Tarka: 25 definitions
Tarka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya
Tarka (तर्क, “Ratiocination”) stands for works of which reasoning forms the main subject; which make it their business to set forth the ordinary means of cognition,—i.e., works on Nyāya, on Vaiśeṣika and on the materialistic Systems of Philosophy. (See the Manubhāṣya verse 12.106)
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Tarka (तर्क, “deliberation”).—One of the thirty-three ‘transitory states’ (vyabhicāribhāva), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7. These ‘transitory states’ accompany the ‘permanent state’ in co-operation. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.8-9)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Tarka (तर्क).—Came to see the Trivikrama form of Hari.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 21. 2.
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 211.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Nyaya (school of philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nyāya
Tarka (तर्क) refers to “argumentation”, or “hypothetical reasoning”. It is one of the sixteen categories of discussion (padārtha) according to the doctrine of the Nyāya-sūtras by Akṣapāda. The sixteen padārthas represent a method of intellectual analysis and categorize everything that is knowable and nameable.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
1) Tarka (तर्क, “confutation”) refers to “hypothetical reasoning” and represents the eighth of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”) in the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Tarka is a way of certain conclusion through exposing the unreasonable opposite arguments. Valid knowledge is attainable by the tarka, it may be called to be an aid. In the Nyāyasūtra, tarka (confutation) is said to be that which is stated for the real knowledge of a thing, which is unknown by showing the absurdity of all opposite characters.
2) Tarka (तर्क) refers to “hypothetical argument” and represents one of the three kinds of apramā (“non-valid knowledge”), according to Annaṃbhaṭṭa in the Tarkasaṃgraha.—Tarka or hypothetical argument is defined as the deduction of a vyāpaka (wider thing) by the wrong hypothesis of a narrow one (vyāpya). This is apprehended thus: if there be no fire, there would be no smoke.
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Vedanta (school of philosophy)Source: Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis (vedānta)
Tarka (तर्क, “reason”).—In Vedānta, reason is employed—
- to ascertain the true purport of Scripture which is our only source of knowledge concerning Dharma and Brahman,
- to remove doubts and contrary beliefs and
- to convince us of the probability of the existence of what is to be known, i.e., Brahman.
Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: academia.edu: The Śaiva Yogas and Their Relation to Other Systems of Yoga
Tarka (तर्क, “judgement”) refers to one of the six members (aṅga) of the Ṣaḍaṅgayoga, as taught in the early Śaiva Siddhānta.—Tarka is also known as Ūha or Anusmṛti (in the Buddhist forms of Ṣaḍaṅgayoga). Ṣaḍaṅgayoga is taught as the standard yoga of the Śaivasiddhānta (Siddhānta) a mainstream, Veda congruent dualist tradition. See, for example, the 6th century texts of Raurava-āgama, Kiraṇa-āgma, Sarvajñānottara-āgama, Svāyambhuvasūtrasaṃgraha, the 7th century Mālinīvijayottara and the 9th century Tantrasadbhāva.
By tarka (judgment) ancillary the Yogin is able to assess his progress and prevent himself from stagnating on the path of yoga. The exegete Abhinavagupta also interprets it as the key element differentiating Ṣaḍaṅgayoga from other, non-Śaiva yogas. Through tarka, the Yogin can evaluate his attainment and, by realising it is not the ultimate level taught in Śaiva scripture, reject it and motivate himself to make efforts to advance to the next, higher, level of attainment.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Tarka (तर्क) refers to:—Logic and argument. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Tarka (तर्क):—Speculation and logic; Argument
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
Tarka (तर्क) refers to “sound reasoning”, according to the Tantrāloka.—[Abhinavagupta’s interpretation of the line—“gurutaḥ śāstrataḥ svataḥ”] is inspired by the intention to establish that in a few rare cases, it is possible that the same liberating insight (called “sound reasoning”—sat-tarka—in the following passage), which comes from the teacher and scripture by means of initiation, develops spontaneously by itself (svata). Those who become teachers in this way are, according to Abhinava, “unformed” (akalpita) and “spontaneously enlightened” (sāṃsiddhika).
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Tarka (तर्क) refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Tarka).
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Tarka.—(IE 7-1-2; EI 25), ‘six’. (CII 4), logic. Note: tarka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
tarka (तर्क).—m (S) The science of reasoning, logic. 2 Reasoning, inferring, deducing, conjecturing, guessing. 3 An inference, a deduction. v kara, bāndha. 4 A conjecture or fancy; a notion, apprehension, or thought regarding. Ex. vicāra karūṃ lāgalēṃ mhaṇajē anēka prakāracē tarka utpanna hōtāta. 5 Belief or opinion deduced from data or grounds; view or impression of as probable. Ex. yandā parjanya cāṅgalā lāgalā tyājavarūna svasthatā hōīla asā tarka disatō. 6 Reasoning powers, judgment. Ex. tyā śāstrānta mājhā tarka cālata nāhīṃ. 7 Used for kutarka. A wicked or foolish thought; a wild or devious fancy, scheme, speculation.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
tarka (तर्क).—m Logic. Reasoning. A fancy. An inference. Judgment. Belief.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Tarka (तर्क).—(tark-bhāve ac)
1) Supposition, conjecture, guess; प्रसन्नस्ते तर्कः (prasannaste tarkaḥ) V.2.
2) Reasoning, speculation, discussion, abstract reasoning; कुतः पुनरस्मिन्नवधारिते आगमार्थे तर्कनिमित्तस्याक्षेपस्यावकाशः (kutaḥ punarasminnavadhārite āgamārthe tarkanimittasyākṣepasyāvakāśaḥ); इदानीं तर्कनिमित्त आक्षेपः परिह्रियते (idānīṃ tarkanimitta ākṣepaḥ parihriyate) Ś. B.; तर्कोऽप्रतिष्ठः स्मृतयो विभिन्नाः (tarko'pratiṣṭhaḥ smṛtayo vibhinnāḥ) Mb.; Ms.12.16.
4) Logic, the science of logic; यत्काव्यं मधुवर्षि धर्षितपरास्तर्केषु यस्योक्तयः (yatkāvyaṃ madhuvarṣi dharṣitaparāstarkeṣu yasyoktayaḥ) N.22.155; तर्कशास्त्रम्, तर्कदीपिका (tarkaśāstram, tarkadīpikā)
5) (In logic) Reduction to absurdity, a conclusion opposed to the premises, a reductio ad absurdum.
6) A system of doctrine founded on pure reasoning or free thinking, a philosophical system (particularly one of the six principal Darṣanas q. v.).
7) A name for the number 'six'.
8) Supplying an ellipsis.
9) Cause, motive.
1) Wish, desire.
-rkā Speculation, reasoning.
Derivable forms: tarkaḥ (तर्कः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Tarka (तर्क).—m. (in Sanskrit reasoning, philosophizing), as with Pali takka, in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] seems normally to have pejorative connotation, sophistry, vain speculation; typical are Sutrāl. i.12 with commentary, see Lévi's Transl. (dialectique), and Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 24.2 kathaṃ hi śudhyate tarkaḥ kasmāt tarkaḥ pravartate, kathaṃ hi dṛśyate bhrāntiḥ…, how is tarka purified (got rid of)? From what does it arise?Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-rkaḥ) 1. Doubt or disputation, discussion, reasoning. 2. Wish. desire. 3. Supplying an ellipsis. 4. Cause, motive. 5. The science of reasoning, logic. 6. (In logic,) Reduction to absurdity, a conclusion opposed to or disproving the premises. E. tarka to infer, to reason, &c. affix bhāve ac.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Tarka (तर्क).—[tark + a], I. m. 1. Supposition, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 71, 12. 2. Consideration, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 258. 3. Logical reasoning, logic, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 106; Mahābhārata 2, 453. 4. A philosophical system, [Prabodhacandrodaya, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 86, 14. Ii. f. kā, Logical reasoning, Mahābhārata 4, 892.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Tarka (तर्क).—[masculine] supposition, conjecture, opinion; meditation, discussion, philosophical doctrine or system, refutation.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Tarka (तर्क):—[from tark] m. conjecture, [Mahābhārata] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] reasoning, speculation, inquiry, [Kaṭha-upaniṣad ii, 9; Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra ii, 6, 5; Gautama-dharma-śāstra; Manu-smṛti xii, 106; Mahābhārata] etc.
3) [v.s. ...] doubt, [Horace H. Wilson]
4) [v.s. ...] system or doctrine founded on speculation or reasoning, philosophical system ([especially] the Nyāya system, but applicable also to any of the six Darśana q.v.), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa ii, vii f.; Prabodha-candrodaya; Vopadeva; Caraṇa-vyūha; Madhusūdana]
5) [v.s. ...] the number 6 [Sūryasiddhānta xii, 87]
6) [v.s. ...] logic, confutation ([especially] that kind of argument which consists in reduction to absurdity), [Tarkasaṃgraha; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha; Madhusūdana]
7) [v.s. ...] wish, desire, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] supplying an ellipsis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) [v.s. ...] cause, motive, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) [v.s. ...] n. a philosophical system, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi i, 7]
11) Tarkā (तर्का):—[from tarka > tark] f. reasoning, inquiry (‘= kāṅkṣā’ [Scholiast or Commentator]), [Mahābhārata iv, 892]
12) Tarka (तर्क):—[from tark] cf. a-, ku-, dus-, rūpa-.
13) Tārka (तार्क):—m. [plural] Name of a family, [Pravara texts i.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Tarka (तर्क):—(ka) tarkayati 10. a. To shine; to speak, to reason; to infer; to discuss; to doubt.
2) (rkaḥ) 1. m. Reasoning; doubt; disputation; desire; motive; supplying an ellipsis; logic; reduction to absurdity.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Tarka (तर्क) [Also spelled tark]:—(nm) an argument, plea, contention; reason, reasoning; logic; abandonment, relinquishment; —[vitarka] argumentation for and against, discussion; —[śrṛṃkhalā] chain of argument; ~[saṃgata] logical; legitimate, justifiable, rational/reasonable; ~[saṃgati] justification; rationality/reasonableness; logicality; ~[hīna] illogical, irrational, unreasoning; —[karanā] to argue, to contend; to abandon, to relinquish.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+109): Tarkabaddha, Tarkabaja, Tarkabhas, Tarkabhasha, Tarkabhashabhavaprahashika, Tarkabhashaprakasha, Tarkabhashaprakashika, Tarkabhashasaramanjari, Tarkabhushanatika, Tarkabuddhi, Tarkacandrika, Tarkacudamani, Tarkadhara, Tarkadipika, Tarkadipikatika, Tarkagamya, Tarkagrantha, Tarkagranthakroda, Tarkagranthaprakasha, Tarkagrantharahasya.
Ends with (+26): Akaraparivitarka, Anukulatarka, Anumanakhandatarka, Atarka, Avitarka, Bhatarka, Bhattarka, Bheshajatarka, Brahmatarka, Dattarka, Durvitarka, Dustarka, Gandhahastimahatarka, Ganitatarka, Gaudatarka, Hastarka, Hetutarka, Kamavitarka, Khandanamahatarka, Kupratarka.
Full-text (+304): Tarkavidya, Tarkashastra, Tarkabhasha, Tarkasamgraha, Tarkagrantha, Atarka, Tarkamudra, Kutarka, Tarkaprakasha, Tarkaka, Tarkin, Dustarka, Tarkika, Rupatarka, Takka, Vitarka, Tulyatarka, Vyatirekin, Tarkabhashaprakashika, Tarkabhashabhavaprahashika.
Search found 47 books and stories containing Tarka, Tarkā, Tārka; (plurals include: Tarkas, Tarkās, Tārkas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 4 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 3 - Tarka (ratiocination) < [Chapter XXVIII - Madhva Logic]
Part 6 - Various Considerations regarding Inference < [Chapter XXVIII - Madhva Logic]
Part 2 - Inference (anumāna) < [Chapter XXVIII - Madhva Logic]
Amritanada Upanishad of Krishna-Yajurveda (by K. Narayanasvami Aiyar)
Preceptors of Advaita (by T. M. P. Mahadevan)
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.4.135 < [Part 4 - Transient Ecstatic Disturbances (vyābhicāri-bhāva)]
Verse 2.4.243 < [Part 4 - Transient Ecstatic Disturbances (vyābhicāri-bhāva)]
The Buddhist Philosophy of Universal Flux (by Satkari Mookerjee)
Chapter XXIV - Universal Concomitance (Vyāpti) < [Part II - Logic and Epistemology]
Chapter XXV - Prasaṅgānumāna < [Part II - Logic and Epistemology]
Chapter XXVI - Negative Judgment < [Part II - Logic and Epistemology]
Siddhanta Sangraha of Sri Sailacharya (by E. Sowmya Narayanan)