Gaura; 12 Definition(s)

Introduction

Gaura means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Gaura (गौर) is a Sanskrit word for a variety of rice (ṣaṣṭika) which is said to have a superior quality, according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. The literal translation of the word “white”. The plant Gaura is part of the Śūkadhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of awned grains”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Gaura is said to be cold, unctuous, non-heavy, promoting the stability of and alleviates the three doṣas.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Gaura (गौर) refers to a type of spices according to Arthaśāstra II.15.21, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Arthaśāstra refers to the spices like śṛṅgibera, ajāji, kirītatikta, gaura, sarṣapa, kustumaburu, coraka, damanaka, maruvaka, śigru, harītakī and meṣaśṛṅga.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Gaura (गौर).—A mountain in the Kuśa island. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 4).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1a) Gaura (गौर).—A Vaikuṇṭha god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 51.

1b) A son of Śuka and Pīvarī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 93; 10. 81; Matsya-purāṇa 15. 10; Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 85; 73. 30.

1c) A mountain of gold to the north of the Kailāsa; with haritāla trees; celebrated for golden crests; at its foot was lake Bindusaras where Bhagīratha was engaged in austerities. Here Indra performed a number of sacrifices.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 24-8; Matsya-purāṇa 121. 24; Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 23-5.

1d) A Pāraśara branch.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 87.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Gaura (गौर, “pale-red”) refers to a derivative color, composed of the red (rakta) and the pīta (yellow) colors, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. According to the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation), there are four main colors (varṇa) from which various derivative and minor colors (upavarṇa) are derived. Colors are used in aṅgaracanā (painting the limbs), which forms a section of nepathya (costumes and make-up).

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “Gods (devas) as well as the Yakṣas and the Apsarasas should be painted reddish yellow (gaura)”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Gaura (गौर) refers to “one who is pale”, representing an undesirable characteristic of an Ācārya, according to the 9th-century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra Ādikāṇḍa chapter 3.—The Lord said:—“I will tell you about the Sthāpakas endowed with perverse qualities. He should not construct a temple with those who are avoided in this Tantra. [...] He should not be a Punarbhū, a Svayambhū, a widow’s bastard, or a non-believer, nor irrational, pale (gaura), bald or crippled or fat. [...] A god enshrined by any of these named above (viz., gaura), is in no manner a giver of fruit. If a building for Viṣṇu is made anywhere by these excluded types (viz., gaura) then that temple will not give rise to enjoyment and liberation and will yield no reward, of this there is no doubt”.

Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra
Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Gaura (गौर) is the name of a Buddha under whom Śākyamuni (or Gautama, ‘the historical Buddha’) acquired merit along the first through nine bhūmis, according to the Mahāvastu. There are in total ten bhūmis representing the ten stages of the Bodhisattva’s path towards enlightenment.

Gaura is but one among the 500 Buddhas enumerated in the Mahāvastu during a conversation between Mahākātyāyana and Mahākāśyapa, both principle disciples of Gautama Buddha. The Mahāvastu is an important text of the Lokottaravāda school of buddhism, dating from the 2nd century BCE.

Source: Wisdom Library: Lokottaravāda
Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

gaura (गौर).—a (S) Fair, white, clear, clean--complexion, or color of body.

--- OR ---

gaura (गौर).—f The popular form of gaurī or pārvatī. gaura jāgaviṇēṃ To keep vigils in honor of gaurī. gaura rusalī saubhāgya ghēūna basalī Said of a sulky female in expression of utter indifference about her humors and moods.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

gaura (गौर).—a White, fair, clear.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gaura (गौर).—a. ( or [rī] f.)

1) White; कैलासगौरं वृषमारुरुक्षोः (kailāsagauraṃ vṛṣamārurukṣoḥ) R.2.35; द्विरददशनच्छेदगौरस्य तस्य (dviradadaśanacchedagaurasya tasya) Me.59,52; Ṛs.1.6.

2) Yellowish, pale-red; गोरोचनाक्षेपनितान्तगौरे (gorocanākṣepanitāntagaure) Ku.7.17; R.6.65; गौराङ्गि गर्वं न कदापि कुर्याः (gaurāṅgi garvaṃ na kadāpi kuryāḥ) R. G.

3) Reddish; तेजोभिः कनकनिकाषराजिगौरेः (tejobhiḥ kanakanikāṣarājigaureḥ) Ki.7.6.

4) Shining, brilliant.

5) Pure, clean, beautiful.

-raḥ 1 The white colour.

2) The yellowish colour;

3) The reddish colour.

4) White mustard.

5) The moon.

6) A kind of buffalo.

7) A kind of deer; Bhāg.8.1.9.

8) The planet Jupiter.

9) Name of Chaitanya.

-ram 1 The filament of a lotus.

2) Saffron.

3) Gold.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gaura (गौर).—n. of a former Buddha: Mv i.140.11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Gaura (गौर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-rī-raṃ) 1. White. 2. Yellow. 3. Pale red: (or it may be used as a noun substantive mas. to imply either of these colours.) 4. Clean, cleansed, pure. m.

(-raḥ) 1. white mustard. 2. The moon. 3. A tree, (Grislea tomentosa:) see dhavaḥ 4. A name of Chaitana. n.

(-raṃ) 1. The filament of a lotus. 2. Gold. 3. Saffron f. (-rā-rī) 1. A. name of the goddess Parvati. (-rī) 2. A young girl, eight years old. 3. Any young girl prior to menstruation, a maid, a virgin. 4. The name of a river. 5. The wife of the deity Varuna. 6. The earth. 7. Turmeric. 8. A yellow dye called Gorochana. 9. A plant: see rocanī. 10. A plant bearing a fragrant seed: see priyaṅgu. 11. One of the female energies or Saktis of the Bauddhas. 12. A white kind of Durva or bent grass. 13. Arabian jasmin. 14. Sacred basil or Tulasi. 15. One of the Raginis. E. guḍa to sound. and ran Unadi affix, the deriv. is irregular; also gurī to endeavour, dhañ affix, and derivative irr.; upon whom or what the mind exerts itself; again, gaura white, pure, &c. affix ṅīṣ, that which is white or brilliant, &c. which applies to the virgin, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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