Pramoda, Pramodā: 32 definitions


Pramoda means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Pramod.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Pramoda (प्रमोद) is a Sanskrit word for a species of rice (śāli) which is said to have a superior quality, according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The literal translation of the word is “strong fragrance”, it is composed of the prefix pra and moda (‘fragrance’ or ‘perfume’). The plant Pramoda is part of the Śūkadhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of awned grains”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana

Pramoda (प्रमोद, “extreme joy”) refers to one of the fifty-six vināyakas located at Kāśī (Vārāṇasī), and forms part of a sacred pilgrimage (yātrā), described in the Kāśīkhaṇḍa (Skanda-purāṇa 4.2.57). He is also known as Pramodavināyaka, Pramodagaṇeśa and Pramodavighneśa. These fifty-six vināyakas are positioned at the eight cardinal points in seven concentric circles (8x7). They center around a deity named Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (or Ḍhuṇḍhi-vināyaka) positioned near the Viśvanātha temple, which lies at the heart of Kāśī, near the Gaṅges. This arrangement symbolises the interconnecting relationship of the macrocosmos, the mesocosmos and the microcosmos.

Pramoda is positioned in the Southern corner of the seventh circle of the kāśī-maṇḍala. According to Rana Singh (source), his shrine is located at “Near No. 49 (moda), Kashi Karvat Gali, CK 31 / 16”. Worshippers of Pramoda will benefit from his quality, which is defined as “the giver of pleasant life”. His coordinates are: Lat. 25.18660, Lon. 83.00629 (or, 25°11'11.8"N, 83°00'22.6"E) (Google maps)

Kāśī (Vārāṇasī) is a holy city in India and represents the personified form of the universe deluded by the Māyā of Viṣṇu. It is described as a fascinating city which is beyond the range of vision of Giriśa (Śiva) having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.

Pramoda, and the other vināyakas, are described in the Skandapurāṇa (the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas). This book narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

Pramodā (प्रमोदा) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (e.g., Pramodā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Pramoda (प्रमोद).—A serpent born of the family of Airāvata. This serpent was burnt to death at the Sarpasatra of Janamejaya. (Śloka 11, Chapter 57, Ādi Parva).

2) Pramoda (प्रमोद).—A soldier of Subrahmaṇya. (Śloka 65, Chapter 45, Śalya Parva).

3) Pramoda (प्रमोद).—One of the Mānasaputras (Spiritual sons) of Brahmā. Pramoda was born from the neck of Brahmā. (Matsya Purāṇa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Pramoda (प्रमोद).—A Vināyaka.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 27. 81; 44. 68.

1b) Born out of the neck of Brahmā.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 3. 11.

1c) A son of Dṛḍhāśva.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 12. 33.

2) Pramodā (प्रमोदा).—A mother-goddess.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 27.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Pramoda (प्रमोद) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.60) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Pramoda) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Pramoda (प्रमोद) refers to “time of joy” and is one of the six reasons for “conjugal union” (vāsaka) between a king and a women, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Accordingly, “conjugal union (vāsaka) being due, kings should go to the bed-chamber of a wife even if she may be in her menses and may not be his favourite”.

2) Pramoda (प्रमोद) is the name of a meter belonging to the Khañjaka class described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in its feet of twenty-two feet, the first, the fourth, the sixth, the tenth, the sixth and the last long, is pramoda”.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Yakṣiṇī-sādhana in the Kakṣapuṭa tantra

Pramodā (प्रमोदा) is the name of one of the thirty-six Yakṣiṇīs mentioned in the Uḍḍāmareśvaratantra. In the yakṣiṇī-sādhana, the Yakṣiṇī is regarded as the guardian spirit who provides worldly benefits to the practitioner. The Yakṣiṇī (e.g., Pramodā) provides, inter alia, daily food, clothing and money, tells the future, and bestows a long life, but she seldom becomes a partner in sexual practices.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Pramodā (प्रमोदा) is the name of the Yakṣiṇī associated with Pūrṇagiri, one the eight Sacred Seats (pīṭha), according to the Yogakhaṇḍa (chapter 14) of the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: The Yoginis of Narasimha Vyuha

Pramodā (प्रमोदा) is the name of a Mātṛkā-Śakti created by Mahārudra in order to control the plague of demons created by Andhakāsura.—Accordingly, Andhaka-Asura tried to kidnap Umā (Devī Pārvatī), and was fiercely attacked by Mahārudra who shot arrows at him from his mahāpināka. when the arrows pierced the body of Andhakāsura, drops of blood fell to earth and from those drops, thousands of Andhakas arose. To control this plague of demons, Mahārudra created Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Pramodā] and ordered them to drink the blood of the demons and drain them dry.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: Nrisimha matrika-mandala

Pramodā (प्रमोदा) refers to one of the various Mātṛkā-Śaktis created by Rudra in order to destroy the clones that spawned from Andhaka’s body.—Accordingly, [...] Andhakāsura attempted to abduct Girājanandinī (Pārvatī) and thus ensued a fierce battle between Andhakāsura and the great Rudra, the Lord of Umā. Like raktabīja, every drop of blood that fell from the body of Andhaka created another Asura like him and in no time, the entire world was filled with Andhakas. To destroy the growing number of Andhakas, Rudra created innumerable Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Pramodā]. These Śaktis of immense power at once began to drink every drop of blood that flowed from the body of Andhaka, but they could still not effectively contain the emergence of more and more demons.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Pramoda (प्रमोद) refers to “happiness”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the eclipse should, commencing at the edge, travel inwards and remain there for a time of the shape of a dark ball, it is technically known as Nirodha (blocking up): all creatures will be happy [i.e., pramoda-kṛt]. If the eclipse should be a total one and continue so for a time, it is known as Avamardana (tormenting): the then chief provinces will suffer and the then chief rulers will be afflicted with miseries”.

2) Pramoda (प्रमोद) refers to the fourth of the sixty-years cycle of Jupiter, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8).—Accordingly, “When Jupiter (bṛhaspati) reappears at the beginning of the constellation of Dhaniṣṭhā in the month of Māgha, the first year of the cycle of 60 years of Jupiter known as Prabhava commences. [...] The next year is known as Vibhava the third as Śukla, the fourth as Pramoda, and the fifth as Prajāpati: in each of these years mankind will be happier than in the next preceding year. [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Pramoda in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Pramoda (प्रमोद) refers to the “delight” (of Yogins), according to the Haṭhatattvakaumudī by Sundaradeva: a large compendium on Yoga in roughly 2000 Sanskrit verses quoting from Yoga texts, Upaniṣads, Epics, Purāṇas, Dharmaśāstras etc.—Accordingly, “Now Rājayoga is explained as far as the [fourth stage called] Niṣpatti in Haṭhayoga, for the delight (pramoda) of Yogins who have naturally ascended to Yoga through the [stage] of Niṣpatti in [Haṭha]yoga. [It is for those Yogins] whose breath, internal fire, body and mind has been mastered and whose unequivocal realization [of the highest reality] has occurred”

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Pramodā (प्रमोदा) is the name of Vidyārājñī (i.e., “wisdom queen”) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Pramodā).

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Pramoda (प्रमोद) or Pramodatīrtha refers to one of the “eleven holy bathing places” (Puṇyatīrtha), according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Pramoda (प्रमोद) refers to “showing respect to Sādhus having superior qualities”, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly:—“[...] after he had thus installed his son in the kingdom, Śatabala himself assumed the sovereignty of tranquillity at the feet of an Ācārya. [... ] With unbroken meditation augmented by the mental attitudes—friendliness, etc. [viz., pramoda], plunged in great joy, he remained always in emancipation, as it were”.

Note: Cf. Tattvārthādhigamasūtra 7.6. Yogaśāstra 4.117.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 7: The Five Vows

Pramoda (प्रमोद, “virtuous”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 7.11.—What is meant by joy at the sight of the virtuous (pramoda)? To develop affection as well as veneration from the heart in the presence of the virtuous (those who have higher knowledge and conduct than self) is joy at the sight of the virtuous. What is the subject of contemplation on joy at the sight of the virtuous? The subject of this contemplation is the virtuous living beings. It eliminates development of the ego in the practitioner.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pramōda (प्रमोद).—m S Pleasure, joy, delight.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

pramōda (प्रमोद).—m Pleasure, joy, delight.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pramoda (प्रमोद).—

1) Joy, delight, rejoicing, pleasure; प्रमोदनृत्यैः सह वारयोषिताम् (pramodanṛtyaiḥ saha vārayoṣitām) R.3.19; Manusmṛti 3.61.

2) One of the eight perfections in the Sāṅkhya philosophy.

3) A strong perfume.

4) (With Jainas) joy as exhibited in the virtuous.

5) Name of a year.

6) A kind of rice.

Derivable forms: pramodaḥ (प्रमोदः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Pramodā (प्रमोदा).—name of a yakṣiṇī: (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 573.14 (text here erroneously Samodā); 574.20.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pramoda (प्रमोद).—m.

(-daḥ) Pleasure, happiness, delight. E. pra before, mud to be pleased, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pramoda (प्रमोद).—i. e. pra-mud + a, m. 1. Hilarity, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 3, 61; joy, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 153. 2. Fragrance, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 2, 6, 2.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pramoda (प्रमोद).—[masculine] joy, delight, a man’s name.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Pramoda (प्रमोद) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—father of Vaidya Vācaspati (Ātaṅkadarpaṇa). Oxf. 314^b.

2) Pramoda (प्रमोद):—court-physician to Hammīra, father of Vaidya Vācaspati (Ātaṅkadarpaṇa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pramoda (प्रमोद):—[=pra-moda] [from pra-mud] a m. (also [plural]; ifc. f(ā). ) excessive joy, delight, gladness, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Upaniṣad; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] (also n.) one of the 8 Sāṃkhya perfections, [Tattvasamāsa; Sāṃkhyakārikā [Scholiast or Commentator]]

3) [v.s. ...] (with Jainas) joy as exhibited in the virtuous, [Hemacandra’s Yoga-śāstra]

4) [v.s. ...] Pleasure personified, [Harivaṃśa] (as a child of Brahmā, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa])

5) [v.s. ...] the 4th year in a 60 years' cycle of Jupiter, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā viii, 29]

6) [v.s. ...] a strong perfume, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] a kind of rice, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

8) [v.s. ...] Name of a being attendant upon Skanda, [Mahābhārata]

9) [v.s. ...] of a Nāga, [ib.]

10) [v.s. ...] of an author, [Catalogue(s)]

11) [v.s. ...] of sub voce men, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa; Rājataraṅgiṇī]

12) [=pra-moda] b etc. See pra-√mud.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pramoda (प्रमोद):—[pra-moda] (daḥ) 1. m. Pleasure, delight.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Pramoda (प्रमोद) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Pamoa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pramoda in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pramoda in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Pramoda (प्रमोद) [Also spelled pramod]:—(nm) entertainment, mirth; joy, delight, gladness.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Pramōda (ಪ್ರಮೋದ):—

1) [noun] excessive joy or pleasure; delight.

2) [noun] a pleasant fragrance.

3) [noun] name of the fourth year in the Hindu cycle of sixty years.

4) [noun] one of the eight achievements in Sāṃkhya system of philosophy.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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