Bhairava; 19 Definition(s)
Bhairava means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
1) Bhairava (भैरव).—A nāga belonging to the Dhṛtarāṣṭra Vaṃśa. There is a reference to this nāga in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 17. He was burnt up at the Sarpasatra performed by King Janamejaya. (See full article at Story of Bhairava from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Bhairava (भैरव).—A Pārṣada of Śiva. General. Immediately after his birth, this terrible monster subdued all the Devas without getting the permission of Śiva. Enraged at it, Śiva turned him into a tree by a curse. But Śiva was soon pacified and lifted the curse by declaring that those who offered pūjā to the gods would get the full reward for their worship only if they offered pūjā to Bhairava also.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Bhairava (भैरव).—A Śiva gaṇa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 41. 27; IV. 14. 7; 17. 4; 19. 78-9; 33. 17.
1c) A tīrtha on the banks of Carmanvatī sacred to the Pitṛs.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 22. 31.
1d) tapas performed by Brahmā.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 26. 10.
1e) An Apsarasa clan from Mṛtyu.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 57.
Bhairava (भैरव) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.15, I.57) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Bhairava) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Bhairava (भैरव) is a manifestion of Śiva. According to the Rudrayāmala, there are eight main forms of Bhairava who control the eight directions of this universe. The term is used throughout Śilpaśāstra literature.
The eight forms of Bhairava are:
Each of these forms has eight emanations thus totalling to sixty-four Bhairavas.Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra
Bhairava (भैरव).—(According to the Śilparatna), in the aspect of Bhairava, Śiva has eighteen arms; the additional hands hold the ḍamaru and the śaṅkha. In the instance [of sixteen arms], the following six objects should be carried in addition to those mentioned in connection with the image of Siva with ten arms; namely, the bāṇa, the cakra and the gadā in the right hands and the bow, a bell and the śaṅkha in the left hands. When Śiva has ten arms, the right hands should carry an akṣamālā, a sword, the śaktyayudha, the daṇḍa and the śūla; whereas the left hands should carry the khaṭvāṅga, a snake, a skull, the kheṭaka and the deer.Source: Google Books: Elements of Hindu iconography
Bhairava (भैरव) is the name of a deity depicted at the Nellaiappar Temple at Tirunelveli, representing a sacred place for the worship of Śiva.—[...] in the right corner is the sanctum of Bhairava. Bhairava is found to be in digāṃbara form (clothed in sky). His dog accompanies him. The dog is an incarnation of Kuṇḍodara (Kuṇḍōdaran) (he who carries Śiva’s umbrella). Bhairava is represented as standing in samapāda-sthānaka in samabhaṅga with four hands. The upper right hand holds uḍukkai (drum) with sarpa (snake) on it and pāśa in the upper left hand in kaṭaka-hasta. The lower right hand holds śūla (trident) and the lower left hand holds kapāla (Brahmā’s skull) in kaṭaka-hasta and siṃhakarṇa/vismaya-hasta. His scarf is a necklace of skulls. The basic measurement for making the image of Śiva is covered by uttama-daśatāla.
While depicting in Bharatanatyam, Bhairava is represented in samapāda-sthānaka with the two upper hands holding kapittha-hasta and the lower right hand holding the trident and the lower left hand holding kapāla in kapittha and siṃhamukha opened/kuvi-patāka/alapadma-hasta. There is a sannidhi for Cokkarliṅga where the liṅga is found with Nandi in front of the liṅga and the deity Pārvatī to the left of the liṅga in her usual form.
Bhairava is also depicted in the Meenakshi Temple in Madurai (or Madura), which represents a sacred place for the worship of The Goddess (Devī).—Bhairava is represented with four hands where the upper right hand holds the kettle-drum in kaṭaka and the upper left hand holds the noose in kaṭaka, while the lower right hand has the trident in kaṭaka-hasta and the lower left hand has the cup or skull in pallava-hasta. He is represented as standing. While depicting in dancing techniques, he is represented with the upper two hands in kaṭaka-hasta and the lower right hand in kapittha-hasta and the lower left hand in kuvi-patāka or siṃhamukha opened with fingers slightly bent.
Bhairava is also depicted in the Subramanya Swamy Temple (or Subrahmaṇya Svāmi Temple) in Tiruchendur (or Tirucendur/Tirucentur), representing a sacred place for the worship of Murugan.—Bhairava is found in standing posture in samabhaṅga with four hands. The upper right hand holds aṅkuśa and the upper left hand holds antelope in kaṭaka-hasta. The lower right hand holds triśūla in kaṭaka-hasta and the lower left hand holds kapāla in vismaya-hasta. A dog is found behind the icon of Bhairava. Then there is the sannidhi for the dancing Naṭarāja in his usual form. Pārvatī is found to the left of the dancing Naṭarāja and a sage is found to the right.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Bhairava (भैरव) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Bhairava) is similarly-named Bhairava. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Bhairava (भैरव).—Kṣemarāja in his Udyota commentary gives a description of the esoteric meaning of Bhairava. The sum and substance of it is that Bhairava is an acrostic word consisting of the letters, bha, ra and va;
- bha indicates bharaṇa or maintenance of the universe;
- ra indicates ravaṇa or withdrawal of the universe;
- va indicates vamana or projection i.e., manifestation of the universe.
Thus Bhairava indicates all the three aspects of the Divine.Source: archive.org: Vijnana Bhairava or Divine Consciousness
Bhairava (भैरव) refers to one of the manifestations of Śiva.—Śiva, in the form of Bhairava helps the devotees by punishing those who harass themSource: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (shaivism)
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Bhairava (भैरव).—Bhairava, according to tradition is considered as the kṣetrapāla. Therefore his sculptures are found generally in almost in all the temples. In the forms of Bhairava of the region different varieties are discemable. They are four-handed, eight-handed, and sixteen-handed Bhairavas. These Bhairava sculptures except three are in sthānaka posture, while three are in āsīna posture. Iconographically, they may be identified as vāṭuka, kṣetrapāla and aghora Bhairavas.Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)
Bhairava (भैरव) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Bhairavanṛsiṃha or Bhairavanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.
The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Bhairava (भैरव).—The male deities in Śaktism are called Bhairavas. Śiva is also a Bhairava. But he being the Puruṣa of Śakti his position is different from them. In reference to the deities the Tantras can be classified as Śakti, Śiva and Bhairava.Source: DSpace at Pondicherry: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu (shaktism)
Bhairava (भैरव) or Bhairavatantra refers to one of the thirty-three Dakṣiṇatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Bhairava-tantra belonging to the Dakṣiṇa class.Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Bhairava (Sanskrit: भैरव ("Terrible" or "Frightful") sometimes known as Kala Bhairava, is the fierce manifestation of Shiva associated with annihilation. He is one of the most important deities in Nepal, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand, who originated in Hindu mythology and is sacred to Hindus, Buddhists and Jains alike.
Bhairava himself has eight manifestations i.e. Ashta Bhairava:
- Asithaanga Bhairava
- Ruru Bhairava
- Chanda Bhairava
- Krodha Bhairava
- Unmattha Bhairava
- Kapaala Bhairava
- Bheeshana Bhairava
- Samhaara Bhairava
Kala Bhairava is conceptualized as the Guru of the planetary deity Shani (Saturn). Bhairava is known as Bhairavar or Vairavar in Tamil where he is often presented as a Grama devata or village guardian who safeguards the devotee on all eight directions (ettu tikku).Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
General definition (in Jainism)
Bhairava (भैरव) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Bhairava] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
bhairava (भैरव).—m (S) A name of śiva, but esp. an inferior manifestation or form, of which this is the common name for eight; viz. asitāṅga, ruru, canda, krōdha, anmatta, kupati, bhīṣaṇa, saṃvhara. All these allude to terrific properties of mind or body. In the general apprehension bhairava is identified with, or very faintly distinguished from, khaṇḍērāva. 2 A musical mode,--that which is calculated to excite emotions of terror. 3 An ear-ornament of females. bhairavācī sēvā asaṇēṃ in. con. To be deaf.
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bhairava (भैरव).—a S Formidable, frightful, terrific.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
bhairava (भैरव).—m Name of śiva. a Terrific, formidable.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
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Search found 30 books and stories containing Bhairava. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)
Chapter 21 - The Incarnation and the story of Maheśa < [Section 3 - Śatarudra-saṃhitā]
Chapter 9 - The sports of Bhairava < [Section 3 - Śatarudra-saṃhitā]
Chapter 8 - Śiva’s forgiveness of Brahmā < [Section 1 - Vidyeśvara-saṃhitā]
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter CCXXIII - The Tripura Vidya < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
Chapter XX - Mantra-cures (curative formulas) of snakebite as narrated by Shiva < [Agastya Samhita]
Chapter CCXXV - The Pavana Vijaya < [Dhanvantari Samhita]
The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD) (by Yashoda Devi)
Part 36 - Bhairavaraju (A.D. 1370-1427) < [Chapter XIII - The Dynasties in South Kalinga]
Part 37 - Gangaraju (A.D. 1427-1435) < [Chapter XIII - The Dynasties in South Kalinga]
Part 16 - Upendra I (A.D. 1266) < [Chapter XI - The Chalukyas]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 5: Treatment of various afflictions (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 4 - Chemists of the Metallic School: Introduction < [A Brief History of Indian Chemistry and Medicine]
The Vishnu Purana (by Horace Hayman Wilson)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 4: Iatrochemistry (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)