Candika, aka: Candikā, Caṇḍikā; 12 Definition(s)

Introduction

Candika means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chandika.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Candika in Purana glossary... « previous · [C] · next »

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका) is the name of a Goddess that was once worshipped in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—These Goddesses (eg., Caṇḍikā) form the shining galaxy of female deities worshipped by the people of Kaśmīra.

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका).—A terrific form of Pārvatī, who is worshipped in temples under the name Caṇḍikādevī. The Devī’s idol has twenty hands. In the hands on the right side are held Śūla (three-pronged weapons) sword, Vela (rod), Cakra, pāśa (rope), parigha (shield), āyudha, abhaya, ḍamaru and Śakti, while the hands on the left side hold nāgapāśa, small parigha, axe, Aṅkuśa (a long-hooked rod), pāśa, maṇi, flag, gadā, mirror and an iron cylindrical rod. There are also idols of Caṇḍikā with ten hands. At the feet of the Devī lies Mahiṣāsura with his head severed from body. There will also be standing near the idol a puruṣa (man) born from the neck of the Māhiṣa brandishing his weapon, and with the Śūla in his hand in all rage and womitting blood and with red hairs and eyes. That puruṣa is bound strongly on his neck with rope. The vehicle of the Devī is a lion. The Devī is mounted on the lion with her left leg on the asura lying below. This Caṇḍikādevī thus stands with weapons in the hand, as annihilator of enemies and with three eyes, and she should be worshipped in pūjāmaṇḍala with nine Padmas (tantric divisions) along with her idol. Firstly the Devī should be worshipped in the central padma and Indra and others in the other padmas. (See full article at Story of Caṇḍikā from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका).—A name of Yogamāyā.1 Diti during the course of pregnancy was forbidden to take the remainder of offerings to the goddess.2 Her shrine was known Caṇḍikāgṛha;3 a mother-goddess;4 enshrined at Makarandaka; an epithet of Umā.5

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 2. 12.
  • 2) Ib. VI. 18. 49.
  • 3) Ib. V. 9. 14.
  • 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 7. 72; 19. 70.
  • 5) Matsya-purāṇa 13. 43; 158. 16.

1b) A servant-maid of Pārvatī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 40. 25.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका) refers to “the passionate one” and is the presiding deity of vāsava (‘supreme’), according to the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi 67-84. Vāsava represents one of the sixteen words that together make up the elā musical composition (prabandha). Elā is an important subgenre of song and was regarded as an auspicious and important prabandha (composition) in ancient Indian music (gāndharva). According to nirukta analysis, the etymological meaning of elā can be explained as follows: a represents Viṣṇu, i represents Kāmadeva, la represents Lakṣmī.

Caṇḍikā is one of the sixteen deities presiding over the corresponding sixteen words of the elā-prabandha, all of which are defined in the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi (“crest-jewel of music”): a 15th-century Sanskrit work on Indian musicology (gāndharvaśāstra).

Source: Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Katha (narrative stories)

Candika in Katha glossary... « previous · [C] · next »

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका) is the guardian of the southern opening of mount Kailāsa, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 109. Accordingly, “... when Śiva had been thus supplicated by the mountain [Kailāsa], he placed in the cave, as guards, elephants of the quarters, mighty basilisks, and Guhyakas; and at its southern opening Kālarātri, the invincible Caṇḍikā”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Caṇḍikā, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha book cover
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Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Mother of Candikaputta. See below.

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Cāṇḍikā (चाण्डिका) refers to the last of the “six Yoginīs” (ṣaḍyoginī) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 13). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., ṣaṣ-yoginī and Cāṇḍikā). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Candika in Pali glossary... « previous · [C] · next »

candikā : (f.) moonlight.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

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caṇḍikā (चंडिका) [or चंडी, caṇḍī].—f S The goddess Durga. Hence, appellatively, a passionate, violent, merciless woman.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

caṇḍikā (चंडिका) [or caṇḍī, or चंडी].—f The goddess Durgâ. Hence, appellatively, a passionate, violent, merciless woman.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका).—(compare s.v. Caṇḍā), n. of a yakṣiṇī: Suv 163.1.

--- OR ---

Cāṇḍikā (चाण्डिका).—(compare Sanskrit Caṇḍikā), n. of a yoginī: Dharmas 13 (misprint or error ?).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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