Gaura: 29 definitions


Gaura means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Gaura (गौर) is a Sanskrit word for a variety of rice (ṣaṣṭika) which is said to have a superior quality, according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The literal translation of the word “white”. The plant Gaura is part of the Śūkadhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of awned grains”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Gaura is said to be cold, unctuous, non-heavy, promoting the stability of and alleviates the three doṣas.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Gaura (गौर) refers to a type of spices according to Arthaśāstra II.15.21, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Arthaśāstra refers to the spices like śṛṅgibera, ajāji, kirītatikta, gaura, sarṣapa, kustumaburu, coraka, damanaka, maruvaka, śigru, harītakī and meṣaśṛṅga.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Gaura (गौर):—White, whitish

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Gaura (गौर).—A mountain in the Kuśa island. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 4).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Gaura (गौर).—A Vaikuṇṭha god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 51.

1b) A son of Śuka and Pīvarī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 93; 10. 81; Matsya-purāṇa 15. 10; Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 85; 73. 30.

1c) A mountain of gold to the north of the Kailāsa; with haritāla trees; celebrated for golden crests; at its foot was lake Bindusaras where Bhagīratha was engaged in austerities. Here Indra performed a number of sacrifices.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 24-8; Matsya-purāṇa 121. 24; Vāyu-purāṇa 47. 23-5.

1d) A Pāraśara branch.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 87.
Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Gaura (गौर) refers to one of the five sons of Śuka: the son of Kṛṣṇa-Dvaipāyana, according to one account of Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Nārada gave a daughter to Vasiṣṭha. She was Arundhati and Śakti was born to her. Śakti begot Parāśara and from Parāśara was born Kṛṣṇadvaipāyana. Śuka was born to Dvaipāyana and Śuka had five sons—Bhūriśravā, Prabhu, Śaṃbhu, Kṛṣṇa and Gaura and a daughter—Kīrtimati.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Gaura (गौर, “pale-red”) refers to a derivative color, composed of the red (rakta) and the pīta (yellow) colors, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. According to the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation), there are four main colors (varṇa) from which various derivative and minor colors (upavarṇa) are derived. Colors are used in aṅgaracanā (painting the limbs), which forms a section of nepathya (costumes and make-up).

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “Gods (devas) as well as the Yakṣas and the Apsarasas should be painted reddish yellow (gaura)”.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Gaura (गौर) or “reddish-white (colour)” is associated with Vīra or the “ heroic sentiment”, which represents one of the nine kinds of Rasa (“soul of Drama”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa gaura i.e., radish white is the colour of this sentiment. Mahendra is the God of this sentiment. The Nāṭyaśāstra states that the vīra-rasa relates to the superior type of persons and has excitement as its basis.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra

Gaura (गौर) refers to “one who is pale”, representing an undesirable characteristic of an Ācārya, according to the 9th-century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra Ādikāṇḍa chapter 3.—The Lord said:—“I will tell you about the Sthāpakas endowed with perverse qualities. He should not construct a temple with those who are avoided in this Tantra. [...] He should not be a Punarbhū, a Svayambhū, a widow’s bastard, or a non-believer, nor irrational, pale (gaura), bald or crippled or fat. [...] A god enshrined by any of these named above (viz., gaura), is in no manner a giver of fruit. If a building for Viṣṇu is made anywhere by these excluded types (viz., gaura) then that temple will not give rise to enjoyment and liberation and will yield no reward, of this there is no doubt”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Gaura (गौर) refers to a “white-colored lunar disc”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 4), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the disc of the moon that regularly waxes and wanes should appear white [i.e., gaura] resembling the colour of the Kumuda flower or that of the stem of the lotus or if the moon’s course or disc or rays should suffer no irregular change there will be prosperity in the land. During the waxing moon, the Brāhmins, the Kṣatriyas and mankind at large will prosper; and during the waning moon, they will suffer miseries. The increase of prosperity will commence after the new-moon and of adversity after the full moon”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Lokottaravāda

Gaura (गौर) is the name of a Buddha under whom Śākyamuni (or Gautama, ‘the historical Buddha’) acquired merit along the first through nine bhūmis, according to the Mahāvastu. There are in total ten bhūmis representing the ten stages of the Bodhisattva’s path towards enlightenment.

Gaura is but one among the 500 Buddhas enumerated in the Mahāvastu during a conversation between Mahākātyāyana and Mahākāśyapa, both principle disciples of Gautama Buddha. The Mahāvastu is an important text of the Lokottaravāda school of buddhism, dating from the 2nd century BCE.

Source: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

Gaura (गौर) (in Chinese: K'iu-lo) is the name of an ancient kingdom associated with  Puṣya or Puṣyanakṣatra, as mentioned in chapter 18 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—Chapter 18 deals with geographical astrology and, in conversation with Brahmarāja and others, Buddha explains how he entrusts the Nakṣatras [e.g., Puṣya] with a group of kingdoms [e.g., Gaura] for the sake of protection and prosperity.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: Tessitori Collection I (history)

Gaur refers to one of the twelve Kāyastha groups from Māthurā, according to the “Samoṣaṇa Kāitha Māthura-rāsa” (dealing with caste history), and is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—In between the work deals with the legendary origin of the Kāyasthas as sons of Citragupta, himself born from Brahmā’s body. The Māthura Kāyasthas are one of the twelve Kāyastha groups. (In modern terms, e.g., Gaur, [...]).

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Gaura in India is the name of a plant defined with Crocus sativus in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Safran officinarum Medik. (among others).

2) Gaura is also identified with Pongamia pinnata It has the synonym Cajum pinnatum Kuntze (etc.).

3) Gaura in Nigeria is also identified with Sorghum bicolor It has the synonym Holcus caffrorum Thunb. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Jard. Malmaison (1803)
· Gard. Chron. (1879)
· FBI (1876)
· Fl. Ital. (1860)
· Flora of Bilaspur District, Madhya Pradesh (1989)
· Gardeners Dictionary, ed. 8 (1768)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Gaura, for example health benefits, chemical composition, pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, side effects, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

gaura (गौर).—a (S) Fair, white, clear, clean--complexion, or color of body.

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gaura (गौर).—f The popular form of gaurī or pārvatī. gaura jāgaviṇēṃ To keep vigils in honor of gaurī. gaura rusalī saubhāgya ghēūna basalī Said of a sulky female in expression of utter indifference about her humors and moods.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

gaura (गौर).—a White, fair, clear.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gaura (गौर).—a. ( or [rī] f.)

1) White; कैलासगौरं वृषमारुरुक्षोः (kailāsagauraṃ vṛṣamārurukṣoḥ) R.2.35; द्विरददशनच्छेदगौरस्य तस्य (dviradadaśanacchedagaurasya tasya) Meghadūta 59,52; Ṛtusaṃhāra 1.6.

2) Yellowish, pale-red; गोरोचनाक्षेपनितान्तगौरे (gorocanākṣepanitāntagaure) Kumārasambhava 7.17; R.6.65; गौराङ्गि गर्वं न कदापि कुर्याः (gaurāṅgi garvaṃ na kadāpi kuryāḥ) R. G.

3) Reddish; तेजोभिः कनकनिकाषराजिगौरेः (tejobhiḥ kanakanikāṣarājigaureḥ) Kirātārjunīya 7.6.

4) Shining, brilliant.

5) Pure, clean, beautiful.

-raḥ 1 The white colour.

2) The yellowish colour;

3) The reddish colour.

4) White mustard.

5) The moon.

6) A kind of buffalo.

7) A kind of deer; Bhāgavata 8.1.9.

8) The planet Jupiter.

9) Name of Chaitanya.

-ram 1 The filament of a lotus.

2) Saffron.

3) Gold.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Gaura (गौर).—name of a former Buddha: Mahāvastu i.140.11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gaura (गौर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-rī-raṃ) 1. White. 2. Yellow. 3. Pale red: (or it may be used as a noun substantive mas. to imply either of these colours.) 4. Clean, cleansed, pure. m.

(-raḥ) 1. white mustard. 2. The moon. 3. A tree, (Grislea tomentosa:) see dhavaḥ 4. A name of Chaitana. n.

(-raṃ) 1. The filament of a lotus. 2. Gold. 3. Saffron f. (-rā-rī) 1. A. name of the goddess Parvati. (-rī) 2. A young girl, eight years old. 3. Any young girl prior to menstruation, a maid, a virgin. 4. The name of a river. 5. The wife of the deity Varuna. 6. The earth. 7. Turmeric. 8. A yellow dye called Gorochana. 9. A plant: see rocanī. 10. A plant bearing a fragrant seed: see priyaṅgu. 11. One of the female energies or Saktis of the Bauddhas. 12. A white kind of Durva or bent grass. 13. Arabian jasmin. 14. Sacred basil or Tulasi. 15. One of the Raginis. E. guḍa to sound. and ran Unadi affix, the deriv. is irregular; also gurī to endeavour, dhañ affix, and derivative irr.; upon whom or what the mind exerts itself; again, gaura white, pure, &c. affix ṅīṣ, that which is white or brilliant, &c. which applies to the virgin, &c.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gaura (गौर).—I. adj., f. , White, yellow, pale red, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 53; [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 14, 30. Ii. m. 1. A kind of buffalo, Bos gaurus, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 3, 10. 21. 2. White mustard, as a measure, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 1, 362. Iii. f. , 1. Turmeric, [Suśruta] 1, 59, 11. 2. A young girl prior to menstruation, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 213. 3. The wife of Śiva, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 51. 4. The wife of Varuṇa, Mahābhārata 5, 3968. 5. The name of a river, Mahābhārata 6, 333. Iv. n. Saffron, [Caurapañcāśikā] 10.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gaura (गौर).—[feminine] ī white, yellowish, reddish; brilliant, beautiful. [masculine] = gauramṛga or = gaurasarṣapa, [Name] of a teacher; [feminine] ī a female buffalo, a young girl before puberty, [Epithet] of the wife of Śiva, [Name] of [several] women.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Gaura (गौर):—mf(ī)n. (in [compound] or ifc. [gana] kaḍārādi) white, yellowish, reddish, pale red, [Ṛg-veda x, 100, 2; Taittirīya-saṃhitā v etc.]

2) shining, brilliant, clean, beautiful, [Caurapañcāśikā]

3) m. white, yellowish (the colour), [Horace H. Wilson]

4) a kind of buffalo (Bos Gaurus, often classed with the Gavaya), [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] etc.

5) white mustard (the seed of which is used as a weight, = 3 Rāja-sarṣapas), [Yājñavalkya i, 362]

6) Grislea tomentosa (dhava), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) a species of rice, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

8) the moon, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) the planet Jupiter, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) Name of the Nāga Śeṣa, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

11) of Caitanya (cf. -candra)

12) of a Yoga teacher (son of Śuka and Pīvarī), [Harivaṃśa 981]

13) [plural] Name of a family (cf. rātreya), [Pravara texts iv, 1]

14) n. white mustard, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) Name of a potherb, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

16) saffron (cf. kanaka-), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) the filament of a lotus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) gold, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) orpiment, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

20) Gaurā (गौरा):—[from gaura] f. = , [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. gaulā)

21) Gaura (गौर):—cf. [Latin] gilvus?

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gaura (गौर):—[(raḥ-rā-rī-raṃ) a.] White, yellow, pale red, clean. m. White mustard; the moon. f. Durgā; a young girl. n. Filaments of a lotus.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Gaura (गौर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Gora.

[Sanskrit to German]

Gaura in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Gaura (गौर) [Also spelled gaur]:—(a) fair-skinned, fair, white; ~[varṇa] fair-complexioned.

2) Gaura (गौर) [Also spelled gaur]:—(nm) reflection, deliberation, consideration, close attention; ~[talaba] worth considering/reflecting on, requiring close attention;—[karanā] to take note of; to ponder, to deliberate, to think attentively; —[honā] to be thought of attentively, to be pondered over.

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Gaur in Hindi refers in English to:—(a) fair-skinned, fair, white; ~[varna] fair-complexioned..—gaur (गौर) is alternatively transliterated as Gaura.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Gaura (ಗೌರ):—[adjective] of white, light yellow colour; of fair complexion.

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Gaura (ಗೌರ):—

1) [noun] the white colour.

2) [noun] the reddish or light red colour.

3) [noun] the golden yellow colour.

4) [noun] the moon.

5) [noun] the filament of a lotus.

6) [noun] the seed of the plant Brassica alba; white mustard.

7) [noun] a wild buffalo; gaur.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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