pillar or post to which cattle are tied. 4. An auspicious planetary conjunction. 5. Scripture, the Vedas. 6. A drug, commonly Elabaluka. 7. A perfume, Pundariya. 8. Bdellium. 9. One of the astronomical periods termed Yogas. 10. Quicksilver. 11. The penis. 12. The phallic emblem of Siva. 13. A god. n.

(-vaṃ) 1. Happiness, pleasure. 2. Auspiciousness, well being. 3. Water. 4. Sea or fossile salt. 5. Borax. 6. Rock-salt. f.

(-vā) 1. The goddess Durga, the wife of Siva. 2. The Sami tree, (Mimosa suma, Rox.) 3. Yellow myrobalan, (Terminalia chebula.) 4. Emblic myrobalan. 5. A jackal. 6. The mother of the twenty-second Jina. 7. Final emancipation. 8. A kind of yellow pigment. 9. The Durba-grass. E. śī to sleep Unadi aff. van, on or in whom or which, the universe reposes.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śiva (शिव).— (probably akin to śavas), I. adj. 1. Prosperous, [Hitopadeśa] 68, 17; auspicious, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 6, 12; happy. 2. Right, [Nala] 20, 17. 3. 17. 3. Comparat. śivatara, Very complacent, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 145, 2. Ii. m. 1. Śiva, a deity of the Hindu triad, [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 21; dual, Śiva and his wife, ib. 5, 40. 2. The phallic emblem of Śiva. 3. An auspicious planetary conjunction. 4. The Vedas. 5. One of the astronomical periods termed Yogas. 6. A pillar to which cattle are tied. 7. A sort of perfume. Iii. f. . 1. Durgā, the wife of Śiva. 2. The female jackal, [Sāvitryupākhyāna] 5, 75. 3. The name of several plants. Iv. n. 1. Happiness, [Arjunasamāgama] 5, 19; bliss, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 160, 14. 2. Wellbeing, [Pañcatantra] 16, 5. 3. Final emancipation from separate existence. 4. Water. 5. Sea or fossile salt.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śiva (शिव).—[adjective] kind, friendly, mild, gracious, lovely, auspicious, fortunate. [masculine] [Name] of a god (at first euphemistically = Rudra), jackal (mostly [feminine] ā); [dual] Śiva and his wife. [feminine] śivā Śiva’s energy, personif. as his wife. [neuter] ([masculine]) luck, happiness, bliss; śivam, śivena & śivebhis [adverb]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Śiva (शिव) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a Chattrapati king, was patron of Dinakara (Dinakaroddyota). Hall. p. 181.

2) Śiva (शिव):—son of Kalyāṇa, guru of Jayaratha (Tantrālokaviveka). L. 1755.

3) Śiva (शिव):—Nāḍīvijñānīya med.

4) Śiva (शिव):—Praśnavinoda jy.

5) Śiva (शिव):—Muktāvalīpaddhati jy. Meghamālā. Saṃketakaumudī.

6) Śiva (शिव):—Vivekacandrodaya nāṭikā.

7) Śiva (शिव):—son of Kṛṣṇa, grandson of Divākara: Muhūrtacūḍāmaṇi.

8) Śiva (शिव):—son of Caturdhara: Ṣaṇnavatiśrāddhanirṇaya.

9) Śiva (शिव):—son of Nāgeśa Daivajña: Saṃkrāntiprakaraṇa jy.

10) Śiva (शिव):—son of Rāma, wrote in 1594: Janmacintāmaṇi jy.

11) Śiva (शिव):—son of Viśrāma: Subodhinī Gobhilagṛhyasūtrapaddhati.

12) Śiva (शिव):—father of Śaṅkara Daivajña (Gotrapravaramañjarīsāroddhāra).

13) Śiva (शिव):—son of Govinda Sūri:
—[commentary] to Viṣṇu’s Mahimnaḥstotra.

14) Śiva (शिव):—son of Ḍhuṇḍhi, younger brother of Divākara, from Gūrjara, composed in 1479: Muktāvalīpaddhati or Jātakamuktāvalīpaddhati. I, p. 647^a delete Meghamālā.

15) Śiva (शिव):—son of Viśvakarman: Rājyābhiṣekapaddhati.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śiva (शिव):—mf(ā)n. (according to, [Uṇādi-sūtra i, 153], [from] √1. śī, ‘in whom all things lie’; perhaps connected with √śvi cf. śavas, śiśvi) auspicious, propitious, gracious, favourable, benign, kind, benevolent, friendly, dear (vam ind. kindly, tenderly), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) happy, fortunate, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

3) m. happiness, welfare (cf. n.), [Rāmāyaṇa v, 56, 36]

4) m. liberation, final emancipation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) ‘The Auspicious one’, Name of the disintegrating or destroying and reproducing deity (who constitutes the third god of the Hindū Trimūrti or Triad, the other two being Brahmā ‘the creator’ and Viṣṇu ‘the preserver’; in the Veda the only Name of the destroying deity was Rudra ‘the terrible god’, but in later times it became usual to give that god the euphemistic Name Śiva ‘the auspicious’ [just as the Furies were called Εὐμενίδες ‘the gracious ones’], and to assign him the office of creation and reproduction as well as dissolution; in fact the preferential worship of Śiva as developed in the Purāṇas and Epic poems led to his being identified with the Supreme Being by his exclusive worshippers [called Śaivas]; in his character of destroyer he is sometimes called Kāla ‘black’, and is then also identified with ‘Time’, although his active destroying function is then oftener assigned to his wife under her name Kālī, whose formidable character makes her a general object of propitiation by sacrifices; as presiding over reproduction consequent on destruction Śiva’s symbol is the Liṅga q.v. or Phallus, under which form he is worshipped all over India at the present day; again one of his representations is as Ardha-nārī, ‘half-female’, the other half being male to symbolize the unity of the generative principle [Religious Thought and Life in India 85]; he has three eyes, one of which is in his forehead, and which are thought to denote his view of the three divisions of time, past, present, and future, while a moon’s crescent, above the central eye, marks the measure of time by months, a serpent round his neck the measure by years, and a second necklace of skulls with other serpents about his person, the perpetual revolution of ages, and the successive extinction and generation of the races of mankind: his hair is thickly matted together, and gathered above his forehead into a coil; on the top of it he bears the Ganges, the rush of which in its descent from heaven he intercepted by his head that the earth might not be crushed by the weight of the falling stream; his throat is dark-blue from the stain of the deadly poison which would have destroyed the world had it not been swallowed by him on its production at the churning of the ocean by the gods for the nectar of immortality; he holds a tri-śūla, or three-pronged trident [also called Pināka] in his hand to denote, as some think, his combination of the three attributes of Creator, Destroyer, and Regenerator; he also carries a kind of drum, shaped like an hour-glass, called Ḍamaru: his attendants or servants are called Pramatha q.v.; they are regarded as demons or supernatural beings of different kinds, and form various hosts or troops called Gaṇas; his wife Durgā [otherwise called Kālī, Pārvatī, Umā, Gaurī, Bhavāṇī etc.] is the chief object of worship with the Śāktas and Tāntrikas, and in this connection he is fond of dancing [see tāṇḍava] and wine-drinking ; he is also worshipped as a great ascetic and is said to have scorched the god of love (Kāma-deva) to ashes by a glance from his central eye, that deity having attempted to inflame him with passion for Pārvatī whilst he was engaged in severe penance; in the exercise of his function of Universal Destroyer he is fabled to have burnt up the Universe and all the gods, including Brahmā and Viṣṇu, by a similar scorching glance, and to have rubbed the resulting ashes upon his body, whence the use of ashes in his worship, while the use of the Rudrākṣa berries originated, it is said, from the legend that Śiva, on his way to destroy the three cities, called Tri-pura, let fall some tears of rage which became converted into these beads: his residence or heaven is Kailāsa, one of the loftiest northern peaks of the Himālaya; he has strictly no incarnations like those of Viṣṇu, though Vīra-bhadra and the eight Bhairavas and Khaṇḍo-bā etc. [Religious Thought and Life in India 266] are sometimes regarded as forms of him; he is especially worshipped at Benares and has even more names than Viṣṇu, one thousand and eight being specified in the 69th chapter of the Śiva-Purāṇa and in the 17th chapter of the Anuśāsana-parvan of the Mahā-bhārata, some of the most common being Mahā-deva, Śambhu, Śaṃkara, Īśa, Īśvara, Maheśvara, Hara; his sons are Gaṇeśa and Kārttikeya), [Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc., [Religious Thought and Life in India 73]

6) a kind of second Śiva (with Śaivas), a person who has attained a [particular] stage of perfection or emancipation, [Mahābhārata; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]

7) [śiva-liṅga], [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) any god, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) m. a euphemistic Name of a jackal (generally śivā f. q.v.)

10) m. sacred writings, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) (in [astronomy]) Name of the sixth month

12) a post for cows (to which they are tied or for them to rub against), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) bdellium, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) the fragrant bark of Feronia Elephantum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) Marsilia Dentata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) a kind of thorn-apple or = puṇḍarīka (the tree), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) quicksilver, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. śiva-bīja)

18) a [particular] auspicious constellation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) a demon who inflicts diseases, [Harivaṃśa]

20) m. = śukra m. kāla m. vasu m., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) m. the swift antelope, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) rum, spirit distilled from molasses, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) buttermilk, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) a ruby, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) a peg, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

26) time, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

27) Name of a son of Medhātithi, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

28) of a son of Idhma-jihva, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

29) of a prince and various authors (also with dīkṣita, bhaṭṭa, paṇḍita, yajvan, sūri etc.), [Catalogue(s)]

30) of a fraudulent person, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

31) ([dual number]) the god Śiva and his wife, [Kirātārjunīya v, 40; Pracaṇḍa-pāṇḍava i, 20] (cf. [Vāmana’s Kāvyālaṃkāravṛtti v, 2, 1])

32) [plural] Name of a class of gods in the third Manvantara, [Purāṇa]

33) of a class of Brāhmans who have attained a [particular] degree of perfection like that of Śiva, [Mahābhārata]

34) Śivā (शिवा):—[from śiva] a f. Śiva’s wife (also śivī) See śivā below

35) Śiva (शिव):—n. welfare, prosperity, bliss (āya, ena or ebhis, ‘auspiciously, fortunately, happily, luckily’; śivāya gamyatām, ‘a prosperous journey to you!’), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

36) final emancipation, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

37) water, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

38) rock-salt, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

39) sea-salt, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

40) a kind of borax, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

41) iron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

42) myrobalan, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

43) Tabernaemontana Coronaria, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

44) sandal, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

45) Name of a Purāṇa (= śiva-purāṇa or śaiva), [Catalogue(s)]

46) of the house in which the Pāṇḍavas were to be burnt, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

47) of a Varṣa in Plakṣa-dvīpa and in Jambu-dvīpa, [Purāṇa]

48) Śivā (शिवा):—[from śiva] b f. the energy of Śiva personified as his wife (known as Durgā, Pārvatī etc.), [Inscriptions; Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara; Purāṇa]

49) [v.s. ...] final emancipation (= mukti), [Purāṇa]

50) [v.s. ...] a euphemistic Name of a jackal (generally regarded as an animal of bad omen), [Gṛhya-sūtra; Baudhāyana-dharma-śāstra; Mahābhārata] etc.

51) [v.s. ...] Name of various plants ([according to] to [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ‘Prosopis Spicigera or Mimosa Suma; Terminalia Chebula or Citrina, Emblica Offcinalis; Jasminum Auriculatum; turmeric; Dūrvā grass etc.’)

52) [v.s. ...] the root of Piper longum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

53) [v.s. ...] a kind of yellow pigment (= go-rocanā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

54) [v.s. ...] a kind of metre, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

55) [v.s. ...] (in music) a [particular] Śruti, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]

56) [v.s. ...] Name of the wife of Anila, [Mahābhārata]

57) [v.s. ...] of the wife of Aṅgiras, [ib.]

58) [v.s. ...] of a Brāhman woman, [ib.]

59) [v.s. ...] of the mother of Nemi (the 22nd Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

60) [v.s. ...] of the mother of Rudra-bhaṭṭa, [Catalogue(s)]

61) [v.s. ...] of a river, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] (In the following [compound] not always, distinguishable from śiva m. or n.)

62) Siva (सिव):—[from siv] m. one who sews or stitches, a sewer, stitcher, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śiva (शिव):—[(vaḥ-vā-vaṃ) m.] The deity Shiva; final bliss; the Vedas. 1. f. Durgā. n. Happiness, auspiciousness; water. a. Happy, prosperous.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śiva (शिव) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Siva, Sivā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shiva in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Śiva (शिव) [Also spelled shiv]:—(nm) one of the divine trio ([brahmā, viṣṇu] and [maheśa]) of the Hindus; the good; well-being, welfare; (a) happy; auspicious; ~[bhakta] a devotee of Lord Shiv; ~[bhakti] devotion to Lord Shiv; ~[rātri] a Hindu festival observed on the fourteenth day of the dark half of the month of Magh; ~[liṃga] phallus—worshipped as the symbol of Shiv; ~[loka] kailash—the abode of Shiv; ~[vāhana] bull—the vehicle of Lord Shiv.

2) Sivā (सिवा):—[[ya]] (ind) except, but.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Siva (सिव) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Śiva.

2) Sivā (सिवा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Śivā.

3) Sīva (सीव) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Sīv.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śiva (ಶಿವ):—[adjective] causing prosperity; auspicious; beneficient; pleasing.

--- OR ---

Śiva (ಶಿವ):—

1) [noun] the quality of being auspicious, beneficient or pleasing; auspiciousness.

2) [noun] happiness; bliss; felicity.

3) [noun] prosperous condition; good fortune, wealth, success, etc.; prosperity.

4) [noun] any of the four vedas.

5) [noun] the male organ of sexual intercourse and urinary ejection; the penis.

6) [noun] a god; a deity.

7) [noun] mercury, a silvery-white metallic chemical element.

8) [noun] a myrrhlike gum resin; bdellium.

9) [noun] any spirituous liquor.

10) [noun] the liquid remaining after the butter is separated from the curds.

11) [noun] a clear, deep-red variety of corundum, valued as a precious stone ; a ruby.

12) [noun] time or a period of time.

13) [noun] sodium borate, a white, anhydrous, crystalline salt, Na2B4O7, with an alkaline taste, used as a flux in soldering metals and in the manufacture of glass, enamel, artificial gems, soaps, antiseptics, etc.; borax.

14) [noun] sea-salt.

15) [noun] salt produced by evaporation of sea water; common salt (sodium chloride) occuring in rock-like masses; rock-salt.

16) [noun] iron.

17) [noun] the paste made by grinding a piece of sandal wood on a whetstone.

18) [noun] the final emancipation of the soul from the worldly life.

19) [noun] a post to which cattle are tied.

20) [noun] Śiva, the most auspicious and benevolent deity.

21) [noun] a snake.

22) [noun] a jackal.

23) [noun] a parrot.

24) [noun] the myrobalan tree.

25) [noun] its nut.

26) [noun] the Indian gooseberry tree.

27) [noun] its berry.

28) [noun] the quality or fact of being dense, thick; denseness.

29) [noun] the whitish mass of bubbles formed on the surface of sea-water; foam.

30) [noun] the banyan tree (Ficus benghalensis).

31) [noun] the plant Datura fastuosa of Solanaceae family; purple thorn apple.

32) [noun] water.

33) [noun] white colour.

34) [noun] sand.

35) [noun] a koḷaga, a measure equal to eight seers.

36) [noun] (correctly, for this sense, the form of this term should be ಶಿವಾ [shiva] or ಶಿವೆ [shive]) Sarasvati, the Goddess of Learning.

37) [noun] (astrol.) a particular conjugation of stars or planets, that is considered as very auspicious.

38) [noun] a post to which cows are tied.

39) [noun] ಶಿವನ ಪಾದಸೇರು [shivana padaseru] Śivana pāda sēru to die.

--- OR ---

Śivā (ಶಿವಾ):—[noun] the tree Prosopis cineraria ( = P. spicigera) of Mimosaceae family; sponge tree.

--- OR ---

Siva (ಸಿವ):—[adjective] causing , confering or being good; gracious; propitious; auspicious.

--- OR ---

Siva (ಸಿವ):—[noun] Śiva, one of the Hindu Trinty.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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