Vibhrama, Vibhramā: 23 definitions


Vibhrama means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Vibhrama in Purana glossary
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vibhrama (विभ्रम).—A Brahmavādin.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 59. 103.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Vibhrama (विभ्रम, “confusion”) refers to one of the ten “natural graces” of women (svābhāvikā), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. These natural graces, also known as svabhāvaja or sahaja, represent one of the three aspects of graces (alaṃkāra) which forms which forms the support of sentiments (rasa) in drama. The natural graces (such as vibhrama) are defined according to the science of sāmānyābhinaya, or “harmonious representation”.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “inversion of various items such as words, gestures, dresses, and make-up and sattva due to intoxication, passion and joy, is called ‘confusion’ (vibhrama)”.

2) Vibhramā (विभ्रमा) is the name of a meter described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in its feet of fourteen syllables the ninth, the twelfth, the thirteenth and the last long, is vibhramā”.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Yakṣiṇī-sādhana in the Kakṣapuṭa tantra

Vibhramā (विभ्रमा) is the name of one of the thirty-two Yakṣiṇīs mentioned in the Kakṣapuṭatantra. In the yakṣiṇī-sādhana, the Yakṣiṇī is regarded as the guardian spirit who provides worldly benefits to the practitioner. The Yakṣiṇī (e.g., Vibhramā) provides, inter alia, daily food, clothing and money, tells the future, and bestows a long life, but she seldom becomes a partner in sexual practices.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Vibhrama (विभ्रम) refers to “restless”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[Visualisation of Śakti]:—[...] Her feet are embellished with anklets. She wears divine garlands and [has been anointed] with divine ointments. She is delighted by the wine she is enjoying. Her body is filled with passion. She is restless with wantonness (vilāsa-vibhramā). [This is how the Yogin] should visualise his lover as Śakti, O Maheśvarī”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)

Vibhrama (विभ्रम) is the name of a catuṣpadi metre (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—The only catuṣpadi with 18 mātrās in its line is the Vibhrama; it is really a varṇa-vṛtta (TA, RA, YA, IS), but according to Hemacandra, it was used vastly in the Apabhraṃśa language.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Vibhrama (विभ्रम):—[vibhramaṃ] Preverted, Perplexed

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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Vibhrama (विभ्रम) refers to “apparitions”, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “Covered for the full extent of (its) area with many sacred bathing sites on rivers, great and small. It is illumined by many jewels and apparitions (vibhrama) of many forms and full, beautiful (sacrificial) jars that (shine) like divine gold. There that (sacred seat) is completely full with the rays of the (goddess’s) divine body (filled in this way) by (her) mere arrival there and so it is called Pūrṇagiri (the Full Mountain)”

2) Vibhramā (विभ्रमा) refers to “she who is whirling about”, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “The rays in the great lotus of sixteen spokes are the rays which are the energies. The supreme goddess is in the End of the Sixteen and she is the supreme seventeenth (energy). The goddess in the End of the Twelve (dvādaśānta) is Mālinī in the form of the Point. She stands in front in the form of the spread tail of a peacock (mayūracandrikā). She always stands before the eyes and (in the form of) many desires she is whirling about (vibhramā). In a moment, time and again, she generates desire in the form of the Point”.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Vibhrama in Kavya glossary
Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Vibhrama (विभ्रम) refers to the “apparel (of a woman)”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 225-226).—Accordingly, while describing the shire of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, “[Then follows the image of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, which matches the conception of Kālarātri in the passage from the Mahābhārata:] [...] she bore the coquettish apparel (veṣa-vibhrama) of a woman going out to meet Mahākāla at night, with a vine-like body furnished with a raiment reddened with saffron-dye, with a face with red eyes, whose brows were furrowed into a frown, whose lip was crimsoned with betel that was blood, whose cheeks were reddened by the light shed from ear-ornaments of pomegranate flowers, with a forehead on which there was a tilaka dot of vermillion made by a Śabara beauty, covered by a magnificent gold turban. She was worshipped by goats... mice... antelope and black serpents... She was praised on all sides by flocks of old crows; [...]”.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Vibhrama in Yoga glossary
Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Vibhrama (विभ्रम) refers to a “delusion (of the mind)”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] The conquest of the breath can be achieved by means of [reciting] the three types of Om and by various [Haṭhayogic] mudrās, as well as meditation on a fiery light [or meditation] on a supporting object [like] the empty sky [which are done] in the lotus of the inner space [of the heart]. [However,] having abandoned all this [because it is] situated in the body [and therefore limited], and having thought it to be a delusion of the mind (manas-vibhrama), the wise should practise the no-mind state, which is unique, beyond the body and indescribable. [...]”.

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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Vibhrama (विभ्रम) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Vibhrama] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

1) Vibhrama (विभ्रम) refers to “unsteadiness”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “After [the meditator] whose unsteadiness has disappeared (prakṣīṇa-vibhrama) has a mind that has become fixed on the form [of the Jina], then he commences to meditate on what is formless, imperceptible [and] existing from all eternity”.

2) Vibhrama (विभ्रम) refers to “confusion”, according to the Jñānārṇava.—Accordingly, “When I, for whom confusion has gone (vīta-vibhrama), am the one who has attained solitariness, then certainly the bondage of life is destroyed merely of its own accord”.

Synonyms: Avidyā, Ajñāna, Tamas.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vibhrama (विभ्रम).—m S Error. 2 Whirling. 3 One of the classes of feminine actions proceeding from the passion of love,--caprice or whim. See under bhāva.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vibhrama (विभ्रम).—m Error, mistake.

--- OR ---

vibhrama (विभ्रम).—m Error; whirling.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vibhrama (विभ्रम).—1 Roaming or wandering about.

2) Whirling or going round, rolling about; निवृत्तसर्वेन्द्रियवृत्तिविभ्रमः (nivṛttasarvendriyavṛttivibhramaḥ) Bhāgavata 1.9.31.

3) Error, mistake, blunder.

4) Hury, confusion, flurry, perturbation; especially, the flurry, of mind caused by love; चित्तवृत्त्यनवस्थानं शृङ्गाराद्विभ्रमो भवेत् (cittavṛttyanavasthānaṃ śṛṅgārādvibhramo bhavet).

5) (Hence) Putting on ornaments &c. in wrong places through flurry; विभ्रमस्त्वरयाऽकाले भूषास्थानविपर्ययः (vibhramastvarayā'kāle bhūṣāsthānaviparyayaḥ); यश्चाप्सरोविभ्रममण्डनानां संपादयित्रीं शिखरैर्बिभर्ति (yaścāpsarovibhramamaṇḍanānāṃ saṃpādayitrīṃ śikharairbibharti) Kumārasambhava 1.4; (see Malli. thereon).

6) Any amorous or sportive action, amorous paly or movement; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 1.26; नवप्रणयविभ्रमा- कुलितमालतीदृष्टयः (navapraṇayavibhramā- kulitamālatīdṛṣṭayaḥ) 9.38.

7) Beauty, grace, charm; तदा तद- ङ्गस्य बिभर्ति विभ्रमम् (tadā tada- ṅgasya bibharti vibhramam) N.15.25; Uttararāmacarita 1.2,34;6.4; Śiśupālavadha 6.46; 7.15;16.64; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 7; क्रोधं स्मितं च कुसुमाभरणादि याच्ञा तद्वर्जनं च सहसैव विमण्डनं च । आक्षिप्य कान्तवचनं लपनं सखीभि- र्निष्कारणोत्थितगतं वद विभ्रमं तत् (krodhaṃ smitaṃ ca kusumābharaṇādi yācñā tadvarjanaṃ ca sahasaiva vimaṇḍanaṃ ca | ākṣipya kāntavacanaṃ lapanaṃ sakhībhi- rniṣkāraṇotthitagataṃ vada vibhramaṃ tat) ||

8) Doubt, apprehension; आमुक्तमिव पाखण्डं योऽधर्मे धर्मविभ्रमः (āmuktamiva pākhaṇḍaṃ yo'dharme dharmavibhramaḥ) Bhāgavata 4.19.12.

9) Caprice, whim.

1) Disturbance, perturbation; ऊर्मिव्यतिकरविभ्रमप्रचण्डः (ūrmivyatikaravibhramapracaṇḍaḥ) Mv.6.26.

11) Pride; दीर्घमायुः स मे प्रादात्ततो मां विभ्रमोऽस्पृशत् (dīrghamāyuḥ sa me prādāttato māṃ vibhramo'spṛśat) Rām.3.71.9.

Derivable forms: vibhramaḥ (विभ्रमः).

--- OR ---

Vibhramā (विभ्रमा).—Old age.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vibhrama (विभ्रम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. One of the classes of feminine actions proceeding from the passion of love, flurry, confusion. 2. Error, mistake blunder. 3. Hurry, flurry. 4. Doubt, apprehension. 5. Beauty. 6. Whirling, going round. 7. Wandering. 8. Whim, caprice. 9. Amorous gesture. f.

(-mā) Old age. E. vi before bhram to err, aff. ghañ .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vibhrama (विभ्रम).—[vi-bhram + a], m. 1. Whirling, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 140; going round, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 20, 226 (agitation); motion, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 15, 12. 2. Error, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 23, 3 (hāra-, adj. Producing the error of a necklace, i. e. like a necklace); [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 332 (babhruḥ

— saṭā-pāṭala-vibhramam, Could be mistaken for [i. e. were like] a Bignonia-like mane). 3. Erroneous use, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 24. 4. Doubt. 5. Play (of the eyes), [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 23. 6. Amorous actions, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 151; flurry, confusion, perturbation, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 2, 63. 7. Enrapture, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 155, 7. 8. Beauty, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 3; grace, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 14, 6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vibhrama (विभ्रम).—[masculine] unsteady motion, flurry, going to and fro, [especially] of the eyes; coquetry, grace, beauty; confusion, agitation, error, mistake; erroneous application of ([genetive]); mistaking for, phantom or mere semblance of (—°).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vibhrama (विभ्रम):—[=vi-bhrama] [from vi-bhram] m. (ifc. f(ā). ) moving to and fro, rolling or whirling about, restlessness, unsteadiness, [Kāvya literature; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Rājataraṅgiṇī]

2) [v.s. ...] violence, excess, intensity, high degree (also [plural]), [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] hurry, rapture, agitation, disturbance, perturbation, confusion, flurry, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] doubt, error, mistake, blunder (with daṇḍasya, ‘erroneous application of punishment’), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] illusion, illusive appearance or mere semblance of anything, [Kāvya literature; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc. (cf. -bhāṣita)

6) [v.s. ...] beauty, grace, [Kālidāsa; Mālatīmādhava]

7) [v.s. ...] feminine coquetry, amorous gestures or action of any kind ([especially] play of the eyes), perturbation, flurry (as when a woman in her confusion puts her ornaments in the wrong places), [Bharata-nāṭya-śāstra; Daśarūpa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] caprice, whim, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

9) Vibhramā (विभ्रमा):—[=vi-bhramā] [from vi-bhrama > vi-bhram] f. old age, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vibhrama (विभ्रम):—[vi-bhrama] (maḥ) 1. m. Youthful caprice; error, doubt; beauty; flurry; whirling. f. Old age.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vibhrama (विभ्रम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Vibbhasa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vibhrama in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vibhrama in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vibhrama (विभ्रम) [Also spelled vibhram]:—(nm) delusion, confusion, flurry; restlessness, unsteadiness; amorous gestures or action of any kind.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vibhrama (ವಿಭ್ರಮ):—

1) [noun] the act, fact or an instance of wandering (aimlessly or uselessly).

2) [noun] perception of something objectively existing in such a way as to cause misinterpretation of its actual nature; illusion.

3) [noun] fondness for play or fun; playfulness; friskiness.

4) [noun] beauty; charm.

5) [noun] amorous toying; flirtation; dalliance.

6) [noun] a noticeable imperfection; a blemish; a fault.

7) [noun] (rhet.) the excitement that is aroused in a woman who has fallen in love with a man.

8) [noun] a turning or spinning motion of a body around a centre.

9) [noun] an act of swerving or turning aside from what is right or correct.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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