Bhairava; 16 Definition(s)

Introduction

Bhairava means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana

[Bhairava in Purana glossaries]

1) Bhairava (भैरव).—A nāga belonging to the Dhṛtarāṣṭra Vaṃśa. There is a reference to this nāga in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 17. He was burnt up at the Sarpasatra performed by King Janamejaya. (See full article at Story of Bhairava from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Bhairava (भैरव).—A Pārṣada of Śiva. General. Immediately after his birth, this terrible monster subdued all the Devas without getting the permission of Śiva. Enraged at it, Śiva turned him into a tree by a curse. But Śiva was soon pacified and lifted the curse by declaring that those who offered pūjā to the gods would get the full reward for their worship only if they offered pūjā to Bhairava also.

(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Bhairava (भैरव).—A Śiva gaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 41. 27; IV. 14. 7; 17. 4; 19. 78-9; 33. 17.

1b) An epithet of Rudra; the form assumed by Śiva when Gaurī returned from penance; She became Bhairavī;1 Image of, to be placed in each temple but not in mūlāyantana.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 158. 24; 179. 1.
  • 2) Ib. 252. 10; 259. 14.

1c) A tīrtha on the banks of Carmanvatī sacred to the Pitṛs.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 22. 31.

1d) tapas performed by Brahmā.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 26. 10.

1e) An Apsarasa clan from Mṛtyu.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 57.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

[Bhairava in Shilpashastra glossaries]

Bhairava (भैरव) is a manifestion of Śiva. According to the Rudrayāmala, there are eight main forms of Bhairava who control the eight directions of this universe. The term is used throughout Śilpaśāstra literature.

The eight forms of Bhairava are:

  1. Asitāṅga,
  2. Ruru,
  3. Caṇḍa,
  4. Krodha,
  5. Unmatta,
  6. Kāpāla,
  7. Bhīṣaṇa,
  8. Saṃhāra.

Each of these forms has eight emanations thus totalling to sixty-four Bhairavas.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Bhairava (भैरव).—(According to the Śilparatna), in the aspect of Bhairava, Śiva has eighteen arms; the additional hands hold the ḍamaru and the śaṅkha. In the instance [of sixteen arms], the following six objects should be carried in addition to those mentioned in connection with the image of Siva with ten arms; namely, the bāṇa, the cakra and the gadā in the right hands and the bow, a bell and the śaṅkha in the left hands. When Śiva has ten arms, the right hands should carry an akṣamālā, a sword, the śaktyayudha, the daṇḍa and the śūla; whereas the left hands should carry the khaṭvāṅga, a snake, a skull, the kheṭaka and the deer.

(Source): Google Books: Elements of Hindu iconography
Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

[Bhairava in Shaivism glossaries]

Bhairava (भैरव) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Bhairava) is similarly-named Bhairava. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Bhairava (भैरव).—Kṣemarāja in his Udyota commentary gives a description of the esoteric meaning of Bhairava. The sum and substance of it is that Bhairava is an acrostic word consisting of the letters, bha, ra and va;

  • bha indicates bharaṇa or maintenance of the universe;
  • ra indicates ravaṇa or withdrawal of the universe;
  • va indicates vamana or projection i.e., manifestation of the universe.

Thus Bhairava indicates all the three aspects of the Divine.

(Source): archive.org: Vijnana Bhairava or Divine Consciousness
Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

[Bhairava in Vastushastra glossaries]

Bhairava (भैरव).—Bhairava, according to tradition is considered as the kṣetrapāla. Therefore his sculptures are found generally in almost in all the temples. In the forms of Bhairava of the region different varieties are discemable. They are four-handed, eight-handed, and sixteen-handed Bhairavas. These Bhairava sculptures except three are in sthānaka posture, while three are in āsīna posture. Iconographically, they may be identified as vāṭuka, kṣetrapāla and aghora Bhairavas.

(Source): Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 AD
Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

[Bhairava in Pancaratra glossaries]

Bhairava (भैरव) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Bhairavanṛsiṃha or Bhairavanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

[Bhairava in Shaktism glossaries]

Bhairava (भैरव).—The male deities in Śaktism are called Bhairavas. Śiva is also a Bhairava. But he being the Puruṣa of Śakti his position is different from them. In reference to the deities the Tantras can be classified as Śakti, Śiva and Bhairava.

(Source): DSpace at Pondicherry: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu (shaktism)

Bhairava (भैरव) or Bhairavatantra refers to one of the thirty-three Dakṣiṇatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Bhairava-tantra belonging to the Dakṣiṇa class.

(Source): Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)
Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Itihasa (narrative history)

[Bhairava in Itihasa glossaries]

Bhairava (भैरव) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.52.15, I.57) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Bhairava) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
context information

Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[Bhairava in Hinduism glossaries]

Bhairava (Sanskrit: भैरव ("Terrible" or "Frightful") sometimes known as Kala Bhairava, is the fierce manifestation of Shiva associated with annihilation. He is one of the most important deities in Nepal, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand, who originated in Hindu mythology and is sacred to Hindus, Buddhists and Jains alike.

Bhairava himself has eight manifestations i.e. Ashta Bhairava:

  • Asithaanga Bhairava
  • Ruru Bhairava
  • Chanda Bhairava
  • Krodha Bhairava
  • Unmattha Bhairava
  • Kapaala Bhairava
  • Bheeshana Bhairava
  • Samhaara Bhairava

Kala Bhairava is conceptualized as the Guru of the planetary deity Shani (Saturn). Bhairava is known as Bhairavar or Vairavar in Tamil where he is often presented as a Grama devata or village guardian who safeguards the devotee on all eight directions (ettu tikku).

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[Bhairava in Jainism glossaries]

Bhairava (भैरव) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Bhairava] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

(Source): archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[Bhairava in Marathi glossaries]

bhairava (भैरव).—m (S) A name of śiva, but esp. an inferior manifestation or form, of which this is the common name for eight; viz. asitāṅga, ruru, canda, krōdha, anmatta, kupati, bhīṣaṇa, saṃvhara. All these allude to terrific properties of mind or body. In the general apprehension bhairava is identified with, or very faintly distinguished from, khaṇḍērāva. 2 A musical mode,--that which is calculated to excite emotions of terror. 3 An ear-ornament of females. bhairavācī sēvā asaṇēṃ in. con. To be deaf.

--- OR ---

bhairava (भैरव).—a S Formidable, frightful, terrific.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

bhairava (भैरव).—m Name of śiva. a Terrific, formidable.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Relevant definitions

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