Rama, aka: Ramā, Rāmā, Rāma; 31 Definition(s)


Rama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

One of the Hands of Famous Emperors.—For Rāma, the Śikhara hand, and also for otherkings who bear the bow.

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Rāma (राम):—Son of Daśaratha (son of Aja). He was an incarnation who appeared to his father in the form of a son. His wife was called Sītā. Rāma, or Rāmacandra, had a son called Kuśa. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.10.2,4, 9.12.1)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Rāma ruled the country for eleven thousand years, and protected his subjects with paternal love and care. He undertook and accomplished the celebration of ten Horse-Sacrifices in succession, and offered oblations to his departed manes at the shrine of Gaya-Shirsha. He was blessed with two sons named Lava and Kusha, It was in his reign that the holy Sage Bharata first organised dramatic performances, and Shatrughna killed the demon Lavana. Rāma heard the origin of the Rakshasas narrated to him by the holy Agastya. Having made over the sovereignty to his sons Lava and Kusha, Rāma made his exit from the world at the close of a glorious though chequered life, dedicated exclusively to the furtherance of good therein.

Source: archive.org: The Garuda puranam

1) Ramā (रमा).—A synonym for Mahālakṣmī. There is a story in the eighth Skandha of Devī Bhāgavata as to how the name Ramā came to be attached to Lakṣmī.

Revanta, the very handsome son of Sūrya one day came to Vaikuṇṭha mounted on his horse Uccaiśśravas to pay his respects to Mahāviṣṇu. Even Lakṣmīdevī stood aghast speechless for a very short time at the charm of Revanta changing her looks between him and his horse. Mahāviṣṇu did not at all like this and cursed that since Lakṣmī’s eyes enjoyed the sight of some one she would come to be called Ramā also and that she would be born as a mare on earth.

2) Rāma (राम).—(ŚRĪ RĀMA). The seventh incarnation of Mahāviṣṇu, a very powerful king of the solar dynasty. Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu thus: Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Vivasvān-Vaivasvata Manu-Mahābāhu-Prasandhi-Kṣupa-Ikṣvāku-Vikukṣi-Śaśāda-Kakutstha (Purañjaya)-Anenas-Pṛthulāśva-Prasenajit-Yuvanāśva-Māndhātā-Purukutsa-Trasadasyu-Anaraṇya-Hryaśva-Vasumanas-Sutanvā-Traiyyāruṇa-Satyavrata (Triśaṅku)-Hariścandra-Rohitā va-Harita-Cuñcu-Sudeva-Bharuka-Bāhuka-Sagara-Asamañjasa-Aṃśumān-Bhagīratha-Śrutanābha-Sindhudvīpa-Ayutāyus-Ṛtuparṇa-Sarvakāma-Sudās-Mitrasakha (Kalmāṣapāda)-Aśmaka-Mūlaka-Khaṭvāṅga-Dilīpa (Dīrghabāhu)-Raghu-Aja-Daśaratha-Rāma.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1) Ramā (रमा).—A Śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 90.

2a) Rāma (राम).—Balabhadra of the Yādava race and lord of Dvārakā. (Balarāma): brother of Kṛṣṇa and Subhadrā; See Baladeva; eldest son of Vasudeva by Rohinī; father of two sons; welcomed Kṛṣṇa to Dvārakā; asked by Kṛṣṇa to take one of the two heavenly chariots and get ready to fight Jarāsandha. Rāma blew his conch and began fighting under his palmyra ensign; defeated the enemies on all sides. Fastened Jarāsandha with ropes but Kṛṣṇa set him free; when Jarāsandha encamped on the Yamunā, was consulted by Kṛṣṇa; fought successfully Jarāsandha a third time and defeated Bāṇa's army; when about to give a death-blow to Jarāsandha, a voice from the welkin said “do not kill Jarāsandha; go back.” Thus Jarāsandha was allowed to go back to his city.1 Honoured by the Yādhava sabha, went with Kṛṣṇa to the Gomanta hill; on the way met and bowed to Paraśurāma; helped Kṛṣṇa in killing Śṛgāla Vaśudeva and was welcomed by the citizens of Karavīrapura. Stayed in this city for four months and returned to Mathurā with his brother. Attacked by Jarāsandha's army, fled with Kṛṣṇa to Gomanta, pursued by Jarāsandha; reached Dvārakā safe.2 Married Revatī before the advent of Kali and hence very tall in appearance; with his plough he brought down her height to his level.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 11. 16; X. 50. 12-32; [50 (v) 8]; [51 (v) 38-58]; [52 (v) 1-6]; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 61. 25; 71. 164-8; Matsya-purāṇa 46. 11; Vāyu-purāṇa 86. 30; 96. 162; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 6. 9; 13. 16.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. [52 (v) 13-41]; [53(v) 1-22]; 52. 5-6 [5-7]; 7. 14 [1 and 2].
  • 3) Ib. X. 52. 15 [11-12].

2b) A son of Daśaratha known for his righteousness and truth: Parikṣit compared to him: An avatār of Hari born in the Ikṣvāku line; killed Rāvaṇa; His fame equalled that of Pṛthu.1 King of the Kośala country and brother of Lakṣmaṇa, Bharata, and Śatrughna: Disfigured Sūrpaṇakā; killed Mārīca (Subāhu?) and other Rākṣasas in the yajña of Viśvāmitra, bent and broke the bow of Śiva and married Sītā, put down the pride of Paraśurāma, spent a forest life with his wife in obedience to his father's command, killed Khara, Triśiras and 14,000 Rākṣasas; performed the funeral rites to Jaṭāyu, and Kabandha, killed Vāli for the sake of Sugrīva, put up a bridge across the sea, welcomed by the Lord of the seas; killed Rāvaṇa and Kumbhakarṇa in their capital, ordered Vibhīṣaṇa to perform funeral rites to his dead kith and kin; recovered Sītā; enthroned Vibhīṣaṇa; left in an aerial chariot to Ayodhyā, embraced Bharata, paid respects to Brahmanas, Gurus, elders and was crowned by Vasiṣṭha just like Indra. In his period which was the Tretāyuga, it looked like Kṛtayuga; sons, Kuśa and Lava; ruled for 1010 years;2 led an exemplary household life, by his loyalty to his wedded wife; performed sacrifices by giving all his kingdom as dakṣiṇa, retaining only the ornaments and dress, and for Sītā, her saumāṅgalya. The Brahmanas returned the kingdom as they had no use for it and praised him.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 12. 19; II. 7. 23-25; IV. 22. 63; IX. 10. 3; Matsya-purāṇa 12. 50-51.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 19. 1; VII. 1. 44; 10. 36; IX. 10. 3-52; X. 40. 20; XI. 4. 21; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 203; 8. 54; 37. 30; 63. 185-193; 64. 16; 73. 91; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 192-4; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 4. 87-102, 104.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 10. 53-6; 11. 1-7; Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 48; 88, 184, 191-7.

2c) (paraśurāma)—a son of Jamadagni and Reṇukā; an aṃśa of Hari. Heard from his father that Arjuna-Haihaya had taken Kāmadhenu against his wish, and getting angry went to Haihaya's capital, cut off the king's head and took back the cow. In order to get rid of the sin of killing a king, he went on tīrthayātra for a year.1 In obedience to his father's command he killed his mother and brothers. This pleased the father and by his boon to his son, they all came back to life. During his absence, the sons of Haihaya killed his father, and on his return, found his mother crying over the death of Jamadagni. He took his axe, ran to Māhiṣmatī, rooted out all the Kṣatriyas by defeating them twenty-one times; with their blood he made nine pools at Syamantapañcaka, where he worshipped his father's dead body and distributed the various regions to the priests; ended it with avabhṛta in the sarasvatī.2 He would be a great sage in the forthcoming manvantara. A sage of the 8th manvantara. Even today resides in Mahendra contemplating on Hari;3 was invited for the Rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhira and came to see Kṛṣṇa at Syamantapañcaka.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 15. 13 to the end. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 1. 98; 66. 63; 69. 48; Matsya-purāṇa 43. 40; 285. 7.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 16. 1-23; Matsya-purāṇa 273. 66.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 15; IX. 16. 25-7.
  • 4) Ib. X. 74. 9; 84. 4.

2d) A son of Śivadatta.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 35. 12.

2e) A sage of the Sāvarṇi epoch. (eighth epoch Viṣṇu-purāṇa).*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 9. 32; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 2. 17.

2f) Son of Senājit.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 173.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Rāma (राम) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.47) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Rāma) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Rāma (राम) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “Kashmir deer”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Āyurvedic literature. The animal Rāma is part of the sub-group named Jāṅgalamṛga, refering to “animals living in forests”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Rāmā (रामा) is another name for Śvetakaṇṭakārī, a medicinal plant related to Kaṇṭakārī, according to verse 4.33-36 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Rāmā and Śvetakaṇṭakārī, there are a total of twenty-four Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Katha (narrative stories)

1) Rāma (राम) is the son of king Daśaratha who was sent to the forest with his wife Sītā and his younger brother Lakṣmaṇa, according to in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 51. Accordingly, “... long ago king Daśaratha, the sovereign of Ayodhyā, had a son named Rāma, the elder brother of Bharata, Śatrughna and Lakṣmaṇa. He was a partial incarnation of Viṣṇu for the overthrow of Rāvaṇa, and he had a wife named Sītā, the daughter of Janaka, the lady of his life. As fate would have it, his father handed over the kingdom to Bharata, and sent Rāma to the forest with Sītā and Lakṣmaṇa”.

2) Rāma (राम) and Lakṣmaṇa were the twin-sons born to king Tārāvaloka and Mādrī, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 113. Accordingly, as Kaśyapa said to Naravāhanadatta: “... then he [Tārāvaloka] had two twin sons born to him by Mādrī, and the father called them Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa. And the boys grew like the love and joy of their parents, and they were dearer than life to their grandparents. And Tārāvaloka and Mādrī were never tired of looking at them, as they bent before them, being filled with virtue, like two bows of the prince, being strung”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Rāma, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Rāma (राम).—One of the incarnations of Viṣṇu.—In the incarnation of Rāma, the son of Baśaratha, he killed Rāvaṇa.

Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Katha book cover
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Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Ramā (रमा) refers to the twenty-third of twenty-six ekādaśīs according to the Garga-saṃhitā 4.8.9. Accordingly, “to attain Lord Kṛṣṇa’s mercy you should follow the vow of fasting on ekādaśī. In that way You will make Lord Kṛṣṇa into your submissive servant. Of this there is no doubt”. A person who chants the names of these twenty-six ekādaśīs (eg., Ramā) attains the result of following ekādaśī for one year.

Source: Devotees Vaishnavas: Śrī Garga Saṃhitā

Rāma (राम) refers to one of the manifestations of Viṣṇu.—Śrī Rāma, the incarnation of Viṣṇu, is considered to be the most complete and perfect of all the avatāras. He possesses the qualities of a uttama-puruṣa (noble man) and a lakṣya-nāyaka (man committed to a goal). It is said that there are thirty three special structural characteristics in the image of Śrī Rāma.

Viṣṇu is represented as Śrī Rāma who is an embodiment of righteousness, love, compassion, order, heroism and beauty. The devotees pray to him for patience, confidence, courage, hard working, obedience, and intelligence. These are the characteristics found in the life of Śrī Rāma. So the devotees feel happy to pray to such a wonderful incarnation of Viṣṇu.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (vaishnavism)
Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Rāma (राम).—Inhabitant of Mithila who wrote a commentary by name विद्वत्प्रबोधिनी (vidvatprabodhinī) on the Sarasvata Prakriya.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Rāma or Śrīrāma is the name of a deity depicted at Ramaswamy Temple in Kumbakonam (Kumbhakonam), representing a sacred place for the worship of Viṣṇu.—(a) In the sannidhi for Rāma, there are icons of Rāma, Sītā, Lakṣmaṇa and Hanumān. [...] The mūla-bera of Śrī Rāma is found seated in sukhāsana with two hands. The right hand holds vyākhyāna-mudrā and the left hand is in kaṭaka-hasta. Sītā is found seated to the left of Rāma in sukhāsana posture with the right leg folded and left leg hanging. (b) In front of the stone images are the utsava-mūrti of Rāma, Sītā, Lakṣmaṇa, Bharata, Satrukguṇa and Hanumān. Rāma is found in standing posture with dhanur-hasta in the left hand and kaṭaka-hasta in the right hand.

The images of Rāma Sītā and Lakṣmana are made out of stone. While depicting in dancing, Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa are found in samapāda-sthānaka with the right hand in kapittha-hasta and the left hand in śikhara-hasta.

Rāma is also depicted at the Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam (Śrī Raṅgam), which represents a sacred place for the worship of Viṣṇu.—Rāma is found in samapāda-sthānaka with two hands. The right hand holds the arrow in kaṭaka-hasta and the left hand holds the bow in the dhanur-hasta. In dance, Rāma is found in samapāda with two hands. The right hand is held in kapittha-hasta and the left hand is in śikhara-hasta.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Rāma (राम) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the ten incarnations of Viṣṇu. This incarnation appeared in the tretāyuga. Viṣṇu is the name of a major Hindu deity and forms part of the trinity of supreme divinity (trimūrti) together with Brahmā and Śiva. They are seen as the cosmic personifications of creation (brahmā), maintenance (viṣṇu), and destruction (śiva).

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

An avatar of Viṣnu. Rama, Ramachandra, the prince and king of Ayodhya, appeared in the Treta Yuga. Rama is a commonly worshiped avatar in Hinduism, and is thought of as the ideal heroic man. His story is recounted in one of the most widely read scriptures of Hinduism, the Ramayana. While in exile from his own kingdom with his brother Lakshman and the monkey king Hanuman, his wife Sita was abducted by the demon king of Lanka, Ravana. He travelled to Ashoka Vatika in Lanka, killed the demon king and saved Sita.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Rama is the hero of the epic Ramayana. He is an incarnation of Vishnu. He was born as a crown prince, but went into voluntary exile for 14 years, to fulfill a promise made by his father to his step-mother. His wife Sita was abducted by the demon king Ravana while they were in exile. With the help of the monkey-king Sugreeva and his friend Hanuman, Rama killed Ravana and rescued his wife.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Rāma (or Rāmacandra) is the incarnation of Vāsudeva. Lord Rāma is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and His brothers, namely Bharata, Lakṣmaṇa and Śatrughna, are His plenary expansions.

Source: Vaniquotes: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

1. Rama. A brahmin, skilled in physiognomy. He was one of the eight consulted by Suddhodana regarding his son, the future Buddha. J.i.56; Mil.236.

2. Rama. King of Benares. He suffered from a virulent skin disease, and, leaving his kingdom to his eldest son, went into the forest, where he was cured by eating medicinal herbs. In the forest he met and married Piya, the eldest daughter of Okkaka. She suffered from the same complaint, and was cured by him. They lived in the forest with their thirty two children. A forester recognized Rama in the forest, and, on his return to the city, told the news to the king. The king went to the forest with his retinue and begged his father to return to the kingdom. He refused to do so, and, at his own suggestion, a city was built for him in the forest which was called Koliya or Vyagghapajja. Rama thus became the ancestor of the Koliyans. DA.i.260ff.; SNA.355f.; cf. Mtu.i.355, where he is called Kola.

3. Rama. A brahmin, father of the Buddhas teacher, Uddaka Ramaputta (q.v.). J.i.66; M.i.165.

4. Rama. The Bodhisatta born as the eldest son of Dasaratha, king of Benares. He is also called Ramapandita. He married his sister Sita, and her devotion to him became proverbial (E.g., J.iv.559, 560; Cv.lxxiii.137). For Ramas story see the Dasaratha Jataka. Certain ruling princes of Ceylon claimed descent from Rama e.g., Jagatipala (q.v.). Ramas fight with Ravana and the incidents recounted in the Ramayana are mentioned only in the later Pali Chronicles, such as the Culavamsa. Cv.lxiv.42; lxviii.20; lxxv.59; lxxxiii.46, 69, 88.

5. Rama. A Sakyan prince, brother of Bhaddakaccana. He came to Ceylon, where he founded the settlement of Ramagona. Mhv.ix.9; Dpv.x.4ff.

6. Rama. Called Matuposaka Rama. He was an Inhabitant of Benares and greatly loved his parents. He once went on business to Kumbhavati, in the country of Dandaki, and there, when the country was being destroyed owing to the wickedness of the king, Rama thought of the goodness of his parents. The devas were moved by the power of this thought and conveyed him safely to his mother (J.v.29). He was one of the three survivors of the disaster which overtook Dandakis kingdom. MA.ii.602.

7. Rama. One of the palaces of Kondanna Buddha in his last lay life. BuA.107; but see Bu.iii.26.

8. Rama. One of the generals of Gajabahu. Rama was once defeated by the general Deva (Cv.lxx.137, 142), but later won a victory at the Maharakkha ford. Rama received the title of Nilagiri, which was evidently the name of his district. Cv.lxxii.12; Cv. Trs.i.299, n.1; 320, n.2.

9. Rama. The second of the future Buddhas. Anagatavamsa, p. 40.

10. Rama. See Ramma.

-- or --

1. Rama. One of the two chief women disciples of Paduma Buddha. J.i.36; Bu.ix.22, calls her Radha.

2. Rama.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Rāma (राम) is one of the persons who escaped the destruction of king Daṇḍaki’s country according to the Jātaka and Papañca mentioned in Appendix 1 of the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXIV).—Accordingly, “Kisavaccha, disciple of Sarabhaṅga, in search of solitude, was established in King Daṇḍaki’s park, near the city of Kumbhavatī in Kaliṅga. One day when King Daṇḍaki was leaving to suppress a revolt, he thought he could make himself lucky by spitting on Kisavaccha and throwing his tooth-pick at him. The gods were indignant, killed the king and destroyed the whole country. Only three people escaped death: the Ṛṣi Kisavaccha, the leader of the army who had become his disciple, and a certain Rāma, originally from Benares, who was spared as a result of his filial piety. The forest that grew up in that desolated land was called Daṇḍakārañña”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

1) Rāmā (रामा) is the mother of Puṣpadanta, the ninth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.

The husband of Rāmā is Sugrīva. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.

2) Rāma (राम) is the name of the ninth Baladeva according to Śvetāmbara, while the Digambara traditions mentions him as the eighth Baladeva. Jain legends describe nine such Baladevas (“gentle heroes”) usually appearing together with their “violent” twin-brothers known as the Vāsudevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).

The mother of Rāma is known by the name Rohiṇī according to the Samavāyāṅga-sūtra, and their stories are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.

The nine Baladevas (such as Rāma) are also known as Balabhadra and are further described in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition. The appearance of a Baladeva is described as follows: their body is of a white complexion, they wear a blue-black robe, and the mark of the palm-tree (tāla) is seen on their banners.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Rāma-worship in Rājasthān.—The rulers of Mewār claimed their descent from Rāma. A temple of Sītā of great antiquity at the village of Siyārāmā, about two miles from Udaipur shows that the cult of Rāma was associated with the ruling family of the Guhilots. We know from the Samidhśsvara Inscription of V.S. 1458 (1401 A.D.) that Khshetra Singh had faith in Rāma. The Jāwar Inscription states that the temple of Rāma Swāmi and Rāma Kund were constructed by Rāmā Devi, daughter of Kumbhā and wife of Mandalik at Jāwar. Sangram Singh II of Udaipur assigned 100 bighās of land in the village of Bhuvānā for the maintenance of the temple of Sītā-Rāma in V.S. 1700 (1643 A.D.). These rulers used the invocatory phrase ‘Rāmajayati’ before commencing the writing of official documents or copper-plate grants or stone-tablets and concluded themwith the phrase ‘Rāmārpaṇa’ From the official correspondence of Jaipur, it is clear that the rulers of Jaipur used the invocatory phrase of ‘Sītā-Rāmji’. From the Bānswārā grants and documents of our period we conclude that 'Śrī Rāmaji' was used as a mark of devotion to the cult of Rāma.

Source: archive.org: Social Life In Medieval Rajasthan

Rāma (राम) is an example of a name based on Rāma mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. Lord Rāma is believed to be the seventh incarnation of Viṣṇu. Rāma occurring in our inscriptions seems to have been Rāma Rāghava. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Derivation of personal names (eg., Rāma) during the rule of the Guptas followed patterns such as tribes, places, rivers and mountains.

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Rama (“lovely”) is one of the gotras (clans) among the Kurnis (a tribe of South India). Kurni is, according to the Census Report 1901, “a corruption of kuri (sheep) and vanni (wool), the caste having been originally weavers of wool”. The gotras (viz., Rama) are described as being of the Brāhman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya sub-divisions of the caste, and of Shanmukha’s Sudra caste.

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Rama, (-°) (adj.) (fr. ram) delighting, enjoyable; only in cpd. dū° (=duḥ) difficult to enjoy, not fit for pleasures; as nt. absence of enjoyment Dh. 87=S. V, 24; and mano° gladdening the mind (q. v.). (Page 565)

— or —

Rāma, (fr. ram; cp. Vedic rāma) pleasure, sport, amusement; °kara having pleasure, sporting, making love J. V, 448. (Page 570)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

rāma (राम).—m (S) A name common to three incarnations of Vishn̤u; viz. paraśurāma, rāmacandra, balarāma. 2 A covert name for one rupee, as sītā or sītā- bāī is for Half a rupee. rāma mhaṇaṇēṃ or rāma hōṇēṃ To expire. rāmāya svasti rā- vaṇāya svasti (Let Ram prosper! let Rawan̤ prosper!) A phrase expressive of absolute impartiality or utter indifference respecting two contending parties.

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rāmā (रामा).—f S A beautiful or pleasing woman. 2 A woman in general.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rāma (राम).—m A name common to three incarna- tions of viṣṇu. Energy. rāma mhaṇaṇēṃ-hōṇēṃ Expire.

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rāmā (रामा).—f A beautiful woman; a woman.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rama (रम).—a. [ram-ac]

1) Pleasing, delightful, gratifying.

2) Dear, beloved.

-maḥ 1 Joy, delight.

2) A lover, husband.

3) The god of love.

4) The Aśoka tree.

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Ramā (रमा).—[ramayati ram-ac]

1) A wife, mistress.

2) Name of Lakṣmī, wife of Viṣṇu and Goddess of wealth; रमा यत्र न वाक् तत्र यत्र वाक् तत्र ना रमा (ramā yatra na vāk tatra yatra vāk tatra nā ramā) Udb.

3) Good luck, fortune.

4) Riches.

5) Splendour.

6) Name of the eleventh day in the dark half of Kārtika.

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Rāma (राम).—a. [ram kartari ghañ ṇa vā]

1) Pleasing, delighting, rejoicing,

2) Beautiful, lovely, charming.

3) Obscure; dark-coloured, black.

4) White.

-maḥ 1 Name of three celebrated personages; (a) Paraśurāma, son of Jamadagni; (b) Balarāma, son of Vasudeva and brother of Kṛṣṇa, q.q.v.v.; (c) Rāmachandra or Sītārāma, son of Daśaratha and Kausalyā and the hero of the Rāmāyaṇa; (the word is thus derived in Purāṇas:-- rāśabdo viśvavacano maścāpīśvaravācakaḥ | viśvādhīneśvaro yo hi tena rāmaḥ prakīrtitaḥ ||) cf. also राकारोच्चारमात्रेण मुखान्निर्याति पातकम् । पुनः प्रवेशशङ्कायां मकारोऽस्ति कपाटवत् (rākāroccāramātreṇa mukhānniryāti pātakam | punaḥ praveśaśaṅkāyāṃ makāro'sti kapāṭavat) || [When quite a boy, he with his brother was taken by Viśvāmitra, with the permission of Daśaratha, to his hermitage to protect his sacrifices from the demons that obstructed them. Rāma killed them all with perfect ease, and received from the sage several miraculous missiles as a reward. He then accompanied Viśvāmitra to the capital of Janaka where he married Sītā having performed the wonderful feat of bending Siva's bow, and then returned to Ayodhyā. Daśaratha, seeing that Rāma was growing fitter and fitter to rule the kingdom, resolved to install him as heir-apparent. But, on the eve of the day of coronation, his favourite wife Kaikeyī, at the instigation of her wicked nurse Mantharā, asked him to fulfil the two boons he had formerly promised to her, by one of which she demanded the exile of Rāma for fourteen years and by the other the installation of her own son Bharata as Yuvarāja. The king was terribly shocked, and tried his best to dissuade her from her wicked demands, but was at last obliged to yield. The dutiful son immediately prapared to go into exile accompanied by his beautiful young wife Sītā and his devoted brother Lakṣmana. The period of his exile was eventful, and the two brothers killed several powerful demons and at last roused the jealousy of Rāvaṇa himself. The wicked demon resolved to try Rāma by carrying off his beauteous wife for whom he had conceived an ardent passion, and accomplished his purpose being assisted by Mārīcha. After several fruitless inquiries as to her whereabouts, Hanumat ascertained that she was in Laṅkā and persuaded Rāma to invade the island and kill the ravisher. The monkeys built a bridge across the ocean over which Rāma with his numerous troops passed, conquered Laṅkā, and killed Rāvaṇa along with his whole host of demons. Rāma, attended by his wife and friends in battle, triumphantly returned to Ayodhyā where he was crowned king by Vasiṣṭha. He reigned long and righteously and was succeeded by his son Kuśa. Rāma is said to be the seventh incarnation of Viṣṇu; cf. Jayadeva:-वितरसि दिक्षु रणे दिक्पतिकमनीयं दशमुखमौलिबलिं रमणीयम् । केशव धृतरघुपति- रूप जय जगदीश हरे (vitarasi dikṣu raṇe dikpatikamanīyaṃ daśamukhamaulibaliṃ ramaṇīyam | keśava dhṛtaraghupati- rūpa jaya jagadīśa hare) Gīt.1.].

2) A kind of deer.

3) Name of Aruṇa.

4) A lover; cf. Śi.4.59.

5) A horse.

6) Pleasure, joy.

-mam 1 Darkness.

2) Leprosy (kṛṣṭham).

3) A tamāla leaf.

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Rāmā (रामा).—[ramate'nayā ram karaṇe ghañ]

1) A beautiful woman, a charming young woman; अथ रामा विकसन्मुखी बभूव (atha rāmā vikasanmukhī babhūva) Bv.2.16;3.6.

2) A beloved, wife, mistress; रामो रामावबोधितः (rāmo rāmāvabodhitaḥ) R.12.23; पप्रच्छ रामां रमणोऽभिलाषम् (papraccha rāmāṃ ramaṇo'bhilāṣam) 14.27.

3) A woman in general; रामा हरन्ति हृदयं प्रसभं नराणाम् (rāmā haranti hṛdayaṃ prasabhaṃ narāṇām) Ṛs.6.25.

4) A woman of origin.

5) Vermilion.

6) Aśa Fœtida.

7) A kind of pigment (gorocanā).

8) Ruddle.

9) A river.

1) An accomplished woman (versed in fine arts).

11) A kind of metre.

12) (In music) A kind of measure.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rāma (राम).—(Pali id.), n. of the father and teacher of Udraka Rāmaputra, q.v.; his doctrine, called naiva- saṃjñānāsaṃjñāyatanam, was taught by the latter to the Bodhisattva: Mv ii.120.7 ff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

Search found 1181 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Paraśurāma (परशुराम) or Paraśurāmāvatāra refers to one the “ten incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu”, as...
Manorama (मनोरम).—nt., n. of two Buddhakṣetras: Mv i.123.18; 124.5.--- OR --- Manoramā (मनोरमा)...
Rāmeśvara (रामेश्वर).—There is in South India a very famous holy place called Rāmeśvara and a Ś...
Rāmānuja (रामानुज).—Name of a celebrated reformer, founder of a Vedāntic sect and author of sev...
Balarāma (बलराम) or Balarāmāvatāra refers to one the “ten incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu”, as defin...
Rāmacandra (रामचन्द्र) or Rāmacandrāvatāra (also known as Raghurāma) refers to one the “ten inc...
Śrīrāma or simply Rāma is the name of a deity depicted at Ramaswamy Temple in Kumbakonam (Kumbh...
Rāmanavamī (रामनवमी).—the ninth day in the bright half of Chaitra, the anniversary of the birth...
Rāmatīrtha (रामतीर्थ) is the name of a sacred spot mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Rāmatīrtha ...
Rāmadūta (रामदूत).—m. (-taḥ) The monkey Hanumana, the friend and messenger of Rama. f. (-tiḥ-tī...
Rāmabhadra (रामभद्र).—m. (-draḥ) The hero Ramachandra. E. rāma the same, and bhadra auspicious.
Ramānātha (रमानाथ).—epithets of Viṣṇu; Bhāg.1. 55.4. Derivable forms: ramānāthaḥ (रमानाथः).Ramā...
Rāmagiri (रामगिरि).—Name of a mountain; (cakre) स्निग्धच्छाया- तरुषु वसतिं रामगिर्याश्रमेषु (sn...
Rāmahradā (रामह्रदा) is the name of a river mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa that remains uniden...
Ramāpriya (रमाप्रिय).—n. (-yaṃ) The lotus. E. ramā Lakshmi, and priya beloved.

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