Candika, Caṇḍikā, Candikā, Cāṇḍikā: 23 definitions

Introduction

Candika means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chandika.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका) is the name of a Goddess that was once worshipped in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—These Goddesses (eg., Caṇḍikā) form the shining galaxy of female deities worshipped by the people of Kaśmīra.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका).—A terrific form of Pārvatī, who is worshipped in temples under the name Caṇḍikādevī. The Devī’s idol has twenty hands. In the hands on the right side are held Śūla (three-pronged weapons) sword, Vela (rod), Cakra, pāśa (rope), parigha (shield), āyudha, abhaya, ḍamaru and Śakti, while the hands on the left side hold nāgapāśa, small parigha, axe, Aṅkuśa (a long-hooked rod), pāśa, maṇi, flag, gadā, mirror and an iron cylindrical rod. There are also idols of Caṇḍikā with ten hands. At the feet of the Devī lies Mahiṣāsura with his head severed from body. There will also be standing near the idol a puruṣa (man) born from the neck of the Māhiṣa brandishing his weapon, and with the Śūla in his hand in all rage and womitting blood and with red hairs and eyes. That puruṣa is bound strongly on his neck with rope. The vehicle of the Devī is a lion. The Devī is mounted on the lion with her left leg on the asura lying below. This Caṇḍikādevī thus stands with weapons in the hand, as annihilator of enemies and with three eyes, and she should be worshipped in pūjāmaṇḍala with nine Padmas (tantric divisions) along with her idol. Firstly the Devī should be worshipped in the central padma and Indra and others in the other padmas. (See full article at Story of Caṇḍikā from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका) is another name for Śivā: the Goddess-counterpart of Śiva who incarnated first as Satī and then Pārvatī, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.16:—“[...] the great goddess Śivā is of the three natures. Śivā became Satī and Śiva married her. At the sacrifice of her father she cast off her body which she did not take again and went back to her own region. Śivā incarnated as Pārvatī at the request of the Devas. It was after performing a severe penance that she could attain Śiva again. Śivā came to be called by various names [such as Caṇḍikā,...]. These various names confer worldly pleasures and salvation according to qualities and action. The name Pārvatī is very common.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका).—A name of Yogamāyā.1 Diti during the course of pregnancy was forbidden to take the remainder of offerings to the goddess.2 Her shrine was known Caṇḍikāgṛha;3 a mother-goddess;4 enshrined at Makarandaka; an epithet of Umā.5

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 2. 12.
  • 2) Ib. VI. 18. 49.
  • 3) Ib. V. 9. 14.
  • 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 7. 72; 19. 70.
  • 5) Matsya-purāṇa 13. 43; 158. 16.

1b) A servant-maid of Pārvatī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 40. 25.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका) refers to “the passionate one” and is the presiding deity of vāsava (‘supreme’), according to the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi 67-84. Vāsava represents one of the sixteen words that together make up the elā musical composition (prabandha). Elā is an important subgenre of song and was regarded as an auspicious and important prabandha (composition) in ancient Indian music (gāndharva). According to nirukta analysis, the etymological meaning of elā can be explained as follows: a represents Viṣṇu, i represents Kāmadeva, la represents Lakṣmī.

Caṇḍikā is one of the sixteen deities presiding over the corresponding sixteen words of the elā-prabandha, all of which are defined in the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi (“crest-jewel of music”): a 15th-century Sanskrit work on Indian musicology (gāndharvaśāstra).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous (C) next»] — Candika in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका) is the guardian of the southern opening of mount Kailāsa, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 109. Accordingly, “... when Śiva had been thus supplicated by the mountain [Kailāsa], he placed in the cave, as guards, elephants of the quarters, mighty basilisks, and Guhyakas; and at its southern opening Kālarātri, the invincible Caṇḍikā”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Caṇḍikā, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: The Yoginis of Narasimha Vyuha

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका) is the name of a Mātṛkā-Śakti created by Mahārudra in order to control the plague of demons created by Andhakāsura.—Accordingly, Andhaka-Asura tried to kidnap Umā (Devī Pārvatī), and was fiercely attacked by Mahārudra who shot arrows at him from his mahāpināka. when the arrows pierced the body of Andhakāsura, drops of blood fell to earth and from those drops, thousands of Andhakas arose. To control this plague of demons, Mahārudra created Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Caṇḍikā] and ordered them to drink the blood of the demons and drain them dry.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: Nrisimha matrika-mandala

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका) refers to one of the various Mātṛkā-Śaktis created by Rudra in order to destroy the clones that spawned from Andhaka’s body.—Accordingly, [...] Andhakāsura attempted to abduct Girājanandinī (Pārvatī) and thus ensued a fierce battle between Andhakāsura and the great Rudra, the Lord of Umā. Like raktabīja, every drop of blood that fell from the body of Andhaka created another Asura like him and in no time, the entire world was filled with Andhakas. To destroy the growing number of Andhakas, Rudra created innumerable Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Caṇḍikā]. These Śaktis of immense power at once began to drink every drop of blood that flowed from the body of Andhaka, but they could still not effectively contain the emergence of more and more demons.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

Mother of Candikaputta. See below.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका) is the name of one of the six family deities presiding over twenty-four sacred districts, according to the Vajraḍākavivṛti commentary on the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra.—These six Yoginīs seems most likely to represent female leaders of six families [viz., Caṇḍikā]. The Vajraḍākavivṛti clearly connects twenty-four districts with the system of six families. Accordingly, the Caṇḍikā family comprises the districts Kaliṅga, Kosala, Suvarṇadvīpa and Oḍyāyana (Oḍyāna).

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Mokṣa forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vajracakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vajracakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Caṇḍikā] and Vīras each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum and a knife; they are dark-bluish-black in color.

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Sanskrit Edition and a Translation of Kambala’s Sādhananidhi, Chapter 8

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका) is the name of a Yoginī associated with the syllable “phaṭ” of the Ṣaḍyoginīmantra (six yoginī mantra): one of the four major mantras in the Cakrasaṃvara tradition, as taught in the eighth chapter of the 9th-century Herukābhidhāna and its commentary, the Sādhananidhi.  The Ṣaḍyoginī-mantra consists of six mantras taught to be the six Yoginīs. [...] These six Yoginīs are also found in Nāgārjuna’s Dharmasaṃgraha. A practitioner visualizes them [viz., Caṇḍikā] without male companions. Alternatively, a  practitioner visualizes them with their male consorts such as Vajrasattva.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Cāṇḍikā (चाण्डिका) refers to the last of the “six Yoginīs” (ṣaḍyoginī) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 13). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., ṣaṣ-yoginī and Cāṇḍikā). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका) is the name of a Yoginī mentioned in various Jaina manuscripts, often being part of a list of sixty-four such deities. How the cult of the Tantrik Yoginīs originated among the vegetarian Jainas is unknown. The Yoginīs (viz., Caṇḍikā) are known as attendants on Śiva or Pārvatī. But in the case of Jainism, we may suppose, as seen before that they are subordinates to Kṣetrapāla, the chief of the Bhairavas.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (C) next»] — Candika in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

candikā : (f.) moonlight.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

caṇḍikā (चंडिका) [or चंडी, caṇḍī].—f S The goddess Durga. Hence, appellatively, a passionate, violent, merciless woman.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

caṇḍikā (चंडिका) [or caṇḍī, or चंडी].—f The goddess Durgâ. Hence, appellatively, a passionate, violent, merciless woman.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका).—(compare s.v. Caṇḍā), name of a yakṣiṇī: Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 163.1.

--- OR ---

Cāṇḍikā (चाण्डिका).—(compare Sanskrit Caṇḍikā), name of a yoginī: Dharmasaṃgraha 13 (misprint or error ?).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका).—f.

(-kā) The goddess Durga. E. kaṇ added to caṇḍī q. v. also caṇḍā and caṇḍī-caṇḍī svārthe ka caḍi kope ṇvul vā .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका).—i. e. caṇḍī + ka, f. A name of Durgā, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 25, 86.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका).—[feminine] [Epithet] of Durgā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Caṇḍika (चण्डिक):—[from caṇḍ] mfn. (= ḍa) circumcised, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

2) Caṇḍikā (चण्डिका):—[from caṇḍ] f. Name of Durgā, [Ātreya-anukramaṇikā [Scholiast or Commentator]; Pañcatantra; Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] a short Name of [Devī-māhātmya]

4) [v.s. ...] = -gṛha, [Kādambarī]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of a Surāṅganā, [Siṃhāsana-dvātriṃśikā or vikramāditya-caritra, jaina recension]

6) [v.s. ...] Linum usitatissimum, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) Cāṇḍikā (चाण्डिका):—f. Name of one of the 6 Yoginīs, [Dharmasaṃgraha 13].

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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