Rama, Ramā, Rāmā, Rāma: 47 definitions
Rama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
One of the Hands of Famous Emperors.—For Rāma, the Śikhara hand, and also for otherkings who bear the bow.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
Rāma (राम):—Son of Daśaratha (son of Aja). He was an incarnation who appeared to his father in the form of a son. His wife was called Sītā. Rāma, or Rāmacandra, had a son called Kuśa. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.10.2,4, 9.12.1)Source: archive.org: The Garuda puranam
Rāma ruled the country for eleven thousand years, and protected his subjects with paternal love and care. He undertook and accomplished the celebration of ten Horse-Sacrifices in succession, and offered oblations to his departed manes at the shrine of Gaya-Shirsha. He was blessed with two sons named Lava and Kusha, It was in his reign that the holy Sage Bharata first organised dramatic performances, and Shatrughna killed the demon Lavana. Rāma heard the origin of the Rakshasas narrated to him by the holy Agastya. Having made over the sovereignty to his sons Lava and Kusha, Rāma made his exit from the world at the close of a glorious though chequered life, dedicated exclusively to the furtherance of good therein.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Ramā (रमा).—A synonym for Mahālakṣmī. There is a story in the eighth Skandha of Devī Bhāgavata as to how the name Ramā came to be attached to Lakṣmī.
Revanta, the very handsome son of Sūrya one day came to Vaikuṇṭha mounted on his horse Uccaiśśravas to pay his respects to Mahāviṣṇu. Even Lakṣmīdevī stood aghast speechless for a very short time at the charm of Revanta changing her looks between him and his horse. Mahāviṣṇu did not at all like this and cursed that since Lakṣmī’s eyes enjoyed the sight of some one she would come to be called Ramā also and that she would be born as a mare on earth.
2) Rāma (राम).—(ŚRĪ RĀMA). The seventh incarnation of Mahāviṣṇu, a very powerful king of the solar dynasty. Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu thus: Brahmā-Marīci-Kaśyapa-Vivasvān-Vaivasvata Manu-Mahābāhu-Prasandhi-Kṣupa-Ikṣvāku-Vikukṣi-Śaśāda-Kakutstha (Purañjaya)-Anenas-Pṛthulāśva-Prasenajit-Yuvanāśva-Māndhātā-Purukutsa-Trasadasyu-Anaraṇya-Hryaśva-Vasumanas-Sutanvā-Traiyyāruṇa-Satyavrata (Triśaṅku)-Hariścandra-Rohitā va-Harita-Cuñcu-Sudeva-Bharuka-Bāhuka-Sagara-Asamañjasa-Aṃśumān-Bhagīratha-Śrutanābha-Sindhudvīpa-Ayutāyus-Ṛtuparṇa-Sarvakāma-Sudās-Mitrasakha (Kalmāṣapāda)-Aśmaka-Mūlaka-Khaṭvāṅga-Dilīpa (Dīrghabāhu)-Raghu-Aja-Daśaratha-Rāma.Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Rāma (राम) (incarnation of Viṣṇu) together with Lakṣmaṇa are two sons of Daśaratha born of the Sūryavaṃśa dynasty, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.24. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] once Śiva accompanied by Satī and seated on His Bull wandered over the Earth, in one of his sportive activities. Wandering over the ocean-girt Earth He reached Daṇḍaka forest [...] There Śiva saw Rāma who was searching for Sitā who was deceitfully abducted by Rāvaṇa. Lakṣmaṇa too was there. [...]”.
Lord Śiva said: “[...] O Goddess [Satī], they are two brothers Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa. They are heroic, intelligent sons of Daśaratha, born of the solar dynasty. The fair-complexioned one is the younger brother Lakṣmaṇa. He is the partial incarnation of Śeṣa. The elder one is the complete incarnation of Viṣṇu. He is called Rāma. He is incapable of being harassed. The lord has incarnated on the Earth for our welfare and the protection of the good”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1) Ramā (रमा).—A Śakti.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 90.
2a) Rāma (राम).—Balabhadra of the Yādava race and lord of Dvārakā. (Balarāma): brother of Kṛṣṇa and Subhadrā; See Baladeva; eldest son of Vasudeva by Rohinī; father of two sons; welcomed Kṛṣṇa to Dvārakā; asked by Kṛṣṇa to take one of the two heavenly chariots and get ready to fight Jarāsandha. Rāma blew his conch and began fighting under his palmyra ensign; defeated the enemies on all sides. Fastened Jarāsandha with ropes but Kṛṣṇa set him free; when Jarāsandha encamped on the Yamunā, was consulted by Kṛṣṇa; fought successfully Jarāsandha a third time and defeated Bāṇa's army; when about to give a death-blow to Jarāsandha, a voice from the welkin said “do not kill Jarāsandha; go back.” Thus Jarāsandha was allowed to go back to his city.1 Honoured by the Yādhava sabha, went with Kṛṣṇa to the Gomanta hill; on the way met and bowed to Paraśurāma; helped Kṛṣṇa in killing Śṛgāla Vaśudeva and was welcomed by the citizens of Karavīrapura. Stayed in this city for four months and returned to Mathurā with his brother. Attacked by Jarāsandha's army, fled with Kṛṣṇa to Gomanta, pursued by Jarāsandha; reached Dvārakā safe.2 Married Revatī before the advent of Kali and hence very tall in appearance; with his plough he brought down her height to his level.3
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 11. 16; X. 50. 12-32; [50 (v) 8]; [51 (v) 38-58]; [52 (v) 1-6]; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 61. 25; 71. 164-8; Matsya-purāṇa 46. 11; Vāyu-purāṇa 86. 30; 96. 162; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 6. 9; 13. 16.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. [52 (v) 13-41]; [53(v) 1-22]; 52. 5-6 [5-7]; 7. 14 [1 and 2].
- 3) Ib. X. 52. 15 [11-12].
2b) A son of Daśaratha known for his righteousness and truth: Parikṣit compared to him: An avatār of Hari born in the Ikṣvāku line; killed Rāvaṇa; His fame equalled that of Pṛthu.1 King of the Kośala country and brother of Lakṣmaṇa, Bharata, and Śatrughna: Disfigured Sūrpaṇakā; killed Mārīca (Subāhu?) and other Rākṣasas in the yajña of Viśvāmitra, bent and broke the bow of Śiva and married Sītā, put down the pride of Paraśurāma, spent a forest life with his wife in obedience to his father's command, killed Khara, Triśiras and 14,000 Rākṣasas; performed the funeral rites to Jaṭāyu, and Kabandha, killed Vāli for the sake of Sugrīva, put up a bridge across the sea, welcomed by the Lord of the seas; killed Rāvaṇa and Kumbhakarṇa in their capital, ordered Vibhīṣaṇa to perform funeral rites to his dead kith and kin; recovered Sītā; enthroned Vibhīṣaṇa; left in an aerial chariot to Ayodhyā, embraced Bharata, paid respects to Brahmanas, Gurus, elders and was crowned by Vasiṣṭha just like Indra. In his period which was the Tretāyuga, it looked like Kṛtayuga; sons, Kuśa and Lava; ruled for 1010 years;2 led an exemplary household life, by his loyalty to his wedded wife; performed sacrifices by giving all his kingdom as dakṣiṇa, retaining only the ornaments and dress, and for Sītā, her saumāṅgalya. The Brahmanas returned the kingdom as they had no use for it and praised him.3
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 12. 19; II. 7. 23-25; IV. 22. 63; IX. 10. 3; Matsya-purāṇa 12. 50-51.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 19. 1; VII. 1. 44; 10. 36; IX. 10. 3-52; X. 40. 20; XI. 4. 21; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 203; 8. 54; 37. 30; 63. 185-193; 64. 16; 73. 91; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 192-4; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 4. 87-102, 104.
- 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 10. 53-6; 11. 1-7; Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 48; 88, 184, 191-7.
2c) (paraśurāma)—a son of Jamadagni and Reṇukā; an aṃśa of Hari. Heard from his father that Arjuna-Haihaya had taken Kāmadhenu against his wish, and getting angry went to Haihaya's capital, cut off the king's head and took back the cow. In order to get rid of the sin of killing a king, he went on tīrthayātra for a year.1 In obedience to his father's command he killed his mother and brothers. This pleased the father and by his boon to his son, they all came back to life. During his absence, the sons of Haihaya killed his father, and on his return, found his mother crying over the death of Jamadagni. He took his axe, ran to Māhiṣmatī, rooted out all the Kṣatriyas by defeating them twenty-one times; with their blood he made nine pools at Syamantapañcaka, where he worshipped his father's dead body and distributed the various regions to the priests; ended it with avabhṛta in the sarasvatī.2 He would be a great sage in the forthcoming manvantara. A sage of the 8th manvantara. Even today resides in Mahendra contemplating on Hari;3 was invited for the Rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhira and came to see Kṛṣṇa at Syamantapañcaka.4
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 15. 13 to the end. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 1. 98; 66. 63; 69. 48; Matsya-purāṇa 43. 40; 285. 7.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 16. 1-23; Matsya-purāṇa 273. 66.
- 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 15; IX. 16. 25-7.
- 4) Ib. X. 74. 9; 84. 4.
2d) A son of Śivadatta.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 35. 12.
2e) A sage of the Sāvarṇi epoch. (eighth epoch Viṣṇu-purāṇa).*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 9. 32; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 2. 17.
2f) Son of Senājit.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 173.
Rāma (राम) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.47) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Rāma) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study
Rāma (राम) or Śrīrāma refers to one of the four sons of Daśaratha who is the grandson of Raghu, according to the Vaṃśānucarita section of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, [...] Raghu was the son of Dīrghabāhu. The son of Raghu was very famous from whom Daśaratha was born. Daśaratha had four sons who were religious and famous in the world. They were Rāma, Bharata, Lakṣmaṇa and Śatrughna. All of them were devoted to Lord Mahādeva. [...] Lava and Kuśa were two sons of Rāma. From Kuśa was bom Atithi and from Atithi was born Niṣadha.
Sītā was the wife of Rāma who was born as a portion of Pārvatī because king Janaka propitiated Pārvatī by his penance. Śiva, having been pleased with him gave him a bow. Śrīrāma broke this bow and Janaka gave Sītā in marriage to Rāma. When Rāma was about to be consecrated, his step mother Kaikeyī asked for two boons to Daśaratha to grant which he promised earlier. As a result Bharata became the king.
Rāma, Lakṣmaṇa were sent to the forest along with Sītā. Demon Rāvaṇa abducted Sītā from the forest and took her to Laṃka. [...] Rāma went to Laṃka with His army and fought with Rāvaṇa who was killed along with the demon force. While returning from Laṃka with Sītā, Rāma established Lord Mahādeva in the middle of the bridge who became famous as Rāmeśvara Mahādeva. Afterwards Rāma was installed on the throne. He reigned happily and worshipped Śaṃkara by performing aśvamedha sacrifice. By the grace of Śiva Śrīrāma achieved paramapada.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Rāma (राम) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “Kashmir deer”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Rāma is part of the sub-group named Jāṅgalamṛga, refering to “animals living in forests”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
1) Rāmā (रामा) is another name for Śvetakaṇṭakārī, a medicinal plant related to Kaṇṭakārī, according to verse 4.33-36 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Rāmā and Śvetakaṇṭakārī, there are a total of twenty-four Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
2) Rāmā (रामा) is also mentioned as a synonym for Gṛhakanyā, a medicinal plant commonly identified with Aloe vera var. chinensis Baker from the Asphodelaceae family of flowering plants, according to verse 5.47-49. The fifth chapter (parpaṭādi-varga) of this book enumerates sixty varieties of smaller plants (kṣudra-kṣupa). Together with the names Rāmā and Gṛhakanyā, there are a total of twenty-one Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
1) Rāma (राम) is the son of king Daśaratha who was sent to the forest with his wife Sītā and his younger brother Lakṣmaṇa, according to in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 51. Accordingly, “... long ago king Daśaratha, the sovereign of Ayodhyā, had a son named Rāma, the elder brother of Bharata, Śatrughna and Lakṣmaṇa. He was a partial incarnation of Viṣṇu for the overthrow of Rāvaṇa, and he had a wife named Sītā, the daughter of Janaka, the lady of his life. As fate would have it, his father handed over the kingdom to Bharata, and sent Rāma to the forest with Sītā and Lakṣmaṇa”.
2) Rāma (राम) and Lakṣmaṇa were the twin-sons born to king Tārāvaloka and Mādrī, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 113. Accordingly, as Kaśyapa said to Naravāhanadatta: “... then he [Tārāvaloka] had two twin sons born to him by Mādrī, and the father called them Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa. And the boys grew like the love and joy of their parents, and they were dearer than life to their grandparents. And Tārāvaloka and Mādrī were never tired of looking at them, as they bent before them, being filled with virtue, like two bows of the prince, being strung”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Rāma, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Rāma (राम).—One of the incarnations of Viṣṇu.—In the incarnation of Rāma, the son of Baśaratha, he killed Rāvaṇa.Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study
Rāmā (रामा) is the name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) [defined as इ.इ.उ.उ] of the Upajāti type as employed in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—We find sixteen examples of Rāmā variety of Upajāti metre in the Bhīṣmacarita. The example of it is verse IV.25. [...] The other examples are as follows: IV.27, IV.32, IV.46, IV.49, X.39, XI.3, XI.22, XI.25, XI.29, XI.31, XI.38, XIV.15, XIV.33, XIV.47 and XIV.54.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Devotees Vaishnavas: Śrī Garga Saṃhitā
Ramā (रमा) refers to the twenty-third of twenty-six ekādaśīs according to the Garga-saṃhitā 4.8.9. Accordingly, “to attain Lord Kṛṣṇa’s mercy you should follow the vow of fasting on ekādaśī. In that way You will make Lord Kṛṣṇa into your submissive servant. Of this there is no doubt”. A person who chants the names of these twenty-six ekādaśīs (e.g., Ramā) attains the result of following ekādaśī for one year.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (vaishnavism)
Rāma (राम) refers to one of the manifestations of Viṣṇu.—Śrī Rāma, the incarnation of Viṣṇu, is considered to be the most complete and perfect of all the avatāras. He possesses the qualities of a uttama-puruṣa (noble man) and a lakṣya-nāyaka (man committed to a goal). It is said that there are thirty three special structural characteristics in the image of Śrī Rāma.
Viṣṇu is represented as Śrī Rāma who is an embodiment of righteousness, love, compassion, order, heroism and beauty. The devotees pray to him for patience, confidence, courage, hard working, obedience, and intelligence. These are the characteristics found in the life of Śrī Rāma. So the devotees feel happy to pray to such a wonderful incarnation of Viṣṇu.Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Rāma (राम) refers to:—(or Rāmacandra)A līlā-avatāra, or pastime avatāra, of Śrī Kṛṣṇa; also known as Rāmacandra, Raghunātha, Dāśarathi-Rāma, and Rāghava-Rāma. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Rāma (राम).—Inhabitant of Mithila who wrote a commentary by name विद्वत्प्रबोधिनी (vidvatprabodhinī) on the Sarasvata Prakriya.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Rāma or Śrīrāma is the name of a deity depicted at Ramaswamy Temple in Kumbakonam (Kumbhakonam), representing a sacred place for the worship of Viṣṇu.—(a) In the sannidhi for Rāma, there are icons of Rāma, Sītā, Lakṣmaṇa and Hanumān. [...] The mūla-bera of Śrī Rāma is found seated in sukhāsana with two hands. The right hand holds vyākhyāna-mudrā and the left hand is in kaṭaka-hasta. Sītā is found seated to the left of Rāma in sukhāsana posture with the right leg folded and left leg hanging. (b) In front of the stone images are the utsava-mūrti of Rāma, Sītā, Lakṣmaṇa, Bharata, Satrukguṇa and Hanumān. Rāma is found in standing posture with dhanur-hasta in the left hand and kaṭaka-hasta in the right hand.
The images of Rāma Sītā and Lakṣmana are made out of stone. While depicting in dancing, Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa are found in samapāda-sthānaka with the right hand in kapittha-hasta and the left hand in śikhara-hasta.
Rāma is also depicted at the Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam (Śrī Raṅgam), which represents a sacred place for the worship of Viṣṇu.—Rāma is found in samapāda-sthānaka with two hands. The right hand holds the arrow in kaṭaka-hasta and the left hand holds the bow in the dhanur-hasta. In dance, Rāma is found in samapāda with two hands. The right hand is held in kapittha-hasta and the left hand is in śikhara-hasta.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Rāma (राम) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the ten incarnations of Viṣṇu. This incarnation appeared in the tretāyuga. Viṣṇu is the name of a major Hindu deity and forms part of the trinity of supreme divinity (trimūrti) together with Brahmā and Śiva. They are seen as the cosmic personifications of creation (brahmā), maintenance (viṣṇu), and destruction (śiva).Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
An avatar of Viṣnu. Rama, Ramachandra, the prince and king of Ayodhya, appeared in the Treta Yuga. Rama is a commonly worshiped avatar in Hinduism, and is thought of as the ideal heroic man. His story is recounted in one of the most widely read scriptures of Hinduism, the Ramayana. While in exile from his own kingdom with his brother Lakshman and the monkey king Hanuman, his wife Sita was abducted by the demon king of Lanka, Ravana. He travelled to Ashoka Vatika in Lanka, killed the demon king and saved Sita.Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology
Rama is the hero of the epic Ramayana. He is an incarnation of Vishnu. He was born as a crown prince, but went into voluntary exile for 14 years, to fulfill a promise made by his father to his step-mother. His wife Sita was abducted by the demon king Ravana while they were in exile. With the help of the monkey-king Sugreeva and his friend Hanuman, Rama killed Ravana and rescued his wife.Source: Vaniquotes: Hinduism
Rāma (or Rāmacandra) is the incarnation of Vāsudeva. Lord Rāma is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and His brothers, namely Bharata, Lakṣmaṇa and Śatrughna, are His plenary expansions.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Rama. A brahmin, skilled in physiognomy. He was one of the eight consulted by Suddhodana regarding his son, the future Buddha. J.i.56; Mil.236.
2. Rama. King of Benares. He suffered from a virulent skin disease, and, leaving his kingdom to his eldest son, went into the forest, where he was cured by eating medicinal herbs. In the forest he met and married Piya, the eldest daughter of Okkaka. She suffered from the same complaint, and was cured by him. They lived in the forest with their thirty two children. A forester recognized Rama in the forest, and, on his return to the city, told the news to the king. The king went to the forest with his retinue and begged his father to return to the kingdom. He refused to do so, and, at his own suggestion, a city was built for him in the forest which was called Koliya or Vyagghapajja. Rama thus became the ancestor of the Koliyans. DA.i.260ff.; SNA.355f.; cf. Mtu.i.355, where he is called Kola.
3. Rama. A brahmin, father of the Buddhas teacher, Uddaka Ramaputta (q.v.). J.i.66; M.i.165.
4. Rama. The Bodhisatta born as the eldest son of Dasaratha, king of Benares. He is also called Ramapandita. He married his sister Sita, and her devotion to him became proverbial (E.g., J.iv.559, 560; Cv.lxxiii.137). For Ramas story see the Dasaratha Jataka. Certain ruling princes of Ceylon claimed descent from Rama e.g., Jagatipala (q.v.). Ramas fight with Ravana and the incidents recounted in the Ramayana are mentioned only in the later Pali Chronicles, such as the Culavamsa. Cv.lxiv.42; lxviii.20; lxxv.59; lxxxiii.46, 69, 88.
5. Rama. A Sakyan prince, brother of Bhaddakaccana. He came to Ceylon, where he founded the settlement of Ramagona. Mhv.ix.9; Dpv.x.4ff.
6. Rama. Called Matuposaka Rama. He was an Inhabitant of Benares and greatly loved his parents. He once went on business to Kumbhavati, in the country of Dandaki, and there, when the country was being destroyed owing to the wickedness of the king, Rama thought of the goodness of his parents. The devas were moved by the power of this thought and conveyed him safely to his mother (J.v.29). He was one of the three survivors of the disaster which overtook Dandakis kingdom. MA.ii.602.
7. Rama. One of the palaces of Kondanna Buddha in his last lay life. BuA.107; but see Bu.iii.26.
8. Rama. One of the generals of Gajabahu. Rama was once defeated by the general Deva (Cv.lxx.137, 142), but later won a victory at the Maharakkha ford. Rama received the title of Nilagiri, which was evidently the name of his district. Cv.lxxii.12; Cv. Trs.i.299, n.1; 320, n.2.
9. Rama. The second of the future Buddhas. Anagatavamsa, p. 40.
10. Rama. See Ramma.
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1. Rama. One of the two chief women disciples of Paduma Buddha. J.i.36; Bu.ix.22, calls her Radha.
2. Rama. Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Rāma (राम) is one of the persons who escaped the destruction of king Daṇḍaki’s country according to the Jātaka and Papañca mentioned in Appendix 1 of the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXIV).—Accordingly, “Kisavaccha, disciple of Sarabhaṅga, in search of solitude, was established in King Daṇḍaki’s park, near the city of Kumbhavatī in Kaliṅga. One day when King Daṇḍaki was leaving to suppress a revolt, he thought he could make himself lucky by spitting on Kisavaccha and throwing his tooth-pick at him. The gods were indignant, killed the king and destroyed the whole country. Only three people escaped death: the Ṛṣi Kisavaccha, the leader of the army who had become his disciple, and a certain Rāma, originally from Benares, who was spared as a result of his filial piety. The forest that grew up in that desolated land was called Daṇḍakārañña”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism
Rāma (राम) is the son of Dasaraṭṭha: an ancient king from the Solar dynasty (sūryavaṃśa) and a descendant of Mahāsaṃmata, according to the Mahābuddhavaṃsa or Maha Buddhavamsa (the great chronicle of Buddhas) Anudīpanī chapter 1, compiled by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw. Navaraṭṭha’s son was King Dasaraṭṭha. Dasaraṭṭha’s son was King Rāma. Rāma’s son was King Vilāraṭṭha.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
1) Rāmā (रामा) is the mother of Puṣpadanta, the ninth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.
The husband of Rāmā is Sugrīva. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.
2) Rāma (राम) is the name of the ninth Baladeva according to Śvetāmbara, while the Digambara traditions mentions him as the eighth Baladeva. Jain legends describe nine such Baladevas (“gentle heroes”) usually appearing together with their “violent” twin-brothers known as the Vāsudevas. The legends of these twin-heroes usually involve their antagonistic counterpart known as the Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes).
The mother of Rāma is known by the name Rohiṇī according to the Samavāyāṅga-sūtra, and their stories are related in texts such as the Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacarita (“the lives of the sixty-three illustrious persons”), a twelfth-century Śvetāmbara work by Hemacandra.
The nine Baladevas (such as Rāma) are also known as Balabhadra and are further described in various Jain sources, such as the Bhagavatīsūtra and Jambūdvīpaprajñapti in Śvetāmbara, or the Tiloyapaṇṇatti and Ādipurāṇa in the Digambara tradition. The appearance of a Baladeva is described as follows: their body is of a white complexion, they wear a blue-black robe, and the mark of the palm-tree (tāla) is seen on their banners.Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography
Rāmā (रामा) is the mother of Suvidhinātha: the ninth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas.—From patriarchical history, we gather [Suvidhinātha’s] native place was called Kākandīnagara. His father was the ruling prince by the name of Sugrīva and his mother was named Rāmā, his place of Nirvāṇa was Sameta-Śikhara or Mount Pārasnātha. His father was the lord of Kākandī. Curiously, Kākandī is called Kākandīnagara (Sanskrit: Kiṣkindhānagara). Let us remember, his father is called Sugrīva, his mother has the name of Rāmā. All this has curious association with the Rāmāyaṇa. The Kiṣkindha of the Rāmāyaṇa was situated on the sea. Hence, it is evident that aquatic animals like a crocodile or a crab have come to be the emblems of this Tīrthaṃkara.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
1) Rāmā (रामा) is the name of an Apsaras, instructed by Śakra to help in the preparations of Ṛṣabha’s wedding-preparations, according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly, “[...] Then having ascertained the Lord’s purpose, Purandara at once summoned gods for the tasks of the wedding-preparations.—‘[...] Why are you playing elsewhere, Rāmā? Hemā, why do you look at gold? Kratusthalā, why are you confused, as if drunk? [...]’. From the bustling of the Apsarases instructing each other in this way, and frequently calling names, a mighty tumult arose”.
1c) Rāmā (रामा) is the wife of Sugrīva and mother of Suvidhinātha, according to chapter 3.7 [suvidhinātha-caritra].—Accordingly, “Sugrīva’s wife was named Rāmā, the stop to all faults, beautiful with spotless virtues, the crest-jewel of all charming women. The receptacle of natural beauty, giving delight to the eyes, she was unique on earth, like a digit of the moon in the sky. [...]”.
2) Rāma (राम), the son of Rohiṇī, is one of the nine white Baladevas, according to chapter 1.6. Accordingly: “[...] There will be nine white Baladevas, their (half-)brothers, sons of co-wives. [...] The ninth will be Rāma, son of Rohiṇī, living for twelve hundred years. Among these, eight will attain mokṣa; Rāma will go to the heaven Brahma. He will attain mokṣa in utsarpiṇī in Bharatakṣetra in the tīrtha of Kṛṣṇa”.Source: WikiPedia: Jainism
Rāma (राम) (or Baladeva, Balabhadra, Balarāma, Bala) refers to a set of nine “gentle heroes” and half-brothers of Vasudevas (or Viṣṇus, Nārāyaṇas), mentioned in both Śvetāmbara and Digambara literature.—In every half time cycle, there are 9 sets of Balabhadras (gentle heroes), Vasudevas (violent heroes) and Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes). Baladevas, half-brothers of Vasudevas, are described as fair in complexion and wear garments of dark blue and have a banner of palm tree. Their symbols or weapons are: bow, plough, pestle and arrow. The two brothers are inseparable and they jointly rule three continents as half-Chakravarti. Although Narayana is the mightier of the two, Balabhadra is depicted as superior for his non-violent ways and he achieves liberation. According to the Jain puranas, the Balabhadras lead an ideal Jain life.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: archive.org: Social Life In Medieval Rajasthan
Rāma-worship in Rājasthān.—The rulers of Mewār claimed their descent from Rāma. A temple of Sītā of great antiquity at the village of Siyārāmā, about two miles from Udaipur shows that the cult of Rāma was associated with the ruling family of the Guhilots. We know from the Samidhśsvara Inscription of V.S. 1458 (1401 A.D.) that Khshetra Singh had faith in Rāma. The Jāwar Inscription states that the temple of Rāma Swāmi and Rāma Kund were constructed by Rāmā Devi, daughter of Kumbhā and wife of Mandalik at Jāwar. Sangram Singh II of Udaipur assigned 100 bighās of land in the village of Bhuvānā for the maintenance of the temple of Sītā-Rāma in V.S. 1700 (1643 A.D.). These rulers used the invocatory phrase ‘Rāmajayati’ before commencing the writing of official documents or copper-plate grants or stone-tablets and concluded themwith the phrase ‘Rāmārpaṇa’ From the official correspondence of Jaipur, it is clear that the rulers of Jaipur used the invocatory phrase of ‘Sītā-Rāmji’. From the Bānswārā grants and documents of our period we conclude that 'Śrī Rāmaji' was used as a mark of devotion to the cult of Rāma.Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
Rāma (राम) is an example of a name based on Rāma mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. Lord Rāma is believed to be the seventh incarnation of Viṣṇu. Rāma occurring in our inscriptions seems to have been Rāma Rāghava. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Derivation of personal names (e.g., Rāma) during the rule of the Guptas followed patterns such as tribes, places, rivers and mountains.Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1
Rama (“lovely”) is one of the gotras (clans) among the Kurnis (a tribe of South India). Kurni is, according to the Census Report 1901, “a corruption of kuri (sheep) and vanni (wool), the caste having been originally weavers of wool”. The gotras (viz., Rama) are described as being of the Brāhman, Kshatriya, and Vaisya sub-divisions of the caste, and of Shanmukha’s Sudra caste.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Rāma.—(IE 7-1-2; EI 25), ‘three’. Note: rāma is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Rama, (-°) (adj.) (fr. ram) delighting, enjoyable; only in cpd. dū° (=duḥ) difficult to enjoy, not fit for pleasures; as nt. absence of enjoyment Dh. 87=S. V, 24; and mano° gladdening the mind (q. v.). (Page 565)
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Rāma, (fr. ram; cp. Vedic rāma) pleasure, sport, amusement; °kara having pleasure, sporting, making love J. V, 448. (Page 570)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
rāma (राम).—m (S) A name common to three incarnations of Vishn̤u; viz. paraśurāma, rāmacandra, balarāma. 2 A covert name for one rupee, as sītā or sītā- bāī is for Half a rupee. rāma mhaṇaṇēṃ or rāma hōṇēṃ To expire. rāmāya svasti rā- vaṇāya svasti (Let Ram prosper! let Rawan̤ prosper!) A phrase expressive of absolute impartiality or utter indifference respecting two contending parties.
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rāmā (रामा).—f S A beautiful or pleasing woman. 2 A woman in general.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
rāma (राम).—m A name common to three incarna- tions of viṣṇu. Energy. rāma mhaṇaṇēṃ-hōṇēṃ Expire.
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rāmā (रामा).—f A beautiful woman; a woman.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Rama (रम).—a. [ram-ac]
1) Pleasing, delightful, gratifying.
2) Dear, beloved.
-maḥ 1 Joy, delight.
2) A lover, husband.
3) The god of love.
4) The Aśoka tree.
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Ramā (रमा).—[ramayati ram-ac]
1) A wife, mistress.
2) Name of Lakṣmī, wife of Viṣṇu and Goddess of wealth; रमा यत्र न वाक् तत्र यत्र वाक् तत्र ना रमा (ramā yatra na vāk tatra yatra vāk tatra nā ramā) Udb.
3) Good luck, fortune.
6) Name of the eleventh day in the dark half of Kārtika.
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Rāma (राम).—a. [ram kartari ghañ ṇa vā]
1) Pleasing, delighting, rejoicing,
2) Beautiful, lovely, charming.
3) Obscure; dark-coloured, black.
-maḥ 1 Name of three celebrated personages; (a) Paraśurāma, son of Jamadagni; (b) Balarāma, son of Vasudeva and brother of Kṛṣṇa, q.q.v.v.; (c) Rāmachandra or Sītārāma, son of Daśaratha and Kausalyā and the hero of the Rāmāyaṇa; (the word is thus derived in Purāṇas:-- rāśabdo viśvavacano maścāpīśvaravācakaḥ | viśvādhīneśvaro yo hi tena rāmaḥ prakīrtitaḥ ||) cf. also राकारोच्चारमात्रेण मुखान्निर्याति पातकम् । पुनः प्रवेशशङ्कायां मकारोऽस्ति कपाटवत् (rākāroccāramātreṇa mukhānniryāti pātakam | punaḥ praveśaśaṅkāyāṃ makāro'sti kapāṭavat) || [When quite a boy, he with his brother was taken by Viśvāmitra, with the permission of Daśaratha, to his hermitage to protect his sacrifices from the demons that obstructed them. Rāma killed them all with perfect ease, and received from the sage several miraculous missiles as a reward. He then accompanied Viśvāmitra to the capital of Janaka where he married Sītā having performed the wonderful feat of bending Siva's bow, and then returned to Ayodhyā. Daśaratha, seeing that Rāma was growing fitter and fitter to rule the kingdom, resolved to install him as heir-apparent. But, on the eve of the day of coronation, his favourite wife Kaikeyī, at the instigation of her wicked nurse Mantharā, asked him to fulfil the two boons he had formerly promised to her, by one of which she demanded the exile of Rāma for fourteen years and by the other the installation of her own son Bharata as Yuvarāja. The king was terribly shocked, and tried his best to dissuade her from her wicked demands, but was at last obliged to yield. The dutiful son immediately prapared to go into exile accompanied by his beautiful young wife Sītā and his devoted brother Lakṣmana. The period of his exile was eventful, and the two brothers killed several powerful demons and at last roused the jealousy of Rāvaṇa himself. The wicked demon resolved to try Rāma by carrying off his beauteous wife for whom he had conceived an ardent passion, and accomplished his purpose being assisted by Mārīcha. After several fruitless inquiries as to her whereabouts, Hanumat ascertained that she was in Laṅkā and persuaded Rāma to invade the island and kill the ravisher. The monkeys built a bridge across the ocean over which Rāma with his numerous troops passed, conquered Laṅkā, and killed Rāvaṇa along with his whole host of demons. Rāma, attended by his wife and friends in battle, triumphantly returned to Ayodhyā where he was crowned king by Vasiṣṭha. He reigned long and righteously and was succeeded by his son Kuśa. Rāma is said to be the seventh incarnation of Viṣṇu; cf. Jayadeva:-वितरसि दिक्षु रणे दिक्पतिकमनीयं दशमुखमौलिबलिं रमणीयम् । केशव धृतरघुपति- रूप जय जगदीश हरे (vitarasi dikṣu raṇe dikpatikamanīyaṃ daśamukhamaulibaliṃ ramaṇīyam | keśava dhṛtaraghupati- rūpa jaya jagadīśa hare) Gīt.1.].
2) A kind of deer.
3) Name of Aruṇa.
4) A lover; cf. Śi.4.59.
5) A horse.
6) Pleasure, joy.
-mam 1 Darkness.
2) Leprosy (kṛṣṭham).
3) A tamāla leaf.
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Rāmā (रामा).—[ramate'nayā ram karaṇe ghañ]
1) A beautiful woman, a charming young woman; अथ रामा विकसन्मुखी बभूव (atha rāmā vikasanmukhī babhūva) Bv.2.16;3.6.
2) A beloved, wife, mistress; रामो रामावबोधितः (rāmo rāmāvabodhitaḥ) R.12.23; पप्रच्छ रामां रमणोऽभिलाषम् (papraccha rāmāṃ ramaṇo'bhilāṣam) 14.27.
3) A woman in general; रामा हरन्ति हृदयं प्रसभं नराणाम् (rāmā haranti hṛdayaṃ prasabhaṃ narāṇām) Ṛs.6.25.
4) A woman of origin.
6) Aśa Fœtida.
7) A kind of pigment (gorocanā).
9) A river.
1) An accomplished woman (versed in fine arts).
11) A kind of metre.
12) (In music) A kind of measure.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Rāma (राम).—(Pali id.), name of the father and teacher of Udraka Rāmaputra, q.v.; his doctrine, called naiva- saṃjñānāsaṃjñāyatanam, was taught by the latter to the Bodhisattva: Mahāvastu ii.120.7 ff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. Dear, beloved. 2. Pleasing, delighting, charming. m.
(-maḥ) 1. A husband, a lover. 2. Kama. 3. A red variety of the Aśoka tree, (Jonesia asoca.) f.
(-mā) 1. A name of Lakshmi. 2. A wife, a mistress. E. ram to sport, aff. ac .
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(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. Black. 2. White. 3. Beautiful, pleasing. m.
(-maḥ) 1. A name common to three incarnations of Vishnu, viz:-firstly, Parasurama, the son of the Muni Jamadagni, born at the commencement of the second or Treta Yuga, for the purpose of punishing the tyrannical kings of the Kshetriya race. Secondly, Ramachandra, the son of Dasaratha, king of Oudh, born at the close of the second age, to destroy the demons who infested the earth, and especially Ravana the Daitya-sovereign of Ceylon. Thirdly, Balarama, (the elder and half-brother of Krishna,) the son of Basudeva by Ro4Hini, born at the end of the Dwapara or third age. 2. A name of Varuna, regent of the waters. 3. A horse. 4. A sort of deer. f.
(-mā) 1. A woman, a female, a pleasing or beautiful female. 2. Asafœtida. 3. A river. 4. Vermilion. n.
(-maṃ) 1. A potherb, (Chenopodium album.) 2. A sort of Costus, (C. speciosus.) E. ram to sport, aff. ghañ .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Rama (रम).—[ram + a], I. adj. 1. Pleasing, [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 20 (at the end of a comp.). 2. Dear. Ii. m. 1. A husband, a lover. 2. The deity of love. Iii. f. mā. 1. A wife or a mistress, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 369 (?). 2. A name of Lakṣmī, [Pañcatantra] 46, 8.
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Rāma (राम).—i. e. ram + a, I. adj. 1. Beautiful. 2. Black. 3. White. Ii. m. 1. A proper name, particularly the hero of the Rāmāyaṇa. 2. A name of Varuṇa. 3. A horse. 4. A sort of deer. Iii. f. mā, A beautiful female, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 114; [Amaruśataka, (ed. Calcutt.)] 58.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Rama (रम).—[adjective] gladdening, delighting (—°); [feminine] ā fortune, riches, splendour, [Epithet] of Lakṣmī.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
1) Ramā (रमा) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Candrālokaṭīkā by Vaidyanātha. Ben. 39. Sb. 301.
2) Rāma (राम):—See also Rāmacandra, since the first stands often in place of the other.
3) Rāma (राम):—king of Śṛṅgavera, patron of Nāgeśa Oxf. 165^a.
4) Rāma (राम):—one of the seven teachers of Govinda (Śāṅkhāyanamahāvrataṭīkā). W. p. 28.
5) Rāma (राम):—of Navadvīpa, guru of Trilocanadeva (Kusumāñjalivyākhyā). Hall. p. 84.
6) Rāma (राम):—guru of Madhusūdana Sarasvatī. Hall. p. 119.
7) Rāma (राम):—father of Nārāyaṇa (Amarakośapañjikā 1619). Io. 13. 14.
8) Rāma (राम):—father of Nārāyaṇa (Grahaṇalikhananukrama). Peters. 2, 192.
9) Rāma (राम):—of Pārthapura (under Rāma, king of Devagiri), father of Viṣṇu, father of Nīlakaṇṭha, father of Nāganātha, father of Nṛsiṃha, father of Nāganātha, father of Jñānarāja (Siddhāntasundara), father of Sūrya (Līlāvatīṭīkā 1539). W. p. 231.
10) Rāma (राम):—father of Somadeva (Kathāsaritsāgara). Oxf. 151^b.
11) Rāma (राम):—brother of Viśrāma, son of Rāyamukuṭa (Padacandrikā).
12) Rāma (राम):—poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa] [Subhāshitāvali by Vallabhadeva]
13) Rāma (राम):—Kaṃsanidhana kāvya.
14) Rāma (राम):—Kuṇḍamaṇḍapasiddhivyākhyā.
15) Rāma (राम):—Prāyaścittadīpikā or Prāyaścittapradīpikā.
16) Rāma (राम):—Bhāminīvilāsaṭīkā.
17) Rāma (राम):—Mañjīra jy.
18) Rāma (राम):—Vaidyakasāra. Śaṅkarākhya med.
19) Rāma (राम):—Śyāmākalpalatā.
20) Rāma (राम):—pupil of Vidyādhara: Somakarmapradīpikā or Somakarmapaddhati.
21) Rāma (राम):—son of Ananta, grandson of Cintāmaṇi, younger brother of Nīlakaṇṭha: Muhūrtacintāmaṇi and its
—[commentary] Pramitākṣarā, composed at Benares in 1601. Rāmavinoda or Rāmavinodakaraṇa or Pañcāṅgasādhanodāharaṇa, composed in 1614. Whether the following works were writ en by the same author is uncertain. Karaṇakesarin. Yavanīyaramalaśāstra. Ramalapaddhati. Ramalaśāstra. Laghupaddhati. Samarasāra Samarasārasvarodaya.
22) Rāma (राम):—son of Balabhadra, grandson of Śrīnandana, wrote a Praśasti in 1002. Epigr. Ind. p. 146.
23) Rāma (राम):—son of Madhusūdana: Yantracintāmaṇiṭīkā.
24) Rāma (राम):—son of Viśveśvara, of the Vatsa race: Putrasvīkāranirṇaya.
25) Rāma (राम):—son of Śrīnātha: Gītagirīśa.
26) Rāma (राम):—son of Viśvanātha. read by request of Anūpasiṃha. He had previously written five works in the following order: Anūpaviveka (śālagramaparīkṣaṇa). Saṃtānakalpalatikā. Anūpakutukārṇava. Amṛtamañjarī med. Cikitsāmālatīmālā.
27) Rāma (राम):—father of Govardhana (Padmakośa).
28) Rāma (राम):—Cūḍāmaṇi or Hillāja.
29) Rāma (राम):—Manmathonmathana ḍima.
30) Rāma (राम):—Ramalagrantha Yavanokta.
31) Rāma (राम):—son of Rāmarudra: Ramalaśāstra.
32) Rāma (राम):—son of Cauṇḍa: Baudhāyanagṛhyaprayogamālā.
33) Rāma (राम):—son of Vidyādhara: Kautukalīlāvatī.
34) Rāma (राम):—Kārakaṭippaṇī.
35) Rāma (राम):—Ramalavaicitrya.
36) Rāma (राम):—Laghusiddhāntacandrikā [grammatical]
37) Rāma (राम):—son of Kṛṣṇa, grandson of Rāmacandra: Ramalaśāstra.
Rāma has the following synonyms: Rāmacandra.
38) Rāma (राम):—son of Nandarāma, grandson of Janārdana, wrote in 1799 a C. to the Caurapañcāśikā. He follows Rādhākṛṣṇa in explaining the poem as referring to Kālikā.
39) Rāma (राम):—son of Balirāja: Bṛhatparvamālābhāṣya.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Rama (रम):—[from ram] mfn. pleasing, delighting, rejoicing (only ifc.; cf. mano-r)
2) [v.s. ...] dear, beloved, [Horace H. Wilson]
3) [v.s. ...] m. (only [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) joy
4) [v.s. ...] a lover, husband, spouse
5) [v.s. ...] Kāma-deva, the god of love
6) [v.s. ...] the red-flowering Aśoka
7) Ramā (रमा):—[from rama > ram] a f. See sub voce
8) [from ram] b f. of rama q.v.
9) [v.s. ...] a wife, mistress, [Horace H. Wilson]
10) [v.s. ...] Name of Lakṣmī, the goddess of fortune, [Bhartṛhari; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
11) [v.s. ...] good luck, fortune, splendour, opulence, [Cāṇakya]
12) [v.s. ...] splendour, pomp, [Bhāminī-vilāsa]
13) [v.s. ...] Name of the 11th day in the dark half of the month Kārttika, [Catalogue(s)]
14) [v.s. ...] of the syllable śṝm (also rama), [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]
15) [v.s. ...] of a daughter of Śaśi-dhvaja and wife of Kalki, [Kalki-purāṇa]
16) Rāma (राम):—mf(ā)n. ([probably] ‘causing rest’, and in most meanings [from] √ram) dark, dark-coloured, black (cf. rātri), [Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-āraṇyaka] (rāmaḥ śakuniḥ. a black bird, crow, [Kāṭhaka-gṛhya-sūtra; Viṣṇu-smṛti, viṣṇu-sūtra, vaiṣṇava-dharma-śāstra])
17) white (?), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) pleasing, pleasant, charming, lovely, beautiful, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
19) m. a kind of deer, [Caraka]
20) a horse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
21) a lover, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
22) pleasure, joy, delight, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
23) Name of Varuṇa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
24) Name of various mythical personages (in Veda two Rāmas are mentioned with the [patronymic] Mārgaveya and Aupatasvini; another R°s with the [patronymic] Jāmadagnya cf. below is the supposed author of [Ṛg-veda x, 110]; in later times three R°s are celebrated, viz. 1. Paraśu-rāma [q.v.], who forms the 6th Avatāra of Viṣṇu and is sometimes called Jāmadagnya, as son of the sage Jamad-agni by Reṇukā, and sometimes Bhārgava, as descended from Bhṛgu; 2. Rāma-candra [see below]; 3. Bala-rāma [q.v.], ‘the strong Rāma’, also called Halāyudha and regarded as elder brother of Kṛṣṇa [Religious Thought and Life in India 112] [according to] to Jainas a Rāma is enumerated among the 9 white Balas; and in [Viṣṇu-purāṇa] a R°s is mentioned among the 7 Ṛṣis of the 8th Manv-antara), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. Name of a king of Malla-pura, [Catalogue(s)]
25) of a king of Śṛṅga-vera and patron of Nāgeśa, [ib.]
26) of various authors and teachers (also with ācārya, upādhyāya, kavi, cakra-vartin, jyotir-vid, jyau-tiṣaka, tarka-vāg-īśa, dīkṣita, daiva-jña, paṇḍita, bhaṭṭa, bhaṭṭācārya, vājapeyin, śarman, śāstrin, saṃyamin, sūri etc.), [Catalogue(s)]
27) Name of the number ‘three’ (on account of the 3 Rāmas), [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi] (rāmasya iṣuḥ, a kind of cane = rāmakaṇḍa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.])
28) [plural] Name of a people, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
29) Rāmā (रामा):—[from rāma] a f. a beautiful woman, any young and charming woman, mistress, wife, any woman, [Kaṭha-upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc. (for [compound] See p.878)
30) [v.s. ...] a dark woman id est. a woman of low origin, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-āraṇyaka]
31) [v.s. ...] Name of various plants (Jonesia Asoka; Aloe Perfoliata; Asa Foetida etc.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] vermilion, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
32) [v.s. ...] red earth, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
33) [v.s. ...] a kind of pigment (= gorocanā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
34) [v.s. ...] a river, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
35) [v.s. ...] a kind of metre, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
36) [v.s. ...] (in music) a kind of measure, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]
37) [v.s. ...] Name of an Apsaras, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc. [Scholiast or Commentator]]
38) [v.s. ...] of a daughter of Kumbhāṇḍa, [Harivaṃśa]
39) [v.s. ...] of the mother of the ninth Arhat of the present Ava-sarpiṇī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
40) Rāma (राम):—n. idem, [ib.]
41) the leaf of Laurus Cassia, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
42) Chenopodium Album, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
43) = kuṣṭha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
44) Rāmā (रामा):—[from rāma] b f. (of rāma) a lovely or charming woman.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Rama (रम):—[(maḥ-mā-maṃ) a.] Dear, charming. m. A husband; Kāma; Jonesia asoca. f. (mā) Lakshmi; a wife.
2) Rāma (राम):—[(maḥ-mā-maṃ) a.] Black; white; pleasing. m. Rāma, a name common to three incarnations Purashurāma, Rāmachandra, and Balarāma; a horse. f. A fine woman; a river; asafoetida. n. A potherb, sort of costus.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Rama (रम):—(von ram)
1) adj. ergötzend, erfreuend gana jvalādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 3, 1, 140.] guhyakādhipa [Kirātārjunīya 5, 20.] Vgl. mano . —
2) m. a) Geliebter, Gatte. — b) der Liebesgott. — c) rothblühender Aśoka [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 333.] [Medinīkoṣa Manu’s Gesetzbuch 25.] —
3) f. ā a) ein Name der Lakṣmī, der Glücksgöttin; auch in appellat. Bed. Glück, Reichthum [Amarakoṣa.1,1,1,23.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa.1,1,41.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 226.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Oxforder Handschriften 190,b,23.] [Spr. 920. 4817. 5403.] [WEBER, Rāmatāpanīya Upaniṣad 296. 307. fgg. 312. 328.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa.3,9,23.4,25,28.5,18,16. fg. 7,9,26.8,5,5.8,8. 23.9,20,8.] [Vopadeva’s Grammatik.5,7.] [Oxforder Handschriften 80,b,30.] = śobhā Pracht, Schönheit [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — b) Bez. des 11ten Tages in der dunklen Hälfte des Kārttika [Weber’s Verzeichniss 341, 3.] — c) Nomen proprium einer Tochter Śaśidhvaja’s und Gattin Kalki's [KALKI-Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 25 im Śabdakalpadruma] — d) schlechte Variante von rāmā [COLEBR.] und [Loiseleur Deslongchamps] zu [Amarakoṣa 2, 6, 1, 4.] — ramaharṣita [PADMA-Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 16, 144] fehlerhaft für romaharṣita; in Betreff von [Pañcatantra I, 369] s. [Spr. 4700.]
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Rāma (राम):—2. (von ram)
1) nom. act. Lust, Freude: svakuṭumba adj. [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 7, 6, 14.] —
2) oxyt. nom. ag. gaṇa jvalādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 3, 1, 140.] a) adj. (f. a) erfreuend, entzückend, lieblich, reizend [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 23, 143.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 334.] [Medinīkoṣa Manu’s Gesetzbuch 26. fg.] rāmasya lokarāmasya [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 19, 20.] bhāvena rāmā [Mahābhārata 1, 1812.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 44, 24.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 65, 27.] mṛgī [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 65, 22.] rāmādrāmaṃ jagadabhūdrāme rājyaṃ praśāsati lieblicher als lieblich [Mahābhārata 7, 2246.] [Bhaṭṭikavya 10, 2.] [NALOD. 1, 5.] — b) m. Liebhaber [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 19, 5.] — c) f. ā α) eine Schöne, ein junges reizendes Weib, Geliebte, Frau [Amarakoṣa 2, 6, 1, 4.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 6, 1.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 505.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Halāyudha 2, 326.] [Kaṭhopaniṣad 1, 25.] [Mahābhārata 1, 3039.] [Rāmāyaṇa 5, 11, 20.] [Raghuvaṃśa 5, 49. 12, 23. 16, 15.] [Vikramorvaśī 114.] [Spr. 24. 691. 1456. 2629. 2651. 4817. 4931. 5274.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 19, 5.] [Gītagovinda 1, 44.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 18, 12. 56, 425.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 1, 370.] arundhatī satīnāṃ tu rāmāsu ca tilottamā [Oxforder Handschriften 39,b,36.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa.3,23,40. 44.4,26,14. 28,59.] [PAÑCAR.2,3,32.4,5. 48.] [Dhūrtasamāgama 87,15.] — β) Bez. verschiedener Pflanzen: = śvetakaṇṭakārī, gṛhakanyā, ārāmaśītalā, aśoka [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — γ) ein best. Pigment (gorocanā) [Rājanirghaṇṭa] — δ) Röthel, rubrica [Śabdacandrikā im Śabdakalpadruma] — ε) Fluss [Medinīkoṣa] auch in [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] ist wohl hiṅgu nadīstriyoḥ zu lesen. — ζ) ein best. Metrum: ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯, ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯; ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯, ¯ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ ˘ ˘ ¯ ˘ ¯ ¯ [Journ. of the Am. Or. S. 6, 514.] — η) Nomen proprium einer Apsaras [VYĀḌI] beim Schol. zu [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 183.] einer Tochter Kumbhāṇḍa’s [Harivaṃśa 9973. 11026. fg.] der Mutter des 9ten Arhant's der gegenwärtigen Avasarpiṇī [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 39.] — Vgl. su.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) Adj. am Ende eines Comp. ergötzend , erfreuend. —
2) *m. — a) Geliebter , Gatte. — b) der Liebesgott. — c) roth blühender Aśoka. —
3) f. ā — a) Beiname der Lakṣmi. — b) Glück , Reichthum. — c) Pracht , Schönheit [Bhāminīvilāsa 2,156.160.] — d) der 11te Tag in der lichten Hälfte des Kārttika. — e) Nomen proprium einer Tochter Śaśidhavaja's. — f) *schlechte v.l. für rāmā. — ramaharṣita [PADMA-P.16,44] fehlerhaft für romaharṣita ; in Betreff von [Pañcatantra 1,369] s. [Indische sprüche 4736.]
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Rāma (राम):—(verschiedenen Ursprungs) —
1) Adj. (f. ā) — a) dunkelfarbig , schwarz. śakuni der schwarze Vogel , so v.a. Krähe [Kāṭhakagṛhyasūtra 50,20] (mit unterdrücktem śakuni  und [Viṣṇusūtra 73,26]). — b) *weiss. — c) erfreuend , entzückend , lieblich , reizend. rāmādrāmam lieblicher als lieblich. —
2) m. — a) eine Hirschart [Carakasaṃhitā 1,27.] — b) *Pferd. — c) Liebhaber. — d) Lust , Freude. — e) *Beiname Varuṇa's. — f) Nomen proprium — α) verschiedener Männer. In der ältern Literatur wird ein Mārgaveya und ein Aupatasvini erwähnt. Im Epos und später spielen 3 Rāma eine grosse Rolle ; Jāmadagnya (auch als Liedverfasser genannt) oder Bhārgava = Paraśurāma , Rāghava oder Dāśarathi und Balarāma oder Halāyudha (ein älterer Bruder Kṛṣṇa's). Die beiden ersten gelten für Incarnationen Viṣṇu's. In der späteren Literatur ist Rāma ein häufig vorkommender Mannesname. — β) einer der 7 Weisen unter Manu Sāvarṇi. — γ) Pl. eines Volkes. — g) Bez. der Zahl drei [Hemādri’s Caturvargacintāmaṇi 1,125,23.] Vgl. u. f)α). — h) rāmasya iṣuḥ eine Art Rohr , = rāmakāṇḍa [Rājan 8,77.] —
3) f. rāmā — a) eine Dunkle , so v.a. ein Weib gemeiner Herkunft. — b) eine Schöne , ein junges reizendes Weib , Geliebte , Frau. — c) *Jonesia Asoka [Rājan 10,56.] — d) *eine weiss blühende Kaṇṭakārī [Rājan 4,34.] — e) *Aloe perfoliata [Rājan 5,46.] — f) *eine best. Pflanze mit wohlriechenden Blättern [Rājan 10,177.] — g) *Asa foetida. — h) *Gallenstein des Rindes [Rājan 12,59.] — i) *Röthel , rubrica. — k) *Mennig. — l) *Fluss. — m) ein best. Metrum. — n) ein best. Tact. [Saṃgitasārasaṃgraha 227.] — o) Nomen proprium — α) einer Apsaras. — β) einer Tochter Kumbhāṇḍa's. — γ) *der Mutter des 9ten Arhant’s der gegenwärtigen Avasarpiṇī. —
4) f. rāmī Dunkel , Nacht. —
5) n. — a) Dunkel. — b) *das Blatt der Laurus Cassia [Rājan 6,175.] — c) *Chenopodium album. — d) * = kuṣṭha [Rājan 12,122.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Ramā (रमा):—(nf) Lakshmi: —the goddess of wealth; ~[kāṃta/ramaṇa] Lord Vishnu.
2) Rāma (राम) [Also spelled ram]:—(nm) Ramchandra-the greatest of the ancient Indian kings of Solar dynasty and the hero of the great Indian epic—Ramayan; God, an incarnation of Vishnu; ~[kahānī] a tale of woe; long narration of events of one’s own life; ~[dhāma] the abode of Ram—Ayodhya:; the paradise; ~[navamī] the birthday of Ram-the ninth day of the bright fortnight of [caita; ~nāmī] an overall cover cloth with the name of Ram written all over; ~[bāṇa] a panacea, an unfailing remedy, sure cure; ~[raja] yellow ochre; ~[rasa] salt; ~[rājya] the rule of Ram—golden rule; just, equitable and ideal, rule; Utopia; -[rāma] a form of mutual salutation; Good God!, an interjectional utterance expressive of hate, surprise, indignation, etc.; •[karake/0 kahakara] somehow, with great difficulty; ~[līlā] a celebration involving enactment of the exploits and adventures of Ram; -[kā nāma lo] Think of Heavens ! What do you talk ! It's just absurd; -[jāne] God (alone) knows; -[nāma satya hai] lit. the name of God alone is true—a saying repeatedly chanted during a Hindu funeral procession; —[bharose choḍanā] to let things go as they may, a hostage to fortune; —[bharose jo rahe māra sake nā koya] what God will, no frost can kill; —[rāma japanā parāyā māla apanā] a robber in a saint’s garb.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+791): Rama acarya, Rama agnihotrin, Rama bhatta, Rama bhatta gahvaropanamaka, Rama bhattacarya, Rama cakravartin, Rama daivajna, Rama dikshita, Rama jyautishika, Rama jyotirvid, Rama kavi, Rama naimishastha, Rama pandita, Rama samyamin, Rama sharman, Rama sharman tarkavagisha, Rama shastrin, Rama shokakaropadhyaya, Rama shukla, Rama suri.
Ends with (+1183): Abhikrama, Abhirama, Abhitarama, Abhivikrama, Abhrama, Abhyakrama, Abhyantararama, Abhyasakrama, Acalagrama, Acarama, Acaratikrama, Acaravibhrama, Acharama, Acintyaparakrama, Acyutashrama, Adhicankrama, Adhikrama, Adhivyatikrama, Adhorama, Adhovyatikrama.
Full-text (+2384): Ramayana, Parashurama, Ramapriya, Shrirama, Sita, Ramanatha, Ramacandra, Ramanavami, Lakshmana, Ramapati, Kharadhvamsin, Ramakanta, Ramasakha, Kakutstha, Dasharatha, Rishyamuka, Manorama, Rami, Ramaduta, Bharatagraja.
Search found 148 books and stories containing Rama, Ramā, Rāmā, Rāma; (plurals include: Ramas, Ramās, Rāmās, Rāmas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 12: Future Rāmas < [Chapter XIII - Śrī Mahāvīra’s nirvāṇa]
Part 7: Marriage with Padmāvatī < [Chapter VI - Marriage of Kṛṣṇa with Rukmiṇī and others]
Part 4: Sītā’s ordeal < [Chapter IX - Sītā’s purification and taking of the vow]
The Ramayana of Valmiki (by Hari Prasad Shastri)
Chapter 39 - Marica again seeks to dissuade Ravana from pursuing his Design < [Book 3 - Aranya-kanda]
Chapter 94 - Rama’s Exploits < [Book 6 - Yuddha-kanda]
Chapter 98 - Prince Bharata goes on foot to meet Shri Rama < [Book 2 - Ayodhya-kanda]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 111 - Greatness of Rāmeśvara Kṣetra (Rāma-īśvara) < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Chapter 61 - The Greatness of the Intercalary Month < [Section 1 - Avantīkṣetra-māhātmya]
Chapter 94 - Greatness of Lohayaṣṭi < [Section 1 - Tīrtha-māhātmya]
The Padma Purana (by N.A. Deshpande)
Chapter 32 - Satyavān Meets Śatrughna < [Section 5 - Pātāla-Khaṇḍa (Section on the Nether World)]
Chapter 244 - Rāma Goes to Heaven < [Section 6 - Uttara-Khaṇḍa (Concluding Section)]
Chapter 35 - Dialogue between Lomaśa and Āraṇyaka < [Section 5 - Pātāla-Khaṇḍa (Section on the Nether World)]
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
Bhagavati-sutra (Viyaha-pannatti) (by K. C. Lalwani)