Varuna, Vāruṇā, Vāruṇa, Varuṇa, Varunā: 46 definitions
Varuna means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Varun.
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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Varuṇa (वरुण) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “water god”. Acording to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.82-88, when Brahmā, Indra and all other gods went to inspect the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) designed by Viśvakarmā, he assigned different deities for the protection of the playhouse itself, as well as for the objects relating to dramatic performance (prayoga).
As such, Brahmā assigned Varuṇa to the protection of the space within the building (sky/ceiling, ambara). The protection of the playhouse was enacted because of the jealous Vighnas (malevolent spirits), who began to create terror for the actors.Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
One of the Deva-vibhāvana (hands that indicate the forms which accord with the character and actions of Brahmā and other Devas).—Varuṇa: left hand–Śikhara, right hand–Patāka.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
Varuṇa (वरुण).—The Sanskrit name for an important Ayurvedic drug.—The plant bears bitter leaves, and reddish flowers. It is hot and is useful in dysuria, urinary calculi, obesity, abscess and gulma.Source: Ancient Science of Life: Vaidyavallabha: An Authoritative Work on Ayurveda Therapeutics
Varuṇa (वरुण) or Varṇataru refers to Crataeva nurvala and is the name of a medicinal plant dealt with in the 17th-century Vaidyavallabha written by Hastiruci.—The Vaidyavallabha is a work which deals with the treatment and useful for all 8 branches of Ayurveda. The text Vaidyavallabha has been designed based on the need of the period of the author, availability of drugs (viz., Varuṇa) during that time, disease manifesting in that era, socio-economical-cultural-familial-spiritual-aspects of that period Vaidyavallabha.Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha
Varuṇa (वरुण) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Crataeva manga (Lour.) DC” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning varuṇa] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
Vāruṇa (वारुण).—One of the nine divisions of Bhārata, a region south of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74. Vāruṇa is surrounded by an ocean (sāgara) and is one thousand yojanas in extent. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Varuṇa (वरुण).—One of the eight guardians of the quarters. Birth. Varuṇa was the son of Prajāpati, Kaśyapa born of Aditi. He was one of the twelve sons of Aditi. So he is considered to be one of the twelve Ādityas (Sons of Aditi). The twelve Ādityas are Dhātā, Aryaman, Mitra, Śakra, Varuṇa, Aṃśa, Bhaga, Vivaśvān, Pūṣā, Savitā, Tvaṣṭā and Viṣṇu. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 15). (See full article at Story of Varuṇa from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Varuṇa (वरुण).—A Deva Gandharva. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 42, that this Devagandharva was the son of Prajāpati Kaśyapa born of his wife Muni.
3) Vāruṇa (वारुण).—The sons of Aṅgiras. (See under Payasya).Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Varuṇa (वरुण) refers to a deity that was once worshipped in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Varuṇa appears as a Marut, as an Āditya and as a lord of the waters. His character as a controller of the order of the world in its ethical aspect may be dimly seen in his association with hell. One shrine and one image of Varuṇa, the former erected by Bali and the latter by the sage Pulastya are referred to in the Nīlamata.Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Varuṇa (वरुण) refers to one of the eight guardians of the quarters, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Śiva said to Sitā:—“[...] the different parts of the mountain Meru seem to be echoing the pleasing sweet sounds of bees etc. which cause the incitement of love of the guardians of the quarters viz. Indra, Kubera, Yama, Varuṇa, Agni, Nirṛti, Marut (Wind) and the Supreme lord (Īśa). Heaven, the abode of the Devas is stationed on the summits of the Meru wherein the cities of the guardians of the quarters are also situated. They are brilliant. Beautiful celestial damsels, Rambhā, Śacī, Menakā and others heighten their glory”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Varuṇa (वरुण).—(see Mītrāvaruṇa) King of the Asuras; when called upon to fight by Hiraṇyakaśipu, he said that his passion was in a subdued state, and asked him to meet Hari in battle;1 Once Varuṇa is said to have conquered all the world and performed the Rājasūya compared to Yudhiṣṭhira's. Presented Pṛthu with a white umbrella: noted for much wealth. Protected Krauñcadvīpa. Bali was bound with his noose;2 A son of Aditi: his wife was Carṣaṇī3 (Sunādevī, Vāyu-purāṇa.) propitiated by Hariścandra, Varuṇa gave him a son on condition that he offered him in a sacrifice to him. Though reminded a number of times, Hariścandra evaded fulfilling his promise and consequently got the disease, mahodara. But his son Rohita purchased Sunaḥśepa as his substitute. Varuṇa was pleased and relieved him of his disease.4 Helped Ṛcīka in securing a thousand white horses with black ears for his śulka.5 Ṛtumat in the Trikūṭa hill was his pleasure garden.6 Fought with Hetī in the Devāsura war. In the Tārakāmaya, when Indra lost his fortune, Varuṇa conferred with the gods and Brahmā how to restore it.7 Offered sacrifice by Vasiṣṭha on behalf of Śrāddha deva; a Lokapāla. Description of the sacrifice.8 When Nanda took bath once at āsurīvela, an asura took him to Varuṇa. Welcomed Kṛṣṇa, apologised for the capture of Nanda, and released him. Presented Kṛṣṇa, horses for his new city. Got back his umbrella taken by Naraka, from Kṛṣṇa who killed him;9 was sent against Kṛṣṇa taking pārijāta from Indra's place but beaten by Garuḍa, went back; supplied Balarāma at Vraja with Vāruṇī.10 His city Sukhā on the west of Meru was visited by Arjuna who sojourned in search of the dead child of the Dvārakā Brāhmana.11 Identified with Hari.12 Lord of waters, an Āditya, and a face of Śiva.13 Vanquished by Rāvaṇa; finding him unwilling to give audience, Paraśurāma took up Śiva's bow when Varuṇa appeared and begged to be excused; gave up Gokarṇa.14 Wife Stutā or Surā; gave Nāgapāśa as wedding present to Kāmeśvara; world of.15 Performed saubhāgyaśayana; made overtures of love to Ūrvaśī, already engaged to Mitra. She was cursed; became father of Agastya by letting fall retas collected in a pitcher.16 Makara as his riding animal; worship of in Gṛhabali and before commencement of palace building; chariot of;17 penance at Badarī; services of; in churning the ocean whence he received the umbrella;18 a lokapāla in the city of Sukhā;19 worshipped with avabhṛtāgni;20 Icon of; gift of pearl oysters pleases Varuṇa.21 [66 (V) 21-26]; 65. 19; Vi. V. 25. 2.
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 1. 32; 7. 31; III. 17. 27-30.
- 2) Ib. III. 17. 28; X. 74. 13; IV. 15. 14; 22. 59; V. 20. 19; 24. 23.
- 3) Ib. VI. 6. 39; 18. 4; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 4; 171. 56; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 66; 84. 6.
- 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 7. 8-22.
- 5) Ib. IX. 15. 7.
- 6) Ib. VIII. 2. 9.
- 7) Ib. VIII. 5. 17; 10. 28; 11. 42; Matsya-purāṇa 153. 179-83; 154. 487; 174. 15; 175. 22; 177. 49.
- 8) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 1. 13; 13. 6; 14. 17; III. 6. 13; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 1. 16; 3. 67; Matsya-purāṇa 266. 23.
- 9) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 28. 2-10; 50. 56; 59. 22 [2 and 3]; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 29. 10, 34; 30. 1.
- 10) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. [65 (V) 43];
- 11) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 89. 44; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 32.
- 12) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 16. 17.
- 13) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 5, 103; 24. 33 and 37; 26. 41. III. 7. 254; 24. 4; 57. 35; Matsya-purāṇa 8. 3; 31. 12; Vāyu-purāṇa 34. 89; 108. 31, 33; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 131; 22. 3.
- 14) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 7; 57. 35-74; 58. 8-31.
- 15) Ib. III. 59. 6; IV. 15. 20; 20. 49; 33. 64-5.
- 16) Matsya-purāṇa 60 49; 61. 28-31; 201. 23-9.
- 17) Ib. 67. 13; 93. 22; 124. 23; 125. 41; 126. 6; 127. 23; 137. 32; 150. 127; 268. 16.
- 18) Ib. 201. 23; 249. 14; 251. 4.
- 19) Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 89; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 8. 9.
- 20) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 12. 33.
- 21) Matsya-purāṇa 261. 17; 266. 64; 289. 6.
1b) The name of the sun in the month of Śucī (Āṣāḍha).*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 36; Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 6; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 10. 8; 12. 32; V. 1. 58.
1c) A Marut of the third gaṇa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 95.
1d) A Mauneya Gandharva.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 1.
1e) The hill on the west of the Kailāsa.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 121. 19.
1f) One of the eleven Vāsiṣṭha branches.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 90.
1g) His wife was Śunādevī, the daughter of Samudra; his sons were Kali and Vaidya, and daughter Surasundarī (see Varuṇa).*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 84. 6.
1h) A Sāma.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 9. 48.
2a) Vāruṇa (वारुण).—One of the nine divisions of Bhārata varṣa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 9; Matsya-purāṇa 114. 8; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 79. Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 7.
Varuṇa (वरुण) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.15, I.65, I.59.41, I.65, I.60.50) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Varuṇa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
Vāruṇa also refers to the name of a Tīrtha (pilgrim’s destination) mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.86.10).Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study
Varuṇa (वरुण) is the name of one of the twelve Ādityas: the offspring of Aditi, according to one account of Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Dakṣa gave thirteen daughters to Kaśyapa. [...] Kaśyapa’s thirteen wives are [viz., Aditi]. Aditi gives birth to twelve Ādityas, [viz. Varuṇa].
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Dhanurveda (science of warfare)Source: Wisdom Library: Dhanurveda
Varuṇa (वरुण) refers to a weapon (magical formula recited over weapons). It is a Sanskrit word defined in the Dhanurveda-saṃhitā, which contains a list of no less than 117 weapons. The Dhanurveda-saṃhitā is said to have been composed by the sage Vasiṣṭha, who in turn transmitted it trough a tradition of sages, which can eventually be traced to Śiva and Brahmā.
Dhanurveda (धनुर्वेद) refers to the “knowledge of warfare” and, as an upaveda, is associated with the Ṛgveda. It contains instructions on warfare, archery and ancient Indian martial arts, dating back to the 2nd-3rd millennium BCE.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
1) Varuṇa (वरुण) is a Sanskrit word for a weapon used in Purāṇic literature, such as the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa (9.20.22-53), where it was in the presence of Devī Bhadrakālī, who was preparing for the war between Śankhacūḍa with the Devas.
2) Varuṇa (वरुण) refers to one of the 53 gods to be worshipped in the western quarter and given pāyasa (rice boiled in milk) according to the Vāstuyāga rite in Śaktism (cf. Śāradātilaka-tantra III-V). The worship of these 53 gods happens after assigning them to one of the 64 compartment while constructing a Balimaṇḍapa. Vāstu is the name of a prodigious demon, who was killed by 53 gods (e.g., Varuṇa).Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Vāruṇa (वारुण) refers to one of the four secondary islands, according to the Tantric texts such as the Kubjikāmata-tantra, the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—There are four secondary Islands, namely: Aruṇa, Vāruṇa, Narasiṃha and Lokāloka (ibid. 20/15). The universe is born from all these Islands. Out of these, the supreme one is Candradvīpa. It is in the middle and is the cause of manifestation. It is in the middle of the Ocean of the Garden, which is the supreme bliss of the emanation of the Islands
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Varuṇa (वरुण).—Varuṇa of the Ṛgvedic pantheon becomes a water-god. He bears a pāśa, the noose of chastisement. He is the presiding deity of the western direction.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Varuṇa (वरुण) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—One of the nine parts of Bhāratavarṣa. In the mentions of Purana’s as well as the Kāvyamīmāṃsā, some are inclined to surmise that Varuna was situated in the north eastern direction of India. Which may be represents an Indian colony in central Asia.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style
Varuṇa (वरुण) refers to one of the forty-seven tānas (tone) used in Indian music.—The illustration of Varuṇa (as a deity) according to 15th-century Indian art is as follows.—The colour of his body is jellow. His face is similar to the face of a peacock. A viṇā is held with both hands.
The illustrations (of, for example Varuṇa) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
Varuṇa (वरुण) is one of the Aṣṭadikpālaka (“eight guardians of the directions”), as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The hand poses for the eight dikpālas (guardians of directions) are described in the Abhinayadarpaṇa and they are followed in the dance performance. When the right hand and the left hand of the dancer assume patāka and śikhara-hasta respectively, it is considered varuṇa-hasta. In images Varuṇa is found holding pāśa in both his hands in kaṭaka or siṃha-karna-hasta. In dance, while depicting Varuṇa, the dancer can use kapittha-mudrās in both the hands.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Vāruṇa (वारुण) or Vāruṇāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Candrajñānāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Vāruṇa Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Candrajñāna-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)
Varuṇa (वरुण) refers to “god of the waters”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Varuṇa (वरुण, “mysterious, hidden”):—In Vedic hinduism, he is the regent of the western direction and personifies the mysterious law of the Gods. He presides over he relationship of humans with the Gods. He is the presiding deity of the invisible world and represents the inner reality of things, higher truth (Ṛta), and order in their trascendent aspects, beyond understanding. He is also the lord of the causal waters that surround the world.
He lives in the most beautiful world called Vibhāvarī. As the King and justive-giver, Varuṇa’s duty is to punish the guilty. He has two wifes (Ṛddhi and Vāruṇī) and has three sons and one daughter:
- and Adharma
Varuna is the lord of the waters and one of the principal Devas. He is one of the Adityas, a son of Aditi and sage Kashyapa. The first references to him appear in the Rig Veda, where he is more often addressed as the part of the dual Mitra-Varuna. In later texts, Mitra disappears, leaving only Varuna.
He is also the lord of justice, and of oaths. He controls all the waters in the ocean and lakes and rivers. He is often depicted as carrying a noose, called VarunaPasha in his hand, with which he punishes evildoers.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
In Vedic religion, Varuṇa is a god of the water and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law of the underwater world. A Makara is his mount. In Hindu mythology, Varuna continued to be considered the god of all forms of the water element, particularly the oceans.
As chief of the Adityas, Varuna has aspects of a solar deity though, when opposed to Mitra (Vedic term for Surya), he is rather associated with the night, and Mitra with the daylight.
As the most prominent Deva, however, he is mostly concerned with moral and societal affairs than being a deification of nature. Together with Mitra–originally 'agreement' (between tribes) personified—being master of ṛtá, he is the supreme keeper of order and god of the law. The word ṛtá, order, is also translated as "season".
In post-Vedic texts Varuna became the god of oceans and rivers and keeper of the souls of the drowned. As such, Varuna is also a god of the dead, and can grant immortality. He is attended by the nagas. He is also one of the Guardians of the directions, representing the west.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Varuna. One of the chief lay disciples of Sumana Buddha. Bu.v.28.
2. Varuna. Son of Revata Buddha and also his chief disciple. His mother was Sudassana (Bu.vi.18, 21; J.i.35). Once, when he was ill, large numbers of people came to see him, and he preached to them on the three signata, ordaining one hundred thousand persons by the ehi bhikkhu ordination. BuA.134.
3. Varuna. The personal attendant of Anomadassi Buddha. J.i.36; Bu.viii.22; DhA.i.88, etc.
4. Varuna. The personal attendant of Paduma Buddha. Bu.ix.21; J.i.36.
5. Varuna. Sixteen kappas ago there were eight kings of this name, all previous births of Malitavambha (Kumudadayaka) Thera. ThagA.i.211; Ap.i.180.
6. Varuna. A disciple of Piyadassi Buddha. ThagA.i.75, 273.
7. Varuna. A brahmin, a former birth of Suppiya Thera. ThagA.i.93; Ap.ii.452.
8. Varuna. A king of fifty one kappas ago, a previous birth of Sayanadayaka Thera. Ap.i.99.
9. Varuna. One hundred and sixty kappas ago there were two kings of this name, previous births of Sucintita Thera. Ap.i.115.
10. Varuna. A king of forty kappas ago, a previous birth of Ekasannaka Thera. Ap.i.121.
11. Varuna. A king in the time of Atthadassi Buddha, a previous birth of Sivali (Ekasaniya) Thera. Ap.i.149 calls him devaraja; ThagA.i.139 calls him ekaraja.
12. Varuna. A yavapala who gave grass to Siddhattha Buddha for his seat. BuA.185.
13. Varuna. A brahmin village, residence of the brahmin Vasabha. BuA.172.
14. Varuna. A king of twenty five kappas ago, a former birth of Pilindavaccha Thera. ThagA.i.52; Ap.i.59.
15. Varuna. A Naga king in the time of Anomadassi Buddha, a previous birth of Maha Moggallana. He played music to the Buddha and entertained him in his abode. Ap.i.31.
16. Varuna. An ascetic who, together with the hunter Sura, discovered intoxicating liquor. This came to be called Varuni. See Kumbhakara Jataka, J.v.12f.
17. Varuna. A Naga king. His wife was Vimala and their daughter was Irandati. For details see Vidhurapandita Jataka. Varuna is identified with Sariputta. J.vi.329.
18. Varuna. A king of the devas, mentioned as the companion of Sakka, Pajapati and Isana. In battle against the Asuras, the devas of Tavatimsa were asked to look upon the banner of Varuna in order to have all their fears dispelled (S.i.219).
In the Tevijja Sutta (D.i.244; cf. J.v.28; vi.20; also Mil. 22) Varuna is mentioned with Indra, Soma, Isana, Pajapati, Yama and Mahiddhi, as the gods invoked by brahmins.
In the Atanatiya Sutta (D.iii.204) he is mentioned with Indra and others as a Yakkha chief.
Buddhaghosa says (SA.i.262) that Varuna is equal in age and glory (vanna) with Sakka and takes the third seat in the assembly of devas.
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. Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Google Books: Vajrayogini
Varuṇa (वरुण).—Protector deity of the western cremation ground.—Varuṇa is a prominent god in the Vedas; his later association is as lord of the waters. Hence, he is listed as Nāgendra (Saṃvarodayatantra 17.39) and is described in the Adbhutaśmaśānālaṃkāra as mounted on a makara. He is red in color and brandishes a lasso and skull cup.Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography
Varuṇa (वरुण) (direction: west ) refers to one of the eight Dikpālas, commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—His Colour is white; his Vehicle is the crocodile; he has two arms
Varuṇa is described in the Niṣpannayogāvalī (dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala) as follows:—
Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
“In the west there is Varuṇa riding on a Crocodile. He is white in colour and has seven hoods. He holds in his two hands the noose of snake and the conch”.
[His statuettes occur in the Chinese collection under the title of Varuṇa (Varuṇadeva)].
Kubera (कुबेर) is the name of the protector (dikpati) associated with Karaṅkaka: the western cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.
These protectors (e.g., Varuṇa) are variously known as dikpati, dikpāla and lokāpala and can be traced to purāṇic legends where eight protectors are assigned to each direction by Brahmā. According to the Śmaśānavidhi verse 20, these protectors are in union with their wives and have four arms, two of which make the añjali gesture of obeisance, while the second pair usually holds a skull bowl and a tantric weapon. They are variously depicted upon their respective mounts, or sitting at the base of the tree.Source: De Gruyter: A Fragment of the Vajrāmṛtamahātantra
Vāruṇā (वारुणा) refers to one of the eight wisdoms (vidyās) described in the ‘śrī-amṛtakuṇḍalin-utpatti’ chapter of the 9th-century Vajrāmṛtatantra or Vajrāmṛtamahātantra: one of the main and earliest Buddhist Yoginītantras. Chapter 9 begins with the visualisation of Amṛtakuṇḍalin [...] The practitioner should visualize a sword in his hand; afterwards, he should visualize the eight Wisdoms [viz., Vāruṇā] along with the door-guardians; eventually he should project the eight Wisdoms into the petals.Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Varuṇa (वरुण) refers to one of the eight direction-guardians (dikpāla) of the Guṇacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the guṇacakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. Varuṇa is associated with the charnel grounds (śmaśāna) named Jvālākulakaraṅka; with the tree (vṛkṣa) named Kaṅkelli; with the serpent king (nāgendra) named Karkoṭa and with the cloud king (meghendra) named Ghora.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Varuṇa (वरुण) refers to the third of the “eight world protectors” (aṣṭalokapāla) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 8). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., aṣṭalokapāla and Varuṇa). The work is attributed to Nagarguna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
Varuṇa (वरुण) in both Sanskrit and Prakrit refers to the plant Crataeva Roxburghii, the shoots (aṅkura) of which are classifed as ananta-kāya, or “plants that are inhabited by an infinite number of living organisms”, and therefore are abhakṣya (forbidden to consume) according to Nemicandra (in his Pravacana-sāroddhāra v245-246). Those plants which are classified as ananta-kāyas (e.g., varuṇa) seem to be chosen because of certain morphological peculiarities such as the possession of bulbs or rhizomes orthe habit of periodically shedding their leaves; and in general theyare characterized by possibilities of vegetative reproduction.Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Vāruṇa (वारुण) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Vāruṇa] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography
1) Varuṇa (वरुण) is the name of the Yakṣa accompanying Munisuvrata: the twentieth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—[...] Descriptions of both the sectarian literatures agree insofar as to make Varuṇa three-eyed, crowned with matted hair and riding a bull. The Digambara books represent him as eight-headed and four-armed but the Śvetāmbara books represent him as eight-headed and eight-armed. The former representation bears in the hands a shield, sword, fruit and Varada and the latter—a citrus, mace, arrow, spear, mongoose, lotus, bow and axe.
2) Varuṇa (वरुण) also refers to one of the Dikpāla or “guardians of the quarters”, a class of deities within Jainism.—Divergence exists among even the Śvetāmbara texts with regard to the vehicle of Varuṇa. the guardian God of the west. Some texts assign to him the vehicle of a dolphin, others a fish. He is, however, unanimously represented as bearing a noose and figuratively wears the ocean. The other sect makes him appearin icons bedecked in pearls, corals, etc., riding a dolphin and bearing a noose.Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Varuṇa (वरुण) (distinguished by the city Ucchā) refers to one of the 25½ countries of the Kṣetrāryas, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly:—“In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. The Āryas have sub-divisions [e.g., kṣetra (country)]. [...] The kṣetrāryas are born in the 15 Karmabhumis. Here in Bharata they have 25½ places of origin (e.g., Varuṇa), distinguishable by cities (e.g., Ucchā) in which the birth of Tīrthakṛts, Cakrabhṛts, Kṛṣṇas, and Balas takes place”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
varūṇa (वरूण).—m (S) The name of the deity of the waters and regent of the west.
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varūna (वरून).—prep (vara) From the top or upper or outer part of; from over or above. 2 From or through; noting progress from premisses to inferences. Ex. tulā myāṃ śabdāvarūna ōḷakhalēṃ. 3 Upon; in consequence of; on occasion of. Ex. tūṃ sāṅgitalyāvarūna mī gēlōṃ. 4 From before or the front-part of; from the vicinity of; by. Ex. tō mājhē gāṃvāvarūna gēlā. 5 Along the surface of. 6 After or upon; in succession or posteriority to. With reference to time. Ex. snāna kēlyāvarūna bhōjanāsa basalōṃ. 7 Upon or on. Ex. jhāḍāṃvarūna pāṅkharēṃ basalīṃ; ghōḍyāṃvarūna sagaḷīṃ māṇasēṃ basalīṃ. This use is confined to the plural number. See hūna. varūna cālaṇēṃ or jāṇēṃ To overflow or run over.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
varuṇa (वरुण).—m The name of the deity of the waters.
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varuna (वरुन).—prep From the top or upper or outer part of; from; upon; by. varuna cālaṇēṃ-jāṇēṃ Overflow.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Varuṇa (वरुण).—[vṛ-unan Uṇ.3.53]
1) Name of an Āditya (usually associated with Mitra); Bṛ. Up.1.4.11.
2) (In later mythology) The regent of the ocean and of the western quarter (represented with a noose in hand); यासां राजा वरुणो याति मध्ये सत्यानृत्ये अवपश्यञ्जनानाम् (yāsāṃ rājā varuṇo yāti madhye satyānṛtye avapaśyañjanānām); वरुणो यादसामहम् (varuṇo yādasāmaham) Bg.1.29; त्वं विश्वेषां वरुणासि राजा ये च देवा ये च मर्ताः (tvaṃ viśveṣāṃ varuṇāsi rājā ye ca devā ye ca martāḥ) Ṛv.2.27.1; प्रतीचीं वरुणः पाति (pratīcīṃ varuṇaḥ pāti) Mb.; अतिसक्तिमेत्य वरुणस्य दिशा भृशमन्वरज्यदतुषारकरः (atisaktimetya varuṇasya diśā bhṛśamanvarajyadatuṣārakaraḥ) Śi.9.7.
3) The ocean.
5) The Sun.
6) The Varuṇa tree.
Derivable forms: varuṇaḥ (वरुणः).
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Vāruṇa (वारुण).—a. (-ṇī f.) [वरुणस्येदम् अण् (varuṇasyedam aṇ)]
1) Belonging to Varuṇa: साक्ष्येऽनृतं वदन् पाशैर्बध्यते वारुणैर्भृशम् (sākṣye'nṛtaṃ vadan pāśairbadhyate vāruṇairbhṛśam) Ms.8.82; Bhāg.1.5.32.
2) Dedicated or sacred to Varuṇa.
3) Given to Varuṇa.
4) Watery, marine; जानामि वारुणाँ- ल्लोकान् (jānāmi vāruṇāṃ- llokān) Rām.4.58.13; पृथिवी पर्वता मेघा मूर्तिमन्तश्च ये परे । सर्वं तद्वारुणं ज्ञेयमापस्तस्तम्भिरे यतः (pṛthivī parvatā meghā mūrtimantaśca ye pare | sarvaṃ tadvāruṇaṃ jñeyamāpastastambhire yataḥ) || Mb.12.183.4.
-ṇaḥ 1 Name of one of the nine divisions of Bharatavarṣa -2 An aquatic animal.
-ṇam 1 Water.
2) The शतभिषज् (śatabhiṣaj) constellation; नक्षत्रे वारुणे कुर्वन् भिषक्सिद्धिमवाप्नुयात् (nakṣatre vāruṇe kurvan bhiṣaksiddhimavāpnuyāt) Mb.13.89.12.
-ṇaḥ, -ṇam The west.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Varuṇa (वरुण).—(1) name of a former Buddha: Mahāvastu iii.234.13, called Varuṇottama line 20; name of (presumably) another Buddha, Śikṣāsamuccaya 169.10; (2) name of an arhat (vaśibhūta), disciple of Śākyamuni: Mahāvastu i.75.18; (3) name of a nāga (compare Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names) Varuṇa 15 and 17): Lalitavistara 204.9; Megh 288.6; Mahā-Māyūrī 221.20; (4) name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 236.25.
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Varuṇā (वरुणा).—name of a locality (city); Mahā-Māyūrī 56, see Lévi, p. 96.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṇaḥ) 1. Varuna, the deity of the water and regent of the west. 2. Water or the ocean. 3. A tree, (Tapia cratœva, or Capparis trifoliata.) 4. A name of the sun, or rather of one of the twelve forms of that luminary, or Adityas. E. vṛ to enclose, (the earth,) or vṛ to select or prefer, being chosen by the gods for his office, and unan Unadi aff.
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(-ṇaṃ) Water. m.
(-ṇaḥ) Name of one of the nine divisions of Bharata-Varsha. f. (-ṇī) 1. Belonging or sacred to Varuna. 2. Given by Varuna.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Varuṇa (वरुण).—i. e. vṛ + una, I. m. 1. In the Veda, the deity of the heavens,
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Vāruṇa (वारुण).—i. e. varuṇa + a, I. adj., f. ṇī. 1. Relating, belonging to Varuṇa, Mahābhārata 1, 1132; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 82; 9, 308. 2. Sacred to Varuṇa, 8, 106. 3. Epithet of a weapon, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 142, 10;
Varuṇa (वरुण).—[masculine] the All-encompasser, [Name] of a god.
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Vāruṇa (वारुण).—[feminine] ī relating to Varuṇa or the water, Varuṇa’s, western, water-. [masculine] aquatic animal, fish; [feminine] ī the west (±diś), Varuṇa’s wife or daughter, a kind of spirit or liquor; [neuter] [Epithet] of a lunar mansion.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Varuṇa (वरुण):—[from vara] a m. (once in the [Taittirīya-āraṇyaka] varuṇa) ‘All-enveloping Sky’, Name of an Āditya (in the Veda commonly associated with Mitra q.v. and presiding over the night as Mitra over the day, but often celebrated separately, whereas Mitra is rarely invoked alone; Varuṇa is one of the oldest of the Vedic gods, and is commonly thought to correspond to the Οὐρανός of the Greeks, although of a more spiritual conception; he is often regarded as the supreme deity, being then styled ‘king of the gods’ or ‘king of both gods and men’ or ‘king of the universe’; no other deity has such grand attributes and functions assigned to him; he is described as fashioning and upholding heaven and earth, as possessing extraordinary power and wisdom called māyā, as sending his spies or messengers throughout both worlds, as numbering the very winkings of men’s eyes, as hating falsehood, as seizing transgressors with his pāśa or noose, as inflicting diseases, especially dropsy, as pardoning sin, as the guardian of immortality; he is also invoked in the Veda together with Indra, and in later Vedic literature together with Agni, with Yama, and with Viṣṇu; in [Ṛg-veda iv, 1, 2], he is even called the brother of Agni; though not generally regarded in the Veda as a god of the ocean, yet he is often connected with the waters, especially the waters of the atmosphere or firmament, and in one place [Ṛg-veda vii, 64, 2] is called with Mitra, sindhu-pati, ‘lord of the sea or of rivers’; hence in the later mythology he became a kind of Neptune, and is there best known in his character of god of the ocean; in the [Mahābhārata] Varuṇa is said to be a son of Kardama and father of Puṣkara, and is also variously represented as one of the Deva-gandharvas, as a Nāga, as a king of the Nāgas, and as an Asura; he is the regent of the western quarter cf. loka-pāla and of the Nakṣatra Śatabhiṣaj [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]; the Jainas consider Varuṇa as a servant of the twentieth Arhat of the present Avasarpiṇī), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (cf. [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 10; 12 etc.])
2) [v.s. ...] the ocean, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
3) [v.s. ...] water, [Kathāsaritsāgara]
4) [v.s. ...] the sun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) [v.s. ...] awarder off or dispeller, [Sāyaṇa on Ṛg-veda v, 48, 5]
6) [v.s. ...] Name of a [particular] magical formula recited over weapons, [Rāmāyaṇa] ([varia lectio] varaṇa)
7) [v.s. ...] the tree Crataeva Roxburghii, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. varaṇa)
8) [v.s. ...] [plural] ([probably]) the gods generally, [Atharva-veda iii, 4, 6]
9) Varuṇā (वरुणा):—[from varuṇa > vara] f. Name of a river, [Mahābhārata]
10) Varuṇa (वरुण):—b etc. See p. 921, col. 2.
11) Vāruṇa (वारुण):—mf(ī)n. ([from] varuṇa) relating or belonging or sacred to or given by Varuṇa, [Atharva-veda] etc. etc. (in, [Mahābhārata] and, [Rāmāyaṇa] also said of [particular] weapons)
12) relating to the sea or to water, marine, oceanic, aquatic, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (with bhūta n. an aquatic animal)
13) western (cf. under varuṇa), [Adbhuta-brāhmaṇa; Rāmāyaṇa; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
14) relating to Vāruṇi id est. Bhṛgu, [Mahābhārata]
15) m. an aquatic animal, fish, [Mahābhārata xiii, 4142] (perhaps also, [Ṛg-veda ii, 38, 8], where varuṇa seems to be [wrong reading])
16) [patronymic] of Bhṛgu (cf. vāruṇi), [Mahābhārata]
17) ([plural]) Varuṇa’s children or people or warriors, [Harivaṃśa]
18) m. Name of a Dvīpa (See n.), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
19) m. (in [astronomy]) Name of the 15th Muhūrta
20) n. water, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
21) the Nakṣatra Śata-bhiṣaj (presided over by Varuṇa), [Mahābhārata; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.
22) n. or m. the west (ṇe, in the west), [Pañcarātra]
23) n. (with khaṇḍa) Name of one of the 9 divisions of Bhārata-varṣa, [Golādhyāya]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Varuṇa (वरुण):—(ṇaḥ) 1. m. Varuna; ocean; a tree; a name of the sun.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Varuṇa (वरुण) [Also spelled varun]:—(nm) the presiding deity of waters according to the Hindu mythology; waters; —[loka] the kingdom of Varun, waters.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+59): Varuna-muhurta, Varunabhatta, Varunabhrigu, Varunadaiva, Varunadaivata, Varunadatta, Varunadeva, Varunadevatya, Varunadevi, Varunadhrut, Varunadi, Varunadri, Varunadvipa, Varunagraha, Varunagrihapati, Varunagrihita, Varunahoma, Varunahrada, Varunajapa, Varunajyeshtha.
Ends with (+3): Agnishtomamaitravaruna, Agnivaruna, Aindravaruna, Avaruna, Indravaruna, Jyotishtomamaitravaruna, Kokilamaitravaruna, Mahavaruna, Maitravaruna, Metravaruna, Mitra-Varuna, Mitravaruna, Samantavaruna, Sauryavaruna, Shatavaruna, Shyavaruna, Somamaitravaruna, Suryavaruna, Vaishnavaruna, Vaishnavavaruna.
Full-text (+683): Varuni, Aindravaruna, Appati, Jivanavasa, Varunani, Varunatmaja, Apampati, Pulakanga, Varunivallabha, Pashin, Jalakantara, Makarashva, Nandapala, Arnavamandira, Iresa, Pracetas, Mahakaccha, Jaladhidaivata, Varunalaya, Avaruna.
Search found 129 books and stories containing Varuna, Vāruṇā, Vāruṇa, Varuṇa, Varunā, Varūṇa, Varūna, Varuṇā; (plurals include: Varunas, Vāruṇās, Vāruṇas, Varuṇas, Varunās, Varūṇas, Varūnas, Varuṇās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Settlement in Early Historic Ganga Plain (by Chirantani Das)
Part 3 - Rivers and other water sources of Vārāṇasī < [Chapter V - Rise of Vārāṇasī as a Nodal Centre]
Part 2 - Vārāṇasī-Sārnāth relation < [Chapter VII - Sārnāth: The Satellite Religious Centre]
Part 2 - A water centric growth of a nodal point: A case study of Vārāṇasī < [Chapter V - Rise of Vārāṇasī as a Nodal Centre]
Satapatha Brahmana (by Julius Eggeling)
Kāṇḍa V, adhyāya 2, brāhmaṇa 5 < [Fifth Kāṇḍa]
Introduction to volume 5 (kāṇḍa 11-14) < [Introductions]
Kāṇḍa IV, adhyāya 1, brāhmaṇa 4 < [Fourth Kāṇḍa]
Bhagavati-sutra (Viyaha-pannatti) (by K. C. Lalwani)
Part 3 - Lokāntika devas < [Chapter 5]
Part 1 - Family of Camarendra < [Chapter 5]
Part 3 - Account of Rathamūṣala battle < [Chapter 9]
The Brahma Purana (by G. P. Bhatt)
The Gautami Mahatmya (by G. P. Bhatt)
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 133 - The Glory of Kaubera and other Tīrthas < [Section 3 - Revā-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 177 - The Greatness of Bhūtīśvara (Bhūti-īśvara-tīrtha) < [Section 3 - Revā-khaṇḍa]
Chapter 90 - The Greatness of Jalaśāyī Tīrtha < [Section 3 - Revā-khaṇḍa]