Citta, Cittā, Cīṭṭā, Chitta, Cīttā: 51 definitions


Citta means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Citta.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Citta (चित्त) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “perception, attention”. It is one of the fourteen Adhyātma (pertaining to the body) mentioned in the Subālopaniṣad (fifth section). The corresponding Ādhibhūta (pertaining to the elements) is called cetayitavya (that which is perceived) and the corresponding Adhidaivata (presiding deity) is kṣetrajña. Accordingly, “the nādis form their bond (or connect them). He who moves in the perception (citta), in cetayitavya, in kṣetrajña, in the nādis, in prāṇa, in vijñāna, in ānanda, in the ākāśa of the heart and within all else—That is Ātman. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow or end.”

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Citta (चित्त) refers to the “mind”, according to the Śivayogadīpikā 1.6.—Accordingly, “He alone is a Layayogin whose own mind (citta) becomes absorbed along with the breath because of meditation by means of the mind and the [internal] resonance”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Yoga from relevant books on Exotic India

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Cittā (चित्ता) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (e.g., Cittā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Cittā (चित्ता).—A mother-goddess.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 28.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Citta (चित्त) refers to “heart, thoughts, mind and consciousness”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Citta (चित्त) refers to:—Consciousness, mind, heart. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Vaishnavism from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Citta (चित्त) refers to the “mind”, according to the Jñānanetra’s Yonigahvaratantra (which was traditionally said to be ‘brought down to earth’).—Accordingly, “I bow to Kālī, the Supreme who illumines (all things) with her own Light; to her who is the Light that arises from the Void (within which) burns the Fire of (universal) Destruction; (I bow to her who is) established in the centre of the (reality that) contains the three paths of Moon, Sun and Fire and whose state is one in which consciousness, the object of thought, the mind [i.e., citta], the objects of sense and the senses have dissolved away”.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: The Yoginis of Narasimha Vyuha

Cittā (चित्ता) is the name of a Mātṛkā-Śakti created by Mahārudra in order to control the plague of demons created by Andhakāsura.—Accordingly, Andhaka-Asura tried to kidnap Umā (Devī Pārvatī), and was fiercely attacked by Mahārudra who shot arrows at him from his mahāpināka. when the arrows pierced the body of Andhakāsura, drops of blood fell to earth and from those drops, thousands of Andhakas arose. To control this plague of demons, Mahārudra created Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Cittā] and ordered them to drink the blood of the demons and drain them dry.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: Nrisimha matrika-mandala

Cittā (चित्ता) refers to one of the various Mātṛkā-Śaktis created by Rudra in order to destroy the clones that spawned from Andhaka’s body.—Accordingly, [...] Andhakāsura attempted to abduct Girājanandinī (Pārvatī) and thus ensued a fierce battle between Andhakāsura and the great Rudra, the Lord of Umā. Like raktabīja, every drop of blood that fell from the body of Andhaka created another Asura like him and in no time, the entire world was filled with Andhakas. To destroy the growing number of Andhakas, Rudra created innumerable Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Cittā]. These Śaktis of immense power at once began to drink every drop of blood that flowed from the body of Andhaka, but they could still not effectively contain the emergence of more and more demons.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Shaktism from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Citta (चित्त) (Cf. Cetas) refers to the “consciousness”, according to the Mālinīvijayottaratantra, chapter 18 (“appropriate conduct of the accomplished Yogin”) verses 18.74-81 (as quoted in the Tantrāloka verse 4.213-221ab).—Accordingly, “[...] Absolutely everything is performed here [according to the rules of the Mālinīvijayottara], and, contrariwise, omitted. Yet, this (alone) is necessarily enjoined here [in the Mālinīvijayottara], O Goddess, that the wholly pleased Yogin must fix his consciousness [cetas] on reality; and he should therefore act only in accordance with that [reality (tattva)], whatever that may be for him. Moreover, the one whose consciousness [citta] is fixed on reality, partaking even in the pleasures of the senses [viṣaya], is not touched by bad consequences, just as the petal of a lotus (is not affected) by water. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Shaivism from relevant books on Exotic India

Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Citta (चित्त) refers to the “minds” (of animals), according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, “Hunting on horseback (āśvina) represents one of the eight subdivisions of Hunting (mṛgayā). [...] The practice of hunting on horseback reduces fat, lightens the body, enhances strength and ambition, hardens the muscles, kindles appetite, produces a capacity for enduring [...], produces a faculty of knowing the movements and minds (citta-ceṣṭita) of animals [...]. These and many such excellences are acquired by it for one’s own benefit. [...]”.

Arts book cover
context information

This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Arts from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaiva philosophy

Source: Chittanubodha Shastram By Bhaskara Kantha

Citta (चित्त) refers to the “faculty of consciousness”, according to the Cittānubodhaśāstra by Rājanaka Bhāskarakaṇṭha: an 18th century text dealing with aspects of Kashmir Śaivism such as the Pratyabhijñā (lit. “divine recognition”) philosophical branch.—Citta is the faculty of consciousness which enables the human being to reflect and to elevate himself from the limited. State of a creature (paśu), It is citta which makes reflection possible, from the ordinary worldly level to the reflection on the nature of the Supreme Reality.  The Cittānubodhaśāstra has been written in order to elucidate this.

context information


Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Shaiva philosophy from relevant books on Exotic India

General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: A History of Indian Philosophy

The mind (citta), which naturally transforms itself into its states (vṛtti), does so for two reasons, which are said to be like its two seeds. One of these is the vibration (parispanda) of prāṇa, and the other, strong and deep-rooted desires and inclinations which construct (dṛḍha-bhāvanā).

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Access to Insight: A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist TermsMind; heart; state of consciousness.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Citta (called Cittagahapati) - A householder of Macchikasanda, where he was Treasurer. He was later declared by the Buddha to be pre eminent among laymen who preached the Doctrine (A.i.26). On the day of his birth the whole city was covered knee deep with flowers of various hues, hence his name.

When Mahanama visited Macchikasanda, Citta, pleased with his demeanour, invited him to his park, the Ambatakarama, and built for him a monastery there. And there the Elder preached to Citta the Sala yatana vibhatti and Citta became an Anagami. Thereafter many monks visited the Ambatakarama and accepted Cittas hospitality. Among them was Isidatta (q.v.), a former acquaintance of Citta, but Isidatta left when he found that his identity had been discovered. Mahanama and Mahaka did likewise, after having performed miracles at the request of Citta.

The Citta Samyutta (S.iv.282ff) contains a record of conversations between Citta and members of the Order, among whom, besides those already mentioned, were Kamabhu and Godatta. Citta is also said to have had discussions with Nigantha Nataputta and Acela Kassapa and to have refuted their views.

A thera named Sudhamma was a permanent resident in the Ambatakarama and was looked after by Citta. Once, when the two Chief Disciples and several other eminent Elders came to the Ambatakarama, Citta invited first these and then Sudhamma; the latter, feeling slighted, blamed Citta beyond measure, but the Buddha, hearing of this, sent Sudhamma to ask for Cittas pardon (Vin.ii.15ff; DhA.ii.74f; for details see Sudhamma).

Some time later, Citta visited the Buddha. He was accompanied by two thousand others and took with him five hundred cartloads of offerings to the Buddha and the Order. As he fell at the feet of the Buddha, flowers of five hues showered from the sky and the Buddha preached to him the Salayatana vibhatti. For a fortnight he continued distributing his gifts to the Order and the devas filled his carts with all kinds of valuables (AA.i.210).

When Citta lay ill just before his death, devas visited him and advised him to wish for kingship among them, but he refused to aspire to anything so impermanent, and instructed the devas and his kinsfolk gathered round him, telling them of the Buddha and his teachings (S.iv.302f). He is regarded as the ideal layman (E.g., at A.i.88; ii.164; iii.451).

He owned a tributary village called Migapattaka (SA.iii.93).

In the time of Padumuttara Buddha, Citta conceived his desire to be placed first among laymen in the teaching of the Dhamma. In the time of Kassapa Buddha he was a huntsman. One day, seeing a monk in a glen, and being pleased thereat, he hurried home, prepared a meal and brought it to the monk, together with flowers he had gathered on the way. After the offering,

-- or --

1. Citta - One of the four wives of Magha.Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

(mind, thought).

Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

See One Hundred and Tweny One Cittas

Citta means consciousness. It is the nature that is aware of its object. No other dhamma or nature can know anything including themselves. But citta can know everything possible including cittas.

Citta always leads other nama dhamma and rupa dhamma. A citta arises, it passes away immediately after its arising. Another citta arises, and again it falls away. Next arises and dies out immediately. This kind of uninterruptedness is the manifestation of citta. There are immediate causes for arising of citta. They are cittas themselves, nama dhamma and rupa dhamma.

There are 89 cittas in total.

  • 81 cittas are mundane consciousness and
  • 8 cittas are supramundane consciousness.

At another time, citta can be counted as 121 cittas in total.

This happens when 8 lokuttara cittas arise when in jhana. These are called lokuttara jhana cittas. As there are 5 jhanas, then there are 40 lokuttara jhana cittas.

Together with lokiya cittas 40 and 81 will make 121 cittas in total.

When 89 cittas are analysed according to their jati or origin or parentage, there are four classes of citta. They are

  1. 12 akusala cittas ( 8 lobha + 2 dosa + 2 moha citta )
  2. 21 kusala cittas ( 8 mahakusala + 5 rupakusala + 4 arupakusala + 4 lokuttarakusala or magga citta )
  3. 36 vipaka cittas ( 7 ahetuka akusala + 8 ahetuka kusala + 8 mahavipaka + 5 rupavipaka + 4 arupavipaka + 4 lokuttaravipaka or phala citta )
  4. 20 kiriya cittas ( 3 ahetukakiriya + 8 mahakiriya + 5 rupakiriya + 4 arupakiriya )

12 + 21 + 36 + 20 = 89 cittas in total.

When cittas are viewed by bhumi or place or plane of existence, there are 4 classes of citta. They are

  1. 54 kamavacara cittas ( 12 akusala + 18 ahetuka cittas + 24 sobhana cittas )
  2. 15 rupavacara cittas ( 5 rupakusala + 5 rupavipaka + 5 rupakiriya )
  3. 12 arupavacara cittas ( 4 arupakusala + 4 arupavipaka + 4 arupakiriya )
  4. 8 lokuttara cittas (4 lokuttara kusala or magga + 4 lokuttara vipaka or phala)

54 + 15 + 12 + 8 = 89 cittas in total.

When lokuttara cittas arise in parallel with jhana, there will be 121 cittas in total. Then, according to jati or origin or parentage, cittas can be classified as

  1. 37 kusala cittas ( 8 mahakusala, 5 rupakusala, 4arupakusala, 20 lokuttarakusala cittas )
  2. 52 vipaka cittas ( 15 ahetukavipaka, 8 mahavipaka, 5 rupavipaka, 4 arupavipaka, 20 lokuttaravipaka cittas )
  3. 20 kiriya cittas ( 3 ahetuka kiriya, 8 mahakiriya, 5 rupakiriya, 4 arupakiriya )
  4. 12 akusala cittas ( 8 lobha , 2 dosa, 2 moha )

37 + 52 + 20 + 12 = 121 cittas in total.

According to bhumi or place or plane of existence, there are 4 classes of citta. They are

  1. 54 kamavacara cittas ( 12 akusala, 18 ahetuka, 24 sobhana cittas )
  2. 15 rupavacara cittas ( 5 rupakusala, 5 rupavipaka, 5 rupakiriya )
  3. 12 arupavacara cittas ( 4 arupakusala, 4 arupavipaka, 4 arupakiriya )
  4. 40 lokuttara cittas ( 20 lokuttara kusala, 20 lokuttara vipaka )

54 + 15 + 12 + 40 = 121 cittas in total.

Source: Buddhist Information: A Survey of Paramattha Dhammas

Citta, or consciousness, is the Dhamma which is the leader in knowing what appears, such as seeing or hearing. Cittas have been classified as 89 types in all, or, in special cases, as 121 types.

Citta is an element, which experiences something, a reality which experiences an object. It is the "chief", the leader in knowing the object which appears.

There is not only citta, which sees, citta that hears, citta which smells, citta which tastes or citta which experiences tangible object, there is also citta which thinks about many diverse subjects. The world of each person is ruled by his citta.

Source: Dhamma Study: Introduction to the Dhamma

First kind of Nama.

1. Citta (consciousness) is of 89 different types. Cittas are divided into four categories:

  1. Moral or skillful consciousness (kusala citta) – 21 types
  2. Immoral or unskillful consciousness (akusala citta) –12 types
  3. Resultant consciousness (vipaka citta) –36 types
  4. Inoperative consciousness (kiriya citta) –20 types

2. Citta is the chief mental phenomena of experience. So in seeing, for example, the function of the moment of seeing (citta) is to see the object. Citta is the chief experiencer.

Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas

What we call mind are in reality different fleeting moments of consciousness succeeding one another very rapidly. Since "mind" has in psychology a meaning different from "mind" according to the Buddhist teaching, it is to be preferred to use the Pali term citta (pronounced: chitta).

The mind is variable, it changes very rapidly. At one moment there is a mind with attachment, at another moment a mind with generosity, at another moment a mind with anger. At each moment there is a different mind. Through the Buddhist teachings we learn that in reality the mind is different from what we mean by the word "mind" in conventional language.

Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas

Citta is derived from the PaIi word for thinking (cinteti). All cittas have in common that they "think" of an object, but we have to take thinking here in a very general sense, meaning, being conscious of an object, or cognizing an object.

Cittas perform different functions. For examine, seeing is a function (kicca) of citta.

A citta cannot arise alone, it has to be accompanied by cetasikas. The citta is the "leader", while the cetasikas which share the same object perform each their own task.

There is a great variety of cetasikas accompanying the different cittas. Akusala cittas are accompanied by cetasikas which are defilements, whereas kusala cittas are accompanied by cetasikas which are good qualities. Apart from defilements and good qualities there are also cetasikas which accompany cittas which are unwholesome, cittas which are wholesome and cittas which are neither wholesome nor unwholesome.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

'mind', 'consciousness', 'state of consciousness', is a synonym of mano and viññāna (s. khandha and Tab. 1).

Dhs. divides all phenomena into consciousness (citta), mental concomitants (cetasika) and corporeality (rūpa).

In adhicitta, 'higher mentality', it signifies the concentrated, quietened mind, and is one of the 3 trainings (s. sikkhā).

The concentration (or intensification) of consciousness is one of the 4 roads to power (s. iddhipāda).

-- or --

viññāna (s. khandha),

citta (q.v.), mano (q v ) -

Moment of °: citta-kkhana (q.v.).

Contemplation of °: cittānupassanā: s. satipatthāna -

Corporeality produced by °: citta-ja-rūpa, s. samutthāna -

Abodes or supports of °: cf. viññānatthiti (q.v.)

Functions of °: viññāna-kicca (q.v.).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Theravada from relevant books on Exotic India

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Citta (चित्त) refers to the “mind”, as defined in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter XXXI. Accordingly, “because this mind (citta) is without birth (utpāda), without intrinsic nature (svabhāva) and without characteristics (lakṣaṇa). The wise person can know it. And although the wise person considers the characteristics of birth and cessation (nirodha) of this mind, he will find no true birth, no true cessation. Not finding any defilement or purification in it, he discovers this luminosity of the mind (citta), a luminosity by virtue of which the mind is not defiled by the adventitious passions”.

Concerning the nature of the mind (citta), the general tendency of the Canon is clear. Mind (citta, manas) and consciousness (vijñāna) are synonymous. Vijñāna constitutes the fifth skandha and, like all the aggregates, it is transitory, suffering and impersonal.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Citta (चित्त) refers to “thoughts”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly as The Lord said: “Śāriputra, the Tathāgata Ekaratnavyūha, seating in the lion’s throne thus, explained the dharma-seal called Gaganapariśuddhi to these Bodhisattvas, which has thirty-two aspects of entrance. What is this Dharma-seal (dharmamudrā) called Gaganapariśuddhi which has thirty-two aspects of entrance? [...] all dharmas are fully purified because of their essential tranquility; 17) all dharmas are tranquil since they are free from thought, mind and consciousness (citta-manas-vijñāna-vigata); 18) all dharmas lack characteristics (svalakṣaṇa-vigata) since they are non-originated from the very beginning (ādyanutpanna); [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Mahayana from relevant books on Exotic India

Buddhist philosophy

Source: Wisdom Experience: Mind (An excerpt from Science and Philosophy)

Citta (चित्त) refers to the “mind” in Buddhist philosophy.—The term “mind” in Western contexts suggests a single entity that endures over time and has various capacities, dispositions, or features. In contrast, the Buddhist sources cited by our authors maintain that mind is episodic, such that a mind (citta) is a continuum (santāna) of mental moments, each moment causally emerging from the previous moment and acting as a cause for the subsequent moment. Each mind is thus a unique moment of consciousness (jñāna) or awareness (saṃvitti). The analysis of the nature of mind is thus actually an analysis of what, in many Western contexts, would be a moment of mind or a “mind event.” In a way that can be additionally confusing, Buddhist authors will often speak of plural “minds” that pertain to the same person at different points of time or in different contexts, such as the mind in a moment of visual consciousness or the mind in a moment of one-pointed concentration. [...]

context information


Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Buddhist philosophy from relevant books on Exotic India

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Citta (चित्त) refers to “consciousness”, according to the Nāmamantrārthāvalokinī by Vilāsavajra, which is a commentary on the Nāmasaṃgīti.—Accordingly, [while describing Mahāvairocana]—“And then [the Sādhaka should visualise] Mahāvairocana on the principal seat, generated by means of the syllable āḥ. [Why has he four faces?] Since consciousness (citta)—which is of the nature of the Dharma-Sphere since, by its nature, it lacks such forms as the grasped [i.e., the subject-object duality]—is four-faced. [This is] because the four liberation faces [/doors]—emptiness and the rest—are the cause of the origination of all meditative concentrations, [and this in turn is] because their ground is the Dharma-Sphere. [...]”.

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Citta (चित्त) or Cittarddhipāda (“power of thought”) is associated with Mahānāśā and Vikaṭadaṃṣṭriṇa, according to the Cakrasaṃvara-maṇḍala or Saṃvaramaṇḍala of Abhayākaragupta’s Niṣpannayogāvalī, p. 45 and n. 145; (Cf. Cakrasaṃvaratantra, Gray, David B., 2007).—The Cakrasaṃvara mandala has a total of sixty-two deities. [...] Three concentric circles going outward, the body, speech and mind wheels (kāya-vāka-citta), in the order: mind (blue), speech (red), and body (white), with eight Ḍākinīs each in non-dual union with their Ḍākas, "male consorts".

Associated elements of Mahānāśā and Vikaṭadaṃṣṭriṇa:

Circle: kāyacakra (mind-wheel) (blue);
Ḍākinī (female consort): Mahānāśā;
Ḍāka (male consort): Vikaṭadaṃṣṭriṇa;
Bīja: aṃ;
Body-part: occiput;
Pīṭha: Arbuda;
Bodily constituent: māṃsa (muscle);
Bodhipakṣa (wings of enlightenment): citta-ṛddhipāda (power of thought).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Tibetan Buddhism from relevant books on Exotic India

General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Citta (चित्त, “mind”) or Cittavaśitā refers to the “mastery of mind” and represents one of the “ten masteries of the Bodhisattvas” (vaśitā) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 74). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., citta). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Cittā (चित्ता) refers to one of the five wives of Okkāka: an ancient king from the Solar dynasty (sūryavaṃśa), according to the Mahābuddhavaṃsa or Maha Buddhavamsa (the great chronicle of Buddhas) Anudīpanī chapter 1, compiled by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw. The wives of King Okkāka, the last of the 252,556 kings, were five: Hatthā, Cittā, Jantu, Jālinī, and Visākhā. Each of them had five hundred ladies-in-waiting.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Cittā (चित्ता) is the name of a vidyā subdued by Rāvaṇa, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.1 [origin of the rākṣasavaṃśa and vānaravaṃśa] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, “[...] Rāvaṇa, knowing the highest good, not considering it worthless, remained motionless like a high mountain, absorbed in preeminent meditation. ‘Well done! Well done!’ was the cry of gods in the sky, and the Yakṣa-servants departed quickly, terrified. One thousand vidyās, the sky being lighted up by them, came to Daśāsya (=Rāvaṇa), saying aloud, ‘We are subject to you.’ [e.g., Cittā, ...] great vidyās beginning with these were subdued by noble Daśāsya in just a few days because of his former good acts. [...]”.

Source: Aspects of Jaina Art and Architecture

Citta (चित्त) (or Cittakamma) refers to “images made of painting”.—Images of Tīrthaṃkaras were made of stones, metals, wood, clay, precious gems, jewels or semi-precious stones. Speaking about sthāpāna or installation of a symbol for a Guru during his absence, the Jaina canonical text Anuyogadvāra-sūtra says that it may be made of wood, stucco-work, painting (citta-kamma), plaster, flower-work or knitting, or prepared by wrapped cloth or stuffed cast, repousse or beaten metal work.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Citta (चित्त) refers to the “mind”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Capable soul, for purification of the mind, you must hold strongly in the mind (citta) the reflections which are established by the gods of gods (i.e. the Tīrthaṅkaras) in the great scripture of the [Jain] canon”.

Synonyms: Mānasa.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of General definition from relevant books on Exotic India

India history and geography

Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)

Citta (चित्त) (Prakrit) (in Sanskrit: Citra) refers to the “paintings” (on the walls of a Sleeping chamber), as depicted in the Kathās (narrative poems) such as Uddyotanasūri in his 8th-century Kuvalayamālā (a Prakrit Campū, similar to Kāvya poetry).—The Kuvalayamala (779 A.D.) is full of cultural material which gains in value because of the firm date of its composition. [...] Page 83.3-9: Here is the description of the house or the sleeping chambers of young ladies which were beautified for the reception of their husbands. The select items in this list are as follows: [e.g., cleansing the dust from the painted walls citra-śālikā (papphoḍesu citta-bhittīo);] [...]

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of India history from relevant books on Exotic India

Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Citta in India is the name of a plant defined with Annona squamosa in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Guanabanus squamosus M. Gómez (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Fitoterapia (2005)
· The India Journal of Experimental Biology (IJEB) (2004)
· Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. (2006)
· Isis oder encyclopädische Zeitung (1828)
· Systema Naturae
· Monographie de la famille des Anonacées (1817)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Citta, for example side effects, health benefits, chemical composition, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Biology from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

citta : (nt.) mind; thought; (m.), name of a month: March-April. (adj.), variegated; manifold; beautiful. (nt.), a painting; picture.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Citta, 2 (cp. Sk. caitra, the first month of the year: MarchApril, orig. N. of the star Spica (in Virgo); see E. Plunket, Ancient Calendars, etc., pp. 134 sq., 171 sq.) N. of the month Chaitra PvA.135. Cp. Citra-māsa KhA 192. (Page 268)

2) Citta, 2 (nt.) (Sk. citta, orig. pp. of cinteti, cit, cp. yutta› yuñjati, mutta›muñcati. On etym. from cit. see cinteti). Meaning:—the heart (psychologically), i.e. the centre & focus of man’s emotional nature as well as that intellectual element which inheres in & accompanies its manifestations; i.e. thought. In this wise citta denotes both the agent & that which is enacted (see kamma II. introd.), for in Indian Psychology citta is the seat & organ of thought (cetasā cinteti; cp. Gr. frήn, although on the whole it corresponds more to the Homeric qumόs). As in the verb (cinteti) there are two stems closely allied and almost inseparable in meaning (see § III, ), viz. cit & cet (citta & cetas); cp. ye should restrain, curb, subdue citta by ceto, M.I, 120, 242 (cp. attanā coday’attānaṃ Dhp 379 f.); cetasā cittaṃ samannesati S.I, 194 (cp. cetasā cittaṃ samannesati S.I, 194). In their general use there is no distinction to be made between the two (see § III,).

The meaning of citta is best understood when explaining it by expressions familiar to us, as: with all my heart; heart and soul; I have no heart to do it; blessed are the pure in heart; singleness of heart (cp. ekagga); all of which emphasize the emotional & conative side or “thought” more than its mental & rational side (for which see manas & viññāṇa). It may therefore be rendered by intention, impulse, design; mood, disposition, state of mind, reaction to impressions. It is only in later scholastic lgg. that we are justified in applying the term “thought” in its technical sense. It needs to be pointed out, as complementary to this view, that citta nearly always occurs in the singular (=heart), & out of 150 cases in the Nikāyas only 3 times in the plural (=thoughts). The substantiality of citta (cetas) is also evident from its connection with kamma (heart as source of action), kāma & the senses in general. ‹-› On the whole subject see Mrs. Rh. D. Buddh. Psych. Eth. introd. & Bud. Psy. ch. II.

3.a) Citta (adjective.) (to cetati; *(s)qait to shine, to be bright, cp. Sk. citra, Sk. P. ketu, Av. ciprō, Lat. caelum, Ags. hador, Ohg. heitar, see also citta2) variegated, manifold, beautiful; tasty, sweet, spiced (of cakes), J.IV, 30 (geṇḍuka); Dh.171 (rājaratha); Vv 479; Pv.II, 112 (aneka°); IV, 313 (pūvā=madhurā PvA.251).

3.b) Citta (neuter.) painting Th.1, 674.—Sn.50 (kāmā=Nd2 240 nānāvaṇṇā), 251 (gāthā); J.V, 196 (geṇḍuka), 241 VI, 218.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Pali from relevant books on Exotic India

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

citta (चित्त).—n (S) The faculty of reasoning; the discursive faculty; the reason, the mind. The heart considered as the seat of sentiment, affection, or passion. citta puraviṇēṃ To pay attention; to mind or heed. cittānta khāṇēṃ impers. or in. con. To feel remorse or compunction.

--- OR ---

cittā (चित्ता).—m (citraka S) A leopard, Felis jubata. Schreb.; according to Pennant, Hunting leopard, Felis leopardus.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

citta (चित्त).—n The faculty of reasoning; the mind. citta puraviṇēṃ To pay attention; mind. cittānta khāṇēṃ To feel remorse. cittācī ārdratā Tenderness of heart.

--- OR ---

cittā (चित्ता).—m A leopard.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Citta (चित्त).—p. p. [cit-kta]

1) Observed, perceived.

2) Considered, reflected or meditated upon.

3) Resolved

4) Intended, wished, desired.

5) Visible, perceptible.

-ttam 1 Observing, attending.

2) (a) Thought, thinking, attention; (b) desire, intention, aim; मच्चित्तः सततं भव (maccittaḥ satataṃ bhava) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 18.57; अनेकचित्तविभ्रान्त (anekacittavibhrānta) 16.16.

3) The mind; यदासौ दुर्वारः प्रसरति मदश्चित्तकरिणः (yadāsau durvāraḥ prasarati madaścittakariṇaḥ) Śānti.1.22; so चलचित्त (calacitta) and comps. below.

4) The heart (considered as the seat of intellect).

5) Reason, intellect, reasoning faculty.

6) Knowledge; चित्तं चित्तादुपागम्य मुनिरासीत संयतः । यच्चित्तं तन्मयो वश्यं गुह्यमेतत्सनातनम् (cittaṃ cittādupāgamya munirāsīta saṃyataḥ | yaccittaṃ tanmayo vaśyaṃ guhyametatsanātanam) || Mahābhārata (Bombay) 14.51.27.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Citta (चित्त).—n.

(-ttaṃ) The mind or faculty of reasoning, the heart considered as the seat of intellect. E. cit to consider, and karaṇe kta aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Citta (चित्त).—[cit + ta] 1., n. 1. Thought, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 16, 16. 2. Intellect, Vedāut. in Chr. 207, 2. 3. Will, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] C. 32, 3. 4. The mind, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 55, 19. 5. The heart, [Pañcatantra] 140, 17.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Citta (चित्त).—[adjective] thought, observed, desired; [neuter] attention, observation, idea (adj. —° thinking of); purpose, intent, wish, desire, intelligence, reason; the mind or heart.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Citta (चित्त):—[from cit] a mfn. ‘noticed’ See a-citta

2) [v.s. ...] ‘aimed at’, longed for, [Chāndogya-upaniṣad vii, 5, 3]

3) [v.s. ...] ‘appeared’, visible, [Ṛg-veda ix, 65, 12]

4) [v.s. ...] n. attending, observing (tiraś cittāni, ‘so as to remain unnoticed’), [, vii, 59, 8]

5) [v.s. ...] thinking, reflecting, imagining, thought, [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.

6) [v.s. ...] intention, aim, wish, [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] n. ([Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska iii, 9]) the heart, mind, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā i; Śvetāśvatara-upaniṣad vi, 5; Mahābhārata] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Pañcatantra])

8) [v.s. ...] n. memory, [Horace H. Wilson]

9) [v.s. ...] intelligence, reason, [Kapila’s Sāṃkhya-pravacana i, 59; Yoga-sūtra i, 37; ii, 54; Vedāntasāra]

10) [v.s. ...] (in [astrology]) the 9th mansion, [Varāha-mihira’s Yogayātrā iv, 1]

11) [v.s. ...] cf. iha-, cala-, pūrva-, prāyaś-, laghu-, su-, sthira-.

12) b See √4. cit.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Citta (चित्त):—(ttaṃ) 1. n. The mind or faculty of reasoning, the heart.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Citta (चित्त) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Citta.

[Sanskrit to German]

Citta in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Ciṭṭā (चिट्टा) [Also spelled chitta]:—(a) white, fair.

2) Citta (चित्त) [Also spelled chitt]:—(nm) mind, heart; (a) supine, flat on the back; ~[vṛtti] mentality, mental disposition/attitude; -[śuddhi] mental purification; —[ucaṭanā] to feel ennuied, to be out of spirits/sorts; to become averse/disinclined (to somebody, place or thing); —[karanā/kara denā] see [cita karanā /kara denā; —caḍhanā] to take to heart; to develop a fondness/fascination (for); —[curānā] to steal (away) one’s heart, to enchant; ~[cora] see [cita] (~[cora]);—[denā] to heed, to pay attention; —[para caḍhanā] to be constantly present in the mind, to be impressed on the mind, —[baṃṭanā] to be distracted;—[bhī merī paṭṭa bhī merī] see under [cita; —meṃ cubhanā] to prick; to appeal; —[meṃ basanā/samānā] to be ever present in one’s mind; to be in love with; —[denā/—lagānā] to pay heed to, to concentrate on; —[se utaranā] to lose favour with, to be deprived of the graces (of).

context information


Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Hindi from relevant books on Exotic India

Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Citta (चित्त) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Citra.

2) Citta (चित्त) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Citta.

3) Citta (चित्त) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Citra.

4) Cittā (चित्ता) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Citrā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Prakrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Ciṭṭa (ಚಿಟ್ಟ):—[adjective] = ಚಿಟ್ಟು [cittu]1.

--- OR ---

Ciṭṭa (ಚಿಟ್ಟ):—[noun] = ಚಿಟ್ಟು [cittu]2.

--- OR ---

Ciṭṭa (ಚಿಟ್ಟ):—[noun] a book for keeping record of one’s own daily experience, thoughts, events, etc.; a diary.

--- OR ---

Citta (ಚಿತ್ತ):—[adjective] perceived; known; envisioned.

--- OR ---

Citta (ಚಿತ್ತ):—

1) [noun] the mind a) that which thinks, perceives, feels, wills, etc.; seat or subject of consciousness; b) the thinking and perceiving part of consciousness; intellect or intelligence; c) attention; notice.

2) [noun] a desire, wish.

3) [noun] anything intended or planned; an aim, end or purpose; an intention.

--- OR ---

Citta (ಚಿತ್ತ):—[noun] the deciduous tree Boswellia serrata (=B. thurifera) of Burseraceae family, the wood of which is used in match-stick industry and the resin as an incense; Indian olibanum tree.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of citta in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Related products

Help me keep this site Ad-Free

For over a decade, this site has never bothered you with ads. I want to keep it that way. But I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased truth, wisdom and knowledge.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: