Lakshmi, aka: Lakṣmī; 21 Definition(s)
Lakshmi means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Lakṣmī can be transliterated into English as Laksmi or Lakshmi, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
1) Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी) is the Sanskrit name for a deity to be worshipped during raṅgapūjā, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.1-8. Accordingly, the master of the dramatic art who has been initiated for the purpose shall consecrate the playhouse after he has made obeisance (eg., to Lakṣmī).
2) Lakṣmī is also the Sanskrit name of one of the seven Nāṭyamātṛ (‘mothers of nāṭya’) mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.86-87. They should be offered worship during ceremonies such as ‘consecration of the mattavāraṇī’ and ‘pouring ghee into sacrificial fire’.
Accordingly (85-87), “After saying these words for the happiness of the king, the wise man should utter the Benediction for the success of the dramatic production. [The Benediction]: Let mothers such as Sarasvati, Dhṛti, Medhā, Hrī, Śrī, Lakṣmī, and Smṛti protect you and give you success.”(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
One of the Deva-vibhāvana (hands that indicate the forms which accord with the character and actions of Brahmā and other Devas).—Lakṣmī: two Kapittha hands held at the shoulders.
Note: ‘Held at the shoulders’ is to be understood in the case of all the Deva hands unless otherwise indicated.(Source): archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
1) Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी, “Good Fortune, Prosperity”):—One of the female offspring from Mahālakṣmī (rajas-form of Mahādevī). Mahālakṣmī is one of the three primary forms of Devī, the other two being Mahākālī and Mahāsarasvatī. Not to be confused with Lakṣmī, she is a more powerful cosmic aspect (vyaṣṭi) of Devi and represents the guṇa (universal energy) named rajas. Also see the Devī Māhātmya, a Sanskrit work from the 5th century, incorporated into the Mārkaṇḍeya-Purāṇa.
2) Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी, “fortune, success”):—Name of one of the sixty-four mātṛs to be worshipped during Āvaraṇapūjā (“Worship of the Circuit of Goddesses”, or “Durgā’s Retinue”), according to the Durgāpūjātattva. They should be worshipped with either the five upācāras or perfume and flowers.
Her mantra is as follows:
ॐ लक्ष्म्यै नमः
oṃ lakṣmyai namaḥ.
A similar mantra is mentioned by the same text, prefixed with ह्रीं (hrīṃ), to be worshipped at the goddess’s right.(Source): Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी, “wealth”):—One of the names attributed to Devī, as chanted by the Vedas in their hymns, who were at the time incarnated in their personified forms. See the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa chapter 5.51-68, called “the narrative of Hayagrīva”.(Source): Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)
1) Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी, “observing”):—One of the twenty-four emanations of Lakṣmī accompanying Nārāyaṇa. This particular manifestation couples with his counterpart form called Vāsudeva and together they form the thirteenth celestial couple. Lakṣmī represents a form of the Goddess (Devī) as the wife of Viṣṇu, while Nārāyaṇa represents the personification of his creative energy, according to the Pāñcarātra literature.
2) Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Lakṣmīnṛsiṃha or Lakṣmīnarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.
The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.(Source): Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
The power (śakti) of Vishnu is represented as the power of multiplicity, or the Goddess of Fortune called Lakṣmī (“she-of-the-hundred-thousands”), she is also known as Śrī (“the-beautiful-one”). As the consort of Vishnu she appears with Him in every one of His incarnations. She is the Immaculate mediatrix of all Grace and is the embodiment of Compassion and Forgiveness on an absolute level.
Lakṣmī is depicted in three aspects and in each one her vehicle differs;
- In sattva-guna; she accompanies Mahā Viṣṇu upon Garuda.
- In rajo-guna; rides alone upon an elephant or sits upon a lotus.
- In tamo-guna; rides alone upon the owl Uluka.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Lakṣmī (लक्स्ह्मि, “She-of-the-hundred-thousands”).—The Śakti of the all-pervading Preserver, Vishnu, is represented as the power of multiplicity or goddess of fortune, Lakṣmī.When she is associated with the universal principle of beauty she is known as Śrī. Both "Lakshmi" and "Śrī" are mentioned in the Vedas in the context of "fortune." But Lakshmi as the Goddess of Fortune is depicted as a major goddess only in the epics.
As the consort of the Highest God Lord Vishnu, Lakṣmī is also the embodiment of compassion (anugraha-śakti) and tempers His quality of Justice (nigraha-śakti). As the Goddess of compassion she further transforms and sanctifies resources into their use for the benefit of others.(Source): Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Devi
Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी) is found as a sculpture at the temple of Lokeśvara, western wall, centre, west façade.—An image of the goddess Lakṣmī with two hands, a lotus in each one of her hands, is carved on the top of the central niche. She is shown seated on a lotus seat. That lotus seat is supported by two aquatic reptiles which look like makara, a mythical animal and two persons are jutting out of their opened jaws. Behind their snouts are seated two persons, one on each, with one hand lifted up as if they are lauding the Lady. In between the two makara is seated an animal with the face of a lion. This motif becomes very frequent and is carved in a number of places of Karnāṭaka or so called Vijayanagara Empire.
Semi-divine characters, such as Yakṣa and Gandharva couples, are also shown flying above, on either sides of the goddess (Lakṣmī). Their gestures make us believe that they must be eulogizing the virtues of the goddess of fortune.(Source): Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Nīlamata is aware of her birth from the sea. Called by the names Śrī, Lakṣmī and Karīṣiṇī, she is capable of purifying three worlds and, at Kaśyapa’s request, takes the form of a river Viśokā to purify the people of Kaśmīra. Her worship is prescribed in many festivals like Sukhasuptikā, Rāma’s birth-day festival and Irāmañjarīpūjana. Śrī Pañcamī—fifth day of the bright half of Caitra—is wholly dedicated to her worship. The purifying abode of auspiciousness, she is the Supreme Power assuming forms of different goddesses. She is also identified with Umā and Kaśmīrā.(Source): archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
1) Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी).—Consort of Mahāviṣṇu. Origin. Devī originated from the left side of Paramātmā (Supreme Being). The beautiful Devī by a command from the Supreme Being divided herself into two enchanting damsels both equal in figure, splendour, age, majesty, adornment and love. One of these was Lakṣmīdevī and the other Rādhādevī. That born of the left was Ramā and that of the right, Rādhā. Rādhā wedded herself to the two-handed Śrī Kṛṣṇa and Lakṣmī also wanted the same person and so Bhagavān himself became two, Śri Kṛṣṇa from the left side as a two-handed person and as four-handed Viṣṇu from the right side. (9th Skandha. Devī Bhāgavata). (See full article at Story of Lakṣmī from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी).—A daughter of Dakṣaprajāpati. She was married to Dharmadeva. (Śloka 14, Chapter 66, Ādi Parva).(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी).—Also Ramā and Śrī—born out of the churning of the ocean; seeing her unequalled beauty, the sages anointed her amidst divine music and dancing. Every god presented her with something or other. She desired to be a partner of Hari, and the latter assigned her a place in his chest. Presented Prthu with inexhaustible wealth;1 a kalā of Brahmā; a devī attending on Soma; a Varṇa śakti;2 a mind-born daughter of Brahmā;3 consort of Viṣṇu;4 brought forth Kāma by Dharma;5 left Nārāyaṇa and loved Soma along with eight other devīs;6 wealth;7 residing in the lotus in śrī sara;8 with the appellation of Sitā in Gayā.9
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 8. 8-29; IV. 15. 16.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 65. 26; IV. 19. 74; 35. 94; 44. 62.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 171. 32.
- 4) Ib. 187. 45.
- 5) Ib. 171. 42.
- 6) Ib. 23. 24.
- 7) Ib. 221. 12; 246. 62; 247. 30; 285. 20.
- 8) Vāyu-purāṇa 37. 8.
- 9) Ib. 106. 58; 112. 64.
- 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 25, 34; 55. 43; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 49, 58; 26. 45.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 88; Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 76; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 7. 23, 28; 8-21.
- 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 7. 72.
- 4) Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 2. 47.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Katha (narrative stories)
Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी) or Śrī to whom several references are made in the text, is the consort of Viṣṇu and is represented in sculptors as shampooing the feet of her lord reclining on the Śeṣa. A complete picture of this pose has been given by Kālidāsa, where she is said to sit on a lotus, her silken robe covering her girdle and Viṣṇu’s feet-lying on her lap.(Source): Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी) is the name of one of the thirty-six Yakṣiṇīs mentioned in the Uḍḍāmareśvaratantra. In the yakṣiṇī-sādhana, the Yakṣiṇī is regarded as the guardian spirit who provides worldly benefits to the practitioner. The Yakṣiṇī (eg., Lakṣmī) provides, inter alia, daily food, clothing and money, tells the future, and bestows a long life, but she seldom becomes a partner in sexual practices.(Source): academia.edu: Yakṣiṇī-sādhana in the Kakṣapuṭa tantra
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Lakshmī (लक्ष्मी): Goddess of prosperity, wealth and good fortune. She is the consort of Vishnu and an aspect of Devi.(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism
Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी).—The goddess of fortune and the eternal consort of the Supreme Lord as Lord Nārayaṇa, who resides in the unlimited spiritual realm of Vaikuṇtha.(Source): ISKCON Press: Glossary
General definition (in Jainism)
1) Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी) is the mother of Candraprabha according to Digambara (but she is named Lakṣmaṇā according to Śvetāmbara), according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). Candraprabha is the eighth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism. A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.
The husband of Lakṣmī is Mahasena. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.
2) Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी).—The name of a Goddess residing over the padmahrada (big lotus-island) which lies in the center of a lake named Puṇḍarīka. This lake is situated on top of the mountain range (varṣadharaparvatas) named Śikharin, one of the six mountain ranges in Jambūdvīpa. Jambūdvīpa lies at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) and is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside.(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism
Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी, “wealth”) is the name of a deity residing in the lotus (puṣkara) in the middle of the Puṇḍarīka lake, which lies on top of the Śikharī (Śikharin) mountain. This mountain is situated in Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10.
Jambūdvīpa (where Lakṣmī resides) is in the centre of all continents and oceans; all continents and oceans are concentric circles with Jambūdvīpa in the centre. Like the navel is in the centre of the body, Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans. Sumeru Mount is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa. It is also called Mount Sudarśana.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी).—f (S) corruptly lakṣumī f The wife of Vishn̤u and the goddess of wealth, prosperity, splendor, elegance &c. 2 Fortune, prosperity, success: also riches or wealth. 3 (Poetry.) Elegance, beauty, agreeableness of appearance (of things in general). lakṣmī avataraṇēṃ To descend and smile upon; to make to look full, flourishing, lively, swarming &c.;--used of Fortune with respect to a household, an estate, a business. lakṣmīcā hōrā The season of prosperity; the ascendant period of one's good fortune. lakṣmī mōrīvāṭēṃ yēṇēṃ To have riches flowing in profusely.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी).—f The wife of viṣṇu. Fortune. Beauty lakṣmīcā hōrā The season of prosperity.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Lakṣmī (लक्ष्मी).—f. [lakṣ-i muṭ ca Uṇ.3.158,16]
1) Fortune, prosperity, wealth; सा लक्ष्मीरुपकुरुते यया परेषाम् (sā lakṣmīrupakurute yayā pareṣām) Ki.8.13; मातर्लक्ष्मि तव प्रसादवशतो दोषा अमी स्युर्गुणाः (mātarlakṣmi tava prasādavaśato doṣā amī syurguṇāḥ) Subhāṣ; Bh.3. 64; तृणमिव लघुलक्ष्मीर्नैव तान् संरुणद्धि (tṛṇamiva laghulakṣmīrnaiva tān saṃruṇaddhi) Bh.2.17.
2) Good fortune, good luck.
3) Success, accomplishment; U.4. 1.
4) Beauty, loveliness, grace, charm, splendour; lustre; श्यामं सदापीच्यवयोऽङ्गलक्ष्म्या स्त्रीणां मनोज्ञं रुचिरस्मितेन (śyāmaṃ sadāpīcyavayo'ṅgalakṣmyā strīṇāṃ manojñaṃ rucirasmitena) Bhāg.1.19.28; मलिनमपि हिमांशोर्लक्ष्म लक्ष्मीं तनोति (malinamapi himāṃśorlakṣma lakṣmīṃ tanoti) Ś.1.2; U.6.24; Māl.9.25; लक्ष्मीमुवाह सकलस्य शशाङ्कमूर्तेः (lakṣmīmuvāha sakalasya śaśāṅkamūrteḥ) Ki. 2.59;5.39,52;9.2; Ku.3.49.
5) The goddess of fortune, prosperity and beauty, regarded as the wife of Viṣṇu. (She is said to have sprung from the ocean along with the other precious things or 'jewels' when it was churned for nectar by the gods and demons.); इयं गेहे लक्ष्मीः (iyaṃ gehe lakṣmīḥ) U.1.39; प्रत्यब्दं पूजयेल्लक्ष्मीं शुक्लपक्षे गुरोर्दिने । नापराह्ने न रात्रौ च नासिते न त्र्यहस्पृशि (pratyabdaṃ pūjayellakṣmīṃ śuklapakṣe gurordine | nāparāhne na rātrau ca nāsite na tryahaspṛśi) || Skanda P.
6) Royal or sovereign power, dominion; (oft. personified as a wife of the king and regarded as a rival of the queen); तामेकभार्यां परिवादभीरोः साध्वीमपि त्यक्तवतो नृपस्य । वक्षस्यसंवट्टसुखं वसन्ती रेजे सपत्नीरहितेव लक्ष्मीः (tāmekabhāryāṃ parivādabhīroḥ sādhvīmapi tyaktavato nṛpasya | vakṣasyasaṃvaṭṭasukhaṃ vasantī reje sapatnīrahiteva lakṣmīḥ) || R.14.86;12.26.
7) The wife of a hero.
8) A pearl.
9) Name of turmeric.
1) Superhuman power.
11) Name of the eleventh digit of the moon.(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 71 books and stories containing Lakshmi or Lakṣmī. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Śrī Kṛṣṇa-vijaya (by Śrī Gunaraja Khan)
The Gautami Mahatmya (by G. P. Bhatt)
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Chapter 19 - Performing the Pumsavana Ritualistic Ceremony < [Canto VI - Prescribed Duties for Mankind]
Chapter 8 - The Churning of the Milk Ocean < [Canto VIII - Withdrawal of the Cosmic Creations]
Chapter 16 - Two Doorkeepers of Vaikuntha, Cursed by the Sages < [Canto III - The Status Quo]