Kalaka, Kāḷaka, Kālakā, Kālaka: 29 definitions


Kalaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Kāḷaka can be transliterated into English as Kalaka or Kaliaka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Kalak.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kālakā (कालका).—(KĀLIKĀ). One of the daughters of Dakṣa. Kaśyapa married her. Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 183 states that Kālakeya and Narakāsura were born to Kālakā by Kaśyapa. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Chapter 14). In Mahābhārata Araṇya Parva, Chapter 174 we find that Kālakā once received from Brahmā, a boon that her sons would never be killed.

2) Kālaka (कालक).—An Asura born to Kālikā by Kaśyapa. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇya Kāṇḍa, Chapter 14).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kālaka (कालक) is the name of a leader of Gaṇas (Gaṇapa or Gaṇeśvara or Gaṇādhipa) who came to Kailāsa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.20. Accordingly, after Śiva decided to become the friend of Kubera:—“[...] The leaders of Gaṇas revered by the whole world and of high fortune arrived there. [...] Kuṇḍin, Vāha and the auspicious Parvataka with twelve crores each, Kāla, Kālaka and Mahākāla each with a hundred crores. [...]”.

These [viz., Kālaka] and other leaders of Gaṇas [viz., Gaṇapas] were all powerful (mahābala) and innumerable (asaṃkhyāta). [...] The Gaṇa chiefs and other noble souls of spotless splendour eagerly reached there desirous of seeing Śiva. Reaching the spot they saw Śiva, bowed to and eulogised him.

Kālaka participated in Vīrabhadra’s campaign against Dakṣa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.33. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“O Nārada, listen to the numerical strength of the most important and courageous of those groups. [...] Kāla, Kālaka and Mahākāla went to the sacrifice of Dakṣa with a hundred crores. [...] Thus at the bidding of Śiva, the heroic Vīrabhadra went ahead followed by crores and crores, thousands and thousands, hundreds and hundreds of Gaṇas [viz., Kālaka]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kālaka (कालक).—S son of Vijvara.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 6. 33.

1b) A son of Virakṣa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 33.

1c) Kings (24) contemporaneous with Śisunāgas (10).*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 74. 136; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 323.

2) Kālakā (कालका).—A daughter of Vaiśvānara, and a wife of Kaśyapa;1 sons were Kālakeyas.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 33-34; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 22.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 21. 8-9.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kālakā (कालका) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.170.6) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kālakā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Kālaka (कालक) refers to one of the eight Servants (ceṭa-aṣṭaka) associated with Tisrapīṭha (located in the ‘end of sound’—nādānta), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight Servants (ceṭāṣṭaka): Caṇḍākṣa, Lampaṭa, Kṛṣṇa, Vikṛta, Bhāsurānana, Kapila, Kālaka, Bhramara.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Kālaka (कालक) [=Sindhukālaka ?] refers to a country belonging to “Nairṛtī (south-western division)” classified under the constellations of Svāti, Viśākhā and Anurādhā, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Svāti, Viśākhā and Anurādhā represent the south-western division consisting of [i.e., Sindhu, Kālaka] [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

Kālaka (कालक) or Kāla refers to the “color black” which were used as symbols for the unknowns, according to the principles of Bījagaṇita (“algebra” or ‘science of calculation’), according to Gaṇita-śāstra, ancient Indian mathematics and astronomy.—Āryabhaṭa I (499) very probably used coloured shots to represent unknowns. Brahmagupta (628) in the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta mentions varṇa as the symbols of unknowns. As he has not attempted in any way to explain this method of symbolism, it appears that the method was already very familiar. [...] In the case of more unknowns, it is usual to denote the first yāvattāvat and the remaining ones by alphabets or colours [e.g., kālaka].—Cf. Pṛthūdakasvāmī (860) in his commentary on the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta by Brahmagupta (628) and Bhāskara II in the Bījagaṇita.

Ganitashastra book cover
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Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Kalaka - A setthi of Saketa. His son was the husband of Cula Subhadda (q.v.) and therefore son in law of Anathapindika. Kalaka was a follower of the Niganthas. When the Buddha visited Saketa, at the request of Cula Subhadda, Kalaka listened to his sermon and became a sotapanna. He gave his park, the Kalakarama, to the Buddha, and built a vihara there after removing, by force, the Niganthas, who were in possession.

AA.ii.482f; but see DhA.iii.465f, where the setthis name is given as Ugga of Uggapura; see also Dvy.402, where the name of the city is Pundavardhana and that of Anathapindikas daughter Sumagadha.

2. Kalaka. Senapati of King Yasapani of Benares, a previous birth of Devadatta. The story is given in the Dhammaddhaja Jataka. J.ii.186ff

3. Kalaka - See Ayya Kalaka.

4. Kalaka - See A.v.164, Sutta No. lxxxvii. Is Kalaka here a proper name or a generic name (Kalaka bhikkhu) meaning a wicked monk?

I am inclined to take it as the latter. See Kalaka(-bhikkhu) Sutta.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (jainism)

Kālaka (कालक) is a Prakrit name referring to “beings of a black complexion” and is mentioned as an example name for deriving personal names mentioned in the Aṅgavijjā chapter 26. This chapter includes general rules to follow when deriving proper names. The Aṅgavijjā (mentioning kālaka) is an ancient treatise from the 3rd century CE dealing with physiognomic readings, bodily gestures and predictions and was written by a Jain ascetic in 9000 Prakrit stanzas.

Source: Shodhganga: A cultural study on the jain western Indian illustrated manuscripts

Kālaka (कालक).—Kālakāchāryā was a much venerated Jaina Guru according to the Śvetambara sect. Many legends of non-canonical works in Sanskrit, Prakrit, Apabhraṃśa, Gujarāti and other languages have accumulated from around twelfth century onwards on numerous accounts of the Āchārya kālaka or kālika cycle. The legend of Kālakā is indeed sometimes mentioned as the ninth lecture (vyākhyāna) of the kalpasūtra on the first night of the paryuśānā.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: academia.edu: Tessitori Collection I (history)

Kālaka (कालक) is mentioned as having attacked king Gardhabhilla, according to the Saṃgrāmavarṇana (dealing with poetry and riddles), which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—The name of ‘King Gardabhilla’ at the beginning and at the end of the text directs to the story of Kālaka: with the help of the Sāhis, Kālaka decided to go to Mālava and attack Gardhabhilla. Both armies faced each other and fought. [...] Here, despite the contextualisation given by the name gardabhilla, the description is general and could be used in any narrative context.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Kalaka [कळक] in the Marathi language is the name of a plant identified with Bambusa bambos (L.) Voss from the Poaceae (Grass) family having the following synonyms: Arundo bambos, Bambos arundinacea, Bambusa arundinacea. For the possible medicinal usage of kalaka, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Kalaka in India is the name of a plant defined with Carissa carandas in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Echites spinosus Burm.f. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien (1895)
· Bot. Cab. (1822)
· Mantissa Plantarum (1767)
· Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis (1912)
· Japanese J. Pharmacol. (1970)
· Fl. Cochinch. (1790)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kalaka, for example chemical composition, diet and recipes, health benefits, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kāḷaka : (adj.) black. (nt.), a black spot; a stain; black grain in the rice.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kāḷaka, (adj.) (fr. kāḷa) black, stained; in enumeration of colours at Dhs. 617 (of rūpa) with nīla, pītaka, lohitaka, odāta, k°, mañjeṭṭha; of a robe A. II, 241; f. kāḷikā VvA. 103;— (nt.) a black spot, a stain, also a black grain in the rice, in apagata° without a speck or stain (of a clean robe) D. I, 110=A. IV, 186=210=213; vicita° (of rice) “with the black grains removed” D. I, 105; A. IV, 231; Miln. 16; vigata° (same) A. III, 49.—A black spot (of hair) J. V, 197 (=kaṇha-r-iva).—Fig. of character DhA. IV, 172. (Page 212)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kaḷaka (कळक) [or कळंक, kaḷaṅka].—m A bamboo of a large kind.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kaḷaka (कळक).—m A bamboo of a large kind.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kalaka (कलक).—

1) A kind of fish.

2) A kind of prose.

Derivable forms: kalakaḥ (कलकः).

--- OR ---

Kālaka (कालक).—a. Black, dark-blue.

-kaḥ 1 A mole, freckle, mark.

3) A water-snake.

3) The black part of the eye.

4) A kind of grain.

-kā Ved.

1) A kind of bird.

2) A daughter of Dakṣa.

-kam 1 The liver.

2) An unknown quantity (in Alg.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kālaka (कालक).—(1) adj. (= Pali kāḷaka; Sanskrit very rarely for kāla, see [Boehtlingk and Roth] s.v.), black: Mahāvyutpatti 8397 śuddhaka-kāla- kānām (Kyōtō text °nam; Mironov °nām), sc. eḍakalom- nām (same passage in Pali suddha-kāḷakānaṃ, Vin. iii.225.28); varṇena te kālaka tatra bhonti Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 94.7 (verse; here ka could be pejorative, or m.c.); kālako vata bhoḥ śramaṇo gautamaḥ Lalitavistara 255.4; 256.7 (prose; could be pejorative ka); (2) black spot on a garment, and also moral defilement (= Pali kāḷaka, id.), see s.vv. apagata- kālaka and sarvakālaka; (3) (m.?) blackhead, pimple on skin (= Sanskrit Lex., perhaps once lit., id.; Pali kāḷaka; = [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] 1 kāla 1, q.v., rare): vyapagata-tila-kālaka-gātra, one of the anuvyañjana, Mironov's Mahāvyutpatti for Kyōtō °kāla° 309, and similarly Lalitavistara 107.5; Mahāvastu ii.43.13; (4) (compare 1 Kāla 3 and Kālika) name of a nāga: Mahāvyutpatti 3327 (here definitely distinguished as a ‘commoner’ of the nāgas from Kāla, who is a ‘nāga-king’); Mahā-Māyūrī 221.24; 247.3; however, in Mahā-Māyūrī 247.13 dvau Kālakau nāgarājānau. See next.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kalaka (कलक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A kind of fish: see śakula. 2. Name of species of prose composition. E. kal to count, &c. vun aff.

--- OR ---

Kālaka (कालक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) Black, dark coloured. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A freckle, a mark. 2. A water snake. f.

(-kā) The mother of a class Asuras. n.

(-kaṃ) The liver. E. kal to reckon, (good or bad fortune,) vuñ affix; or kāla black, and kan aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kālaka (कालक).—[kāla + ka], I. m. 1. The black in the eye, [Suśruta] 2, 304, 2. 2. A sort of grain, [Suśruta] 1, 73, 5. 3. The name of a Rākṣasa, or demon, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 29, 30; of an Asura, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 2286. Ii. f. , The name of a female demon, Mahābhārata 3, 12203.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kālaka (कालक).—1. [adjective] dark-blue, black. [masculine] mole, freckle, a sort of grain. [feminine] kālakā a kind of bird; kālikā black spot, [Epithet] of Durgā.

--- OR ---

Kālaka (कालक).—2. ([feminine] kālikā) monthly.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kalaka (कलक):—m. a sort of fish, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) a kind of prose, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) n. the root of Andropogon Muricatus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) Kālaka (कालक):—[from kāla] 1. kālaka mfn. ([Pāṇini 5-4, 33]) dark-blue, black, [Lalita-vistara]

5) [v.s. ...] freckled (? or ‘dark’, as with anger), [Patañjali]

6) [v.s. ...] m. a freckle (? ‘black colour’), [Patañjali]

7) [v.s. ...] the black part of the eye, [Suśruta]

8) [v.s. ...] a water-snake, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] a kind of grain, [Suśruta]

10) [v.s. ...] (in [algebra]) the second unknown quantity, [Bījagaṇita]

11) [v.s. ...] Name of a Rakṣas, [Rāmāyaṇa iii, 29, 30]

12) [v.s. ...] of an Asura, [Harivaṃśa]

13) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] Name of a people, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

14) [v.s. ...] m. of a dynasty, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

15) Kālakā (कालका):—[from kālaka > kāla] f. a kind of bird, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xxiv, 35]

16) [v.s. ...] ([gana] sthūlādi) Name of a female evil spirit (mother of the Kālakeyas; daughter of Dakṣa, [Rāmāyaṇa]; also of Vaiśvānara, [Harivaṃśa] & [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]), [Mahābhārata] etc.

17) Kālaka (कालक):—[from kāla] n. a worm-hole (in wood), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

18) [v.s. ...] the liver, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] Name of a pot-herb, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

20) [from kāla] 2. kālaka mf(ikā)n. to be paid monthly (as interest, vṛddhi).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kalaka (कलक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. A fish; prose.

2) Kālaka (कालक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. A freckle, a mark; a water-snake. f. The mother of the demons. n. The liver. a. Black, dark-coloured.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kālaka (कालक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kālaga, Kālaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kalaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kalaka (कलक) [Also spelled kalak]:—(nm) keen regret, remorse, penitence.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kalaka (ಕಲಕ):—[noun] the resultant thing of mixing; something mixed; a combination; a mixture of heterogenous things without any chemical reaction taking place between the components.

--- OR ---

Kālaka (ಕಾಲಕ):—

1) [noun] a small, congenital, dark spot, on the human skin; a mole.

2) [noun] a large, reddish brown, glandular organ in vertebrates, located in the upper abdominal cavity and functioning in the secretion of bile and in essential metabolic processes; the liver.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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