Kalaka, Kāḷaka, Kālakā, Kālaka: 17 definitions

Introduction

Kalaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kāḷaka can be transliterated into English as Kalaka or Kaliaka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kālakā (कालका).—(KĀLIKĀ). One of the daughters of Dakṣa. Kaśyapa married her. Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 183 states that Kālakeya and Narakāsura were born to Kālakā by Kaśyapa. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Chapter 14). In Mahābhārata Araṇya Parva, Chapter 174 we find that Kālakā once received from Brahmā, a boon that her sons would never be killed.

2) Kālaka (कालक).—An Asura born to Kālikā by Kaśyapa. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Chapter 14).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kālaka (कालक) is the name of a leader of Gaṇas (Gaṇapa or Gaṇeśvara or Gaṇādhipa) who came to Kailāsa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.20. Accordingly, after Śiva decided to become the friend of Kubera:—“[...] thinking thus, Rudra, desirous of carrying out the wish of Śiva (the supreme Brahman) sounded his drum that gave out the divine Nāda. Its resonant, reverberating sound pervaded the three worlds (trailokya) heightening enthusiasm and called upon everyone in diverse ways. On hearing that, [...] the leaders of Gaṇas revered by the whole world and of high fortune arrived there. [...] Kuṇḍin, Vāha and the auspicious Parvataka with twelve crores each, Kāla, Kālaka and Mahākāla each with a hundred crores. [...]”.

These [viz., Kālaka] and other leaders of Gaṇas [viz., Gaṇapas] were all powerful (mahābala) and innumerable (asaṃkhyāta). [...] The Gaṇa chiefs and other noble souls of spotless splendour eagerly reached there desirous of seeing Śiva. Reaching the spot they saw Śiva, bowed to and eulogised him.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kālaka (कालक).—S son of Vijvara.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 6. 33.

1b) A son of Virakṣa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 33.

1c) Kings (24) contemporaneous with Śisunāgas (10).*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 74. 136; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 323.

2) Kālakā (कालका).—A daughter of Vaiśvānara, and a wife of Kaśyapa;1 sons were Kālakeyas.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 33-34; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 22.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 21. 8-9.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kālakā (कालका) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.170.6) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kālakā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Kalaka - A setthi of Saketa. His son was the husband of Cula Subhadda (q.v.) and therefore son in law of Anathapindika. Kalaka was a follower of the Niganthas. When the Buddha visited Saketa, at the request of Cula Subhadda, Kalaka listened to his sermon and became a sotapanna. He gave his park, the Kalakarama, to the Buddha, and built a vihara there after removing, by force, the Niganthas, who were in possession.

AA.ii.482f; but see DhA.iii.465f, where the setthis name is given as Ugga of Uggapura; see also Dvy.402, where the name of the city is Pundavardhana and that of Anathapindikas daughter Sumagadha.

2. Kalaka. Senapati of King Yasapani of Benares, a previous birth of Devadatta. The story is given in the Dhammaddhaja Jataka. J.ii.186ff

3. Kalaka - See Ayya Kalaka.

4. Kalaka - See A.v.164, Sutta No. lxxxvii. Is Kalaka here a proper name or a generic name (Kalaka bhikkhu) meaning a wicked monk?

I am inclined to take it as the latter. See Kalaka(-bhikkhu) Sutta.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (jainism)

Kālaka (कालक) is a Prakrit name referring to “beings of a black complexion” and is mentioned as an example name for deriving personal names mentioned in the Aṅgavijjā chapter 26. This chapter includes general rules to follow when deriving proper names. The Aṅgavijjā (mentioning kālaka) is an ancient treatise from the 3rd century CE dealing with physiognomic readings, bodily gestures and predictions and was written by a Jain ascetic in 9000 Prakrit stanzas.

Source: Shodhganga: A cultural study on the jain western Indian illustrated manuscripts

Kālaka (कालक).—Kālakāchāryā was a much venerated Jaina Guru according to the Śvetambara sect. Many legends of non-canonical works in Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabhraṃśa, Gujarāti and other languages have accumulated from around twelfth century onwards on numerous accounts of the Āchārya kālaka or kālika cycle. The legend of Kālakā is indeed sometimes mentioned as the ninth lecture (vyākhyāna) of the kalpasūtra on the first night of the paryuśānā.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kāḷaka : (adj.) black. (nt.), a black spot; a stain; black grain in the rice.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kāḷaka, (adj.) (fr. kāḷa) black, stained; in enumeration of colours at Dhs. 617 (of rūpa) with nīla, pītaka, lohitaka, odāta, k°, mañjeṭṭha; of a robe A. II, 241; f. kāḷikā VvA. 103;— (nt.) a black spot, a stain, also a black grain in the rice, in apagata° without a speck or stain (of a clean robe) D. I, 110=A. IV, 186=210=213; vicita° (of rice) “with the black grains removed” D. I, 105; A. IV, 231; Miln. 16; vigata° (same) A. III, 49.—A black spot (of hair) J. V, 197 (=kaṇha-r-iva).—Fig. of character DhA. IV, 172. (Page 212)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kaḷaka (कळक) [or कळंक, kaḷaṅka].—m A bamboo of a large kind.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kaḷaka (कळक).—m A bamboo of a large kind.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kalaka (कलक).—

1) A kind of fish.

2) A kind of prose.

Derivable forms: kalakaḥ (कलकः).

--- OR ---

Kālaka (कालक).—a. Black, dark-blue.

-kaḥ 1 A mole, freckle, mark.

3) A water-snake.

3) The black part of the eye.

4) A kind of grain.

-kā Ved.

1) A kind of bird.

2) A daughter of Dakṣa.

-kam 1 The liver.

2) An unknown quantity (in Alg.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kālaka (कालक).—(1) adj. (= Pali kāḷaka; Sanskrit very rarely for kāla, see BR s.v.), black: Mvy 8397 śuddhaka-kāla- kānām (Kyōtō text °nam; Mironov °nām), sc. eḍakalom- nām (same passage in Pali suddha-kāḷakānaṃ, Vin. iii.225.28); varṇena te kālaka tatra bhonti SP 94.7 (verse; here ka could be pejorative, or m.c.); kālako vata bhoḥ śramaṇo gautamaḥ LV 255.4; 256.7 (prose; could be pejorative ka); (2) black spot on a garment, and also moral defilement (= Pali kāḷaka, id.), see s.vv. apagata- kālaka and sarvakālaka; (3) (m.?) blackhead, pimple on skin (= Sanskrit Lex., perh. once lit., id.; Pali kāḷaka; = BHS 1 kāla 1, q.v., rare): vyapagata-tila-kālaka-gātra, one of the anuvyañjana, Mironov's Mvy for Kyōtō °kāla° 309, and similarly LV 107.5; Mv ii.43.13; (4) (compare 1 Kāla 3 and Kālika) n. of a nāga: Mvy 3327 (here definitely distinguished as a ‘commoner’ of the nāgas from Kāla, who is a ‘nāga-king’); Māy 221.24; 247.3; however, in Māy 247.13 dvau Kālakau nāgarājānau. See next.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kalaka (कलक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A kind of fish: see śakula. 2. Name of species of prose composition. E. kal to count, &c. vun aff.

--- OR ---

Kālaka (कालक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) Black, dark coloured. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A freckle, a mark. 2. A water snake. f.

(-kā) The mother of a class Asuras. n.

(-kaṃ) The liver. E. kal to reckon, (good or bad fortune,) vuñ affix; or kāla black, and kan aff.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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