Tarka: 16 definitions

Introduction

Tarka means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

Tarka (तर्क, “Ratiocination”) stands for works of which reasoning forms the main subject; which make it their business to set forth the ordinary means of cognition,—i.e., works on Nyāya, on Vaiśeṣika and on the materialistic Systems of Philosophy. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 12.106)

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Tarka (तर्क, “deliberation”).—One of the thirty-three ‘transitory states’ (vyabhicāribhāva), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7. These ‘transitory states’ accompany the ‘permanent state’ in co-operation. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.8-9)

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Tarka (तर्क).—Came to see the Trivikrama form of Hari.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 21. 2.

1b) Logic.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 211.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nyāya

Tarka (तर्क) refers to “argumentation”, or “hypothetical reasoning”. It is one of the sixteen categories of discussion (padārtha) according to the doctrine of the Nyāya-sūtras by Akṣapāda. The sixteen padārthas represent a method of intellectual analysis and categorize everything that is knowable and nameable.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

1) Tarka (तर्क, “confutation”) refers to “hypothetical reasoning” and represents the eighth of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”) in the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Tarka is a way of certain conclusion through exposing the unreasonable opposite arguments. Valid knowledge is attainable by the tarka, it may be called to be an aid. In the Nyāyasūtra, tarka (confutation) is said to be that which is stated for the real knowledge of a thing, which is unknown by showing the absurdity of all opposite characters.

2) Tarka (तर्क) refers to “hypothetical argument” and represents one of the three kinds of apramā (“non-valid knowledge”), according to Annaṃbhaṭṭa in the  Tarkasaṃgraha.—Tarka or hypothetical argument is defined as the deduction of a vyāpaka (wider thing) by the wrong hypothesis of a narrow one (vyāpya). This is apprehended thus: if there be no fire, there would be no smoke.

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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis (vedānta)

Tarka (तर्क, “reason”).—In Vedānta, reason is employed—

  1. to ascertain the true purport of Scripture which is our only source of knowledge concerning Dharma and Brahman,
  2. to remove doubts and contrary beliefs and
  3. to convince us of the probability of the existence of what is to be known, i.e., Brahman.
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Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: academia.edu: The Śaiva Yogas and Their Relation to Other Systems of Yoga

Tarka (तर्क, “judgement”) refers to one of the six members (aṅga) of the Ṣaḍaṅgayoga, as taught in the early Śaiva Siddhānta.—Tarka is also known as Ūha or Anusmṛti (in the Buddhist forms of Ṣaḍaṅgayoga). Ṣaḍaṅgayoga is taught as the standard yoga of the Śaivasiddhānta (Siddhānta) a mainstream, Veda congruent dualist tradition. See, for example, the 6th century texts of Raurava-āgama, Kiraṇa-āgma, Sarvajñānottara-āgama, Svāyambhuvasūtrasaṃgraha, the 7th century Mālinīvijayottara and the 9th century Tantrasadbhāva.

By tarka (judgment) ancillary the Yogin is able to assess his progress and prevent himself from stagnating on the path of yoga. The exegete Abhinavagupta also interprets it as the key element differentiating Ṣaḍaṅgayoga from other, non-Śaiva yogas. Through tarka, the Yogin can evaluate his attainment and, by realising it is not the ultimate level taught in Śaiva scripture, reject it and motivate himself to make efforts to advance to the next, higher, level of attainment.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Tarka.—(IE 7-1-2; EI 25), ‘six’. (CII 4), logic. Note: tarka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tarka (तर्क).—m (S) The science of reasoning, logic. 2 Reasoning, inferring, deducing, conjecturing, guessing. 3 An inference, a deduction. v kara, bāndha. 4 A conjecture or fancy; a notion, apprehension, or thought regarding. Ex. vicāra karūṃ lāgalēṃ mhaṇajē anēka prakāracē tarka utpanna hōtāta. 5 Belief or opinion deduced from data or grounds; view or impression of as probable. Ex. yandā parjanya cāṅgalā lāgalā tyājavarūna svasthatā hōīla asā tarka disatō. 6 Reasoning powers, judgment. Ex. tyā śāstrānta mājhā tarka cālata nāhīṃ. 7 Used for kutarka. A wicked or foolish thought; a wild or devious fancy, scheme, speculation.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

tarka (तर्क).—m Logic. Reasoning. A fancy. An inference. Judgment. Belief.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tarka (तर्क).—(tark-bhāve ac)

1) Supposition, conjecture, guess; प्रसन्नस्ते तर्कः (prasannaste tarkaḥ) V.2.

2) Reasoning, speculation, discussion, abstract reasoning; कुतः पुनरस्मिन्नवधारिते आगमार्थे तर्कनिमित्तस्याक्षेपस्यावकाशः (kutaḥ punarasminnavadhārite āgamārthe tarkanimittasyākṣepasyāvakāśaḥ); इदानीं तर्कनिमित्त आक्षेपः परिह्रियते (idānīṃ tarkanimitta ākṣepaḥ parihriyate) Ś. B.; तर्कोऽप्रतिष्ठः स्मृतयो विभिन्नाः (tarko'pratiṣṭhaḥ smṛtayo vibhinnāḥ) Mb.; Ms.12.16.

3) Doubt.

4) Logic, the science of logic; यत्काव्यं मधुवर्षि धर्षितपरास्तर्केषु यस्योक्तयः (yatkāvyaṃ madhuvarṣi dharṣitaparāstarkeṣu yasyoktayaḥ) N.22.155; तर्कशास्त्रम्, तर्कदीपिका (tarkaśāstram, tarkadīpikā)

5) (In logic) Reduction to absurdity, a conclusion opposed to the premises, a reductio ad absurdum.

6) A system of doctrine founded on pure reasoning or free thinking, a philosophical system (particularly one of the six principal Darṣanas q. v.).

7) A name for the number 'six'.

8) Supplying an ellipsis.

9) Cause, motive.

1) Wish, desire.

-rkā Speculation, reasoning.

Derivable forms: tarkaḥ (तर्कः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Tarka (तर्क).—m. (in Sanskrit reasoning, philosophizing), as with Pali takka, in BHS seems normally to have pejorative connotation, sophistry, vain speculation; typical are Sutrāl. i.12 with comm., see Lévi's Transl. (dialectique), and Laṅk 24.2 kathaṃ hi śudhyate tarkaḥ kasmāt tarkaḥ pravartate, kathaṃ hi dṛśyate bhrāntiḥ…, how is tarka purified (got rid of)? From what does it arise?

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tarka (तर्क).—m.

(-rkaḥ) 1. Doubt or disputation, discussion, reasoning. 2. Wish. desire. 3. Supplying an ellipsis. 4. Cause, motive. 5. The science of reasoning, logic. 6. (In logic,) Reduction to absurdity, a conclusion opposed to or disproving the premises. E. tarka to infer, to reason, &c. affix bhāve ac.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tarka (तर्क).—[masculine] supposition, conjecture, opinion; meditation, discussion, philosophical doctrine or system, refutation.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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