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Bhairava, 8 Definition(s)

Introduction

Bhairava means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purāṇa

1a) Bhairava (भैरव).—A Śiva gaṇa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 41. 27; IV. 14. 7; 17. 4; 19. 78-9; 33. 17.

1b) An epithet of Rudra; the form assumed by Śiva when Gaurī returned from penance; She became Bhairavī;1 Image of, to be placed in each temple but not in mūlāyantana.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 158. 24; 179. 1.
  • 2) Ib. 252. 10; 259. 14.

1c) A tīrtha on the banks of Carmanvatī sacred to the Pitṛs.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 22. 31.

1d) tapas performed by Brahmā.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 26. 10.

1e) An Apsarasa clan from Mṛtyu.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 57.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana IndexPurāṇa book cover
context information

The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Śilpaśāstra (iconography)

Bhairava (भैरव) is a manifestion of Śiva. According to the Rudrayāmala, there are eight main forms of Bhairava who control the eight directions of this universe. The term is used throughout Śilpaśāstra literature.

The eight forms of Bhairava are:

  1. Asitāṅga,
  2. Ruru,
  3. Caṇḍa,
  4. Krodha,
  5. Unmatta,
  6. Kāpāla,
  7. Bhīṣaṇa,
  8. Saṃhāra.

Each of these forms has eight emanations thus totalling to sixty-four Bhairavas.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Bhairava (भैरव).—(According to the Śilparatna), in the aspect of Bhairava, Śiva has eighteen arms; the additional hands hold the ḍamaru and the śaṅkha. In the instance [of sixteen arms], the following six objects should be carried in addition to those mentioned in connection with the image of Siva with ten arms; namely, the bāṇa, the cakra and the gadā in the right hands and the bow, a bell and the śaṅkha in the left hands. When Śiva has ten arms, the right hands should carry an akṣamālā, a sword, the śaktyayudha, the daṇḍa and the śūla; whereas the left hands should carry the khaṭvāṅga, a snake, a skull, the kheṭaka and the deer.

Source: Google Books: Elements of Hindu iconographyŚilpaśāstra book cover
context information

Śilpaśāstra (शिल्पशास्त्र, shilpa-shastra) represents the ancient Indian science of creative arts such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vāstuśāstra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

Śaivism (Śaiva philosophy)

Bhairava (भैरव) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Bhairava) is similarly-named Bhairava. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Bhairava (भैरव).—Kṣemarāja in his Udyota commentary gives a description of the esoteric meaning of Bhairava. The sum and substance of it is that Bhairava is an acrostic word consisting of the letters, bha, ra and va;

  • bha indicates bharaṇa or maintenance of the universe;
  • ra indicates ravaṇa or withdrawal of the universe;
  • va indicates vamana or projection i.e., manifestation of the universe.

Thus Bhairava indicates all the three aspects of the Divine.

Source: archive.org: Vijnana Bhairava or Divine ConsciousnessŚaivism book cover
context information

Śaiva (शैव, shaiva) or Śaivism (shaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Śiva as the supreme being. Closeley related to Śāktism, Śaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Vāstuśāstra (architecture)

Bhairava (भैरव).—Bhairava, according to tradition is considered as the kṣetrapāla. Therefore his sculptures are found generally in almost in all the temples. In the forms of Bhairava of the region different varieties are discemable. They are four-handed, eight-handed, and sixteen-handed Bhairavas. These Bhairava sculptures except three are in sthānaka posture, while three are in āsīna posture. Iconographically, they may be identified as vāṭuka, kṣetrapāla and aghora Bhairavas.

Source: Shodhganga: Temples of Salem region Up to 1336 ADVāstuśāstra book cover
context information

Vāstuśāstra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vastu-shastra) refers to the knowledge of architecture. It is a branch of ancient Indian science dealing with topics such architecture, construction, sculpture and their relation with the cosmic universe.

Pāñcarātra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Bhairava (भैरव) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Bhairavanṛsiṃha or Bhairavanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Source: Wisdom Library: PāñcarātraPāñcarātra book cover
context information

Pāñcarātra (पाञ्चरात्र, pancaratra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Nārāyaṇa is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaiṣnavism, the Pāñcarātra literature includes various Āgamas and tantras incorporating many Vaiṣnava philosophies.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Bhairava (Sanskrit: भैरव ("Terrible" or "Frightful") sometimes known as Kala Bhairava, is the fierce manifestation of Shiva associated with annihilation. He is one of the most important deities in Nepal, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand, who originated in Hindu mythology and is sacred to Hindus, Buddhists and Jains alike.

Bhairava himself has eight manifestations i.e. Ashta Bhairava:

  • Asithaanga Bhairava
  • Ruru Bhairava
  • Chanda Bhairava
  • Krodha Bhairava
  • Unmattha Bhairava
  • Kapaala Bhairava
  • Bheeshana Bhairava
  • Samhaara Bhairava

Kala Bhairava is conceptualized as the Guru of the planetary deity Shani (Saturn). Bhairava is known as Bhairavar or Vairavar in Tamil where he is often presented as a Grama devata or village guardian who safeguards the devotee on all eight directions (ettu tikku).

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

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