Tarka, Taṟkā: 30 definitions


Tarka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

Tarka (तर्क, “Ratiocination”) stands for works of which reasoning forms the main subject; which make it their business to set forth the ordinary means of cognition,—i.e., works on Nyāya, on Vaiśeṣika and on the materialistic Systems of Philosophy. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 12.106)

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Dharmashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Tarka (तर्क, “deliberation”).—One of the thirty-three ‘transitory states’ (vyabhicāribhāva), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7. These ‘transitory states’ accompany the ‘permanent state’ in co-operation. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.8-9)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Tarka (तर्क, “speculation”) refers to one of the various “transitory feelings of mind” (sañcāribhāva) in Indian Dramas, according to the Sāhityadarpaṇa.—The state of utsāha is the sthāyībhāva of vīrarasa. It increases energy and excitement to mind and projects the heroic sentiment through the sañcāribhāvas i.e., transitory feelings of mind like, e.g., tarka (speculation ).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Natyashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Tarka (तर्क).—Came to see the Trivikrama form of Hari.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 21. 2.

1b) Logic.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 211.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nyāya

Tarka (तर्क) refers to “argumentation”, or “hypothetical reasoning”. It is one of the sixteen categories of discussion (padārtha) according to the doctrine of the Nyāya-sūtras by Akṣapāda. The sixteen padārthas represent a method of intellectual analysis and categorize everything that is knowable and nameable.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

1) Tarka (तर्क, “confutation”) refers to “hypothetical reasoning” and represents the eighth of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”) in the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Tarka is a way of certain conclusion through exposing the unreasonable opposite arguments. Valid knowledge is attainable by the tarka, it may be called to be an aid. In the Nyāyasūtra, tarka (confutation) is said to be that which is stated for the real knowledge of a thing, which is unknown by showing the absurdity of all opposite characters.

2) Tarka (तर्क) refers to “hypothetical argument” and represents one of the three kinds of apramā (“non-valid knowledge”), according to Annaṃbhaṭṭa in the  Tarkasaṃgraha.—Tarka or hypothetical argument is defined as the deduction of a vyāpaka (wider thing) by the wrong hypothesis of a narrow one (vyāpya). This is apprehended thus: if there be no fire, there would be no smoke.

context information

Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Nyaya from relevant books on Exotic India

Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis (vedānta)

Tarka (तर्क, “reason”).—In Vedānta, reason is employed—

  1. to ascertain the true purport of Scripture which is our only source of knowledge concerning Dharma and Brahman,
  2. to remove doubts and contrary beliefs and
  3. to convince us of the probability of the existence of what is to be known, i.e., Brahman.
context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Vedanta from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: academia.edu: The Śaiva Yogas and Their Relation to Other Systems of Yoga

Tarka (तर्क, “judgement”) refers to one of the six members (aṅga) of the Ṣaḍaṅgayoga, as taught in the early Śaiva Siddhānta.—Tarka is also known as Ūha or Anusmṛti (in the Buddhist forms of Ṣaḍaṅgayoga). Ṣaḍaṅgayoga is taught as the standard yoga of the Śaivasiddhānta (Siddhānta) a mainstream, Veda congruent dualist tradition. See, for example, the 6th century texts of Raurava-āgama, Kiraṇa-āgma, Sarvajñānottara-āgama, Svāyambhuvasūtrasaṃgraha, the 7th century Mālinīvijayottara and the 9th century Tantrasadbhāva.

By tarka (judgment) ancillary the Yogin is able to assess his progress and prevent himself from stagnating on the path of yoga. The exegete Abhinavagupta also interprets it as the key element differentiating Ṣaḍaṅgayoga from other, non-Śaiva yogas. Through tarka, the Yogin can evaluate his attainment and, by realising it is not the ultimate level taught in Śaiva scripture, reject it and motivate himself to make efforts to advance to the next, higher, level of attainment.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Shaivism from relevant books on Exotic India

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Tarka (तर्क) refers to:—Logic and argument. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Vaishnavism from relevant books on Exotic India

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Tarka (तर्क):—Speculation and logic; Argument

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Ayurveda from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Tarka (तर्क) refers to “sound reasoning”, according to the Tantrāloka.—[Abhinavagupta’s interpretation of the line—“gurutaḥ śāstrataḥ svataḥ”] is inspired by the intention to establish that in a few rare cases, it is possible that the same liberating insight (called “sound reasoning”—sat-tarka—in the following passage), which comes from the teacher and scripture by means of initiation, develops spontaneously by itself (svata). Those who become teachers in this way are, according to Abhinava, “unformed” (akalpita) and “spontaneously enlightened” (sāṃsiddhika).

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Shaktism from relevant books on Exotic India

Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

Tarka (तर्क) represents the number 6 (six) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 6—tarka] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Ganitashastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Tarka (तर्क) refers to the “(doctrines of) logic”, according to the the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] Not by studying the doctrines of scriptural exegesis, logic (tarka), planets and mathematics, nor by the Vedas, Upaniṣads, Dharmaśāstras [and the like]; not even by lexicons nor metre, grammar, poetry nor rhetoric; the sage's attainment of the highest reality is gained only from the oral teachings of his own guru.[...]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Yoga from relevant books on Exotic India

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Tarka (तर्क) refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Tarka).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Tibetan Buddhism from relevant books on Exotic India

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Tarka.—(IE 7-1-2; EI 25), ‘six’. (CII 4), logic. Note: tarka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of India history from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tarka (तर्क).—m (S) The science of reasoning, logic. 2 Reasoning, inferring, deducing, conjecturing, guessing. 3 An inference, a deduction. v kara, bāndha. 4 A conjecture or fancy; a notion, apprehension, or thought regarding. Ex. vicāra karūṃ lāgalēṃ mhaṇajē anēka prakāracē tarka utpanna hōtāta. 5 Belief or opinion deduced from data or grounds; view or impression of as probable. Ex. yandā parjanya cāṅgalā lāgalā tyājavarūna svasthatā hōīla asā tarka disatō. 6 Reasoning powers, judgment. Ex. tyā śāstrānta mājhā tarka cālata nāhīṃ. 7 Used for kutarka. A wicked or foolish thought; a wild or devious fancy, scheme, speculation.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

tarka (तर्क).—m Logic. Reasoning. A fancy. An inference. Judgment. Belief.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tarka (तर्क).—(tark-bhāve ac)

1) Supposition, conjecture, guess; प्रसन्नस्ते तर्कः (prasannaste tarkaḥ) V.2.

2) Reasoning, speculation, discussion, abstract reasoning; कुतः पुनरस्मिन्नवधारिते आगमार्थे तर्कनिमित्तस्याक्षेपस्यावकाशः (kutaḥ punarasminnavadhārite āgamārthe tarkanimittasyākṣepasyāvakāśaḥ); इदानीं तर्कनिमित्त आक्षेपः परिह्रियते (idānīṃ tarkanimitta ākṣepaḥ parihriyate) Ś. B.; तर्कोऽप्रतिष्ठः स्मृतयो विभिन्नाः (tarko'pratiṣṭhaḥ smṛtayo vibhinnāḥ) Mb.; Manusmṛti 12.16.

3) Doubt.

4) Logic, the science of logic; यत्काव्यं मधुवर्षि धर्षितपरास्तर्केषु यस्योक्तयः (yatkāvyaṃ madhuvarṣi dharṣitaparāstarkeṣu yasyoktayaḥ) N.22.155; तर्कशास्त्रम्, तर्कदीपिका (tarkaśāstram, tarkadīpikā)

5) (In logic) Reduction to absurdity, a conclusion opposed to the premises, a reductio ad absurdum.

6) A system of doctrine founded on pure reasoning or free thinking, a philosophical system (particularly one of the six principal Darṣanas q. v.).

7) A name for the number 'six'.

8) Supplying an ellipsis.

9) Cause, motive.

1) Wish, desire.

-rkā Speculation, reasoning.

Derivable forms: tarkaḥ (तर्कः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Tarka (तर्क).—m. (in Sanskrit reasoning, philosophizing), as with Pali takka, in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] seems normally to have pejorative connotation, sophistry, vain speculation; typical are Sutrāl. i.12 with commentary, see Lévi's Transl. (dialectique), and Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 24.2 kathaṃ hi śudhyate tarkaḥ kasmāt tarkaḥ pravartate, kathaṃ hi dṛśyate bhrāntiḥ…, how is tarka purified (got rid of)? From what does it arise?

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tarka (तर्क).—m.

(-rkaḥ) 1. Doubt or disputation, discussion, reasoning. 2. Wish. desire. 3. Supplying an ellipsis. 4. Cause, motive. 5. The science of reasoning, logic. 6. (In logic,) Reduction to absurdity, a conclusion opposed to or disproving the premises. E. tarka to infer, to reason, &c. affix bhāve ac.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tarka (तर्क).—[tark + a], I. m. 1. Supposition, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 71, 12. 2. Consideration, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 258. 3. Logical reasoning, logic, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 106; Mahābhārata 2, 453. 4. A philosophical system, [Prabodhacandrodaya, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 86, 14. Ii. f. , Logical reasoning, Mahābhārata 4, 892.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tarka (तर्क).—[masculine] supposition, conjecture, opinion; meditation, discussion, philosophical doctrine or system, refutation.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tarka (तर्क):—[from tark] m. conjecture, [Mahābhārata] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] reasoning, speculation, inquiry, [Kaṭha-upaniṣad ii, 9; Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra ii, 6, 5; Gautama-dharma-śāstra; Manu-smṛti xii, 106; Mahābhārata] etc.

3) [v.s. ...] doubt, [Horace H. Wilson]

4) [v.s. ...] system or doctrine founded on speculation or reasoning, philosophical system ([especially] the Nyāya system, but applicable also to any of the six Darśana q.v.), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa ii, vii f.; Prabodha-candrodaya; Vopadeva; Caraṇa-vyūha; Madhusūdana]

5) [v.s. ...] the number 6 [Sūryasiddhānta xii, 87]

6) [v.s. ...] logic, confutation ([especially] that kind of argument which consists in reduction to absurdity), [Tarkasaṃgraha; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha; Madhusūdana]

7) [v.s. ...] wish, desire, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] supplying an ellipsis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] cause, motive, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] n. a philosophical system, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi i, 7]

11) Tarkā (तर्का):—[from tarka > tark] f. reasoning, inquiry (‘= kāṅkṣā’ [Scholiast or Commentator]), [Mahābhārata iv, 892]

12) Tarka (तर्क):—[from tark] cf. a-, ku-, dus-, rūpa-.

13) Tārka (तार्क):—m. [plural] Name of a family, [Pravara texts i.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tarka (तर्क):—(ka) tarkayati 10. a. To shine; to speak, to reason; to infer; to discuss; to doubt.

2) (rkaḥ) 1. m. Reasoning; doubt; disputation; desire; motive; supplying an ellipsis; logic; reduction to absurdity.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Tarka (तर्क) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Takka, Takkā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Tarka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Tarka (तर्क) [Also spelled tark]:—(nm) an argument, plea, contention; reason, reasoning; logic; abandonment, relinquishment; —[vitarka] argumentation for and against, discussion; —[śrṛṃkhalā] chain of argument; ~[saṃgata] logical; legitimate, justifiable, rational/reasonable; ~[saṃgati] justification; rationality/reasonableness; logicality; ~[hīna] illogical, irrational, unreasoning; —[karanā] to argue, to contend; to abandon, to relinquish.

context information


Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Hindi from relevant books on Exotic India

Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Tarka (ತರ್ಕ):—

1) [noun] an assuming of something, as for the sake of argument or as part of a proposition or theory; supposition; a guessing.

2) [noun] something that is supposed; a supposition; a guess.

3) [noun] the act or process of thinking seriously and deeply; cogitation.

4) [noun] the act, process of arguing offering reason or reasons, usu. disputing another’s argument.

5) [noun] an inferring, depending on the context, what is omitted or missing.

6) [noun] anything producing an effect or result; a cause.

7) [noun] the science of formal principles of reasoning; logic.

8) [noun] a desire, wish.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

Tamil dictionary

Source: DDSA: University of Madras: Tamil Lexicon

Tarkā (தர்கா) noun < Urdu dargāh. Mosque, shrine of a Muhammadan saint, place of religious resort and prayer; பள்ளிவாசல். [pallivasal.] Muhammadan usage

--- OR ---

Taṟkā (தற்கா) [taṟkāttal] [taṟ-kā] verb < idem. +. intransitive To take care of oneself, protect oneself; தன்னைத் தான்காத்தல். தற்காத்துக் தற்கொண்டாற் பேணி [thannaith thankathal. tharkathug tharkondar peni] (திருக்குறள் [thirukkural], 56). — transitive To preserve, protect; பாதுகாத் தல். நீயென்னைத் தற்காத்தருள் [pathugath thal. niyennaith tharkatharul] (இராமநாடகம் உயுத். [iramanadagam uyuth.] 14).

context information

Tamil is an ancient language of India from the Dravidian family spoken by roughly 250 million people mainly in southern India and Sri Lanka.

Discover the meaning of tarka in the context of Tamil from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Related products

Help me keep this site Ad-Free

For over a decade, this site has never bothered you with ads. I want to keep it that way. But I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased truth, wisdom and knowledge.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: