Arjuna: 43 definitions


Arjuna means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

1) One of the Hands of Famous Emperors.—Arjuna: the Tripatāka hand moved forward again and again.

2) One of the Hands indicating Trees.—Arjuna, the Siṃha-mukha hand;

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Arjuna (अर्जुन) is the name of a tree (Arjuna vṛkṣa) that is associated with the Nakṣatra (celestial star) named Svāti, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “these [trees] are propounded in Śāstras, the secret scriptures (śāstrāgama). These pious trees [viz, Arjuna], if grown and protected, promote long life”. These twenty-seven trees related to the twenty-seven Nakṣatras are supposed to be Deva-vṛkṣas or Nakṣatra-vṛkṣas.

Cikitsa (natural therapy and treatment for medical conditions)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Arjuna (अर्जुन) refers to the medicinal plant Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight. & Arn., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Arjuna] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

Toxicology (Study and Treatment of poison)

Source: Shodhganga: Kasyapa Samhita—Text on Visha Chikitsa

Arjuna (अर्जुन) is the name of an ingredient used in the treatment of snake-bites such as those caused by the Mahāmaṇḍalī-snakes, according to the Kāśyapa Saṃhitā: an ancient Sanskrit text from the Pāñcarātra tradition dealing with both Tantra and Viṣacikitsā—an important topic from Āyurveda which deals with the study of Toxicology (Viṣavidyā or Sarpavidyā).—Accordingly, one of the treatments is mentioned as follows: “The bite victim can be given a paste made out of the bark of Vetasa, Arjuna, the shell of Suraṭha and jaggery. A measure of the combination of powdered Vega, Phalgu and Palāśa can be used internally as a drink and externally as ointment”.

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Asian Agri-History: Drumavichitrikaranam—The Ancient Approach to Plant Mutagenesis

Arjuna (identified with Terminalia arjuna) was used in a recipe to accelerate fruit droppings: which was one of the technologies known to ancient Indian agriculturists, which presents a safe technology and methodology regarding organic agriculture, according to treatises (such as the Vrikshayurveda). One such technology was to selectively ripen fruits as well as to delay or accelerate fruit dropping: Harvesting and fruit dropping are critical factors which can alter the shelf-life and the taste of the fruit by the time it reaches the end-user, the customer. [...] A number of queer raw materials such as wet hides of animal, bones of a monkey, ichor (elephant’s rut) and nose bone of elephant have been prescribed in the treatises to delay ripening. In order to accelerate fruit dropping concoctions of Tamarindus indica (tamarind), Ziziphus mauritiana (Indian jujube), Terminalia arjuna (arjuna) and Citrus limon (lemon) are prescribed.

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Arjuna (अर्जुन) (identified with Terminalia arjuna) is used by certain bio-organical recipes for plant mutagenesis, according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.—Accordingly, “A tree gets destroyed if it is besmeared with the salty water extract of Payasya, Terminalia arjuna [e.g., Arjuna] and Clerodendrum phlomidis and if scratched by the bone of a hog all over the bark”.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Arjuna (अर्जुन).—The Sanskrit name for an important Ayurvedic drug.—The plant having straight bole and white bark is found commonly. It is astringent, pacifies kapha and pitta, checks diarrhoea and is best as cardiac tonic.

Source: Sushruta samhita, Volume III

The appearance of a single dot or speck on the Sclerotic coat (Śukla), coloured like a (drop of the) hare’s blood, is called Arjuna.

Source: Advances in Zoology and Botany: Ethnomedicinal List of Plants Treating Fever in Ahmednagar District of Maharashtra, India

Arjuna in the Marathi language refers to the medicinal tree “Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Wight. & Arn.”, and is used for ethnomedicine treatment of Fever in Ahmednagar district, India. The parts used are: “Stem bark”. Instructions for using the tree named Arjuna: The powdered bark 5g—along with a glass of milk twice a day.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Arjuna (अर्जुन):—One of the sons of Pāṇḍu, begotten by Dharmarāja (god of wind) through the womb his wife Kuntī. He had a son by his wife Draupadī named Śrutakīrti. He had another son named Irāvān through his wife named Ulupī (daughter of the Nāgas). He had another son named Babhruvāhana by the womb of the princess of Maṇipura. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.22.27-28, 9.22.32)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Arjuna (अर्जुन).—The third of the Pāṇḍavas. Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu thus: Brahmā, Atri, Candra, Budha, Purūravas, Āyus, Nahuṣa, Yayāti, Pūru, Janamejaya, Pracinvān, Pravīra, Namasyu, Vītabhaya, Śuṇḍu, Bahuvidha, Saṃyāti, Rahovādi, Raudrāśvan, Matināra, Santurodha, Duṣyanta, Bharata, Suhotra, Suhotā, Gala, Gardda, Suketu, Bṛhatkṣetra, Hasti, Ajamīḍha, Ṛkṣa, Saṃvaraṇa, Kuru, Jahnu, Suratha, Viḍūratha, Sārvabhauma, Jayatsena, Ravyaya, Bhāvuka, Cakroddhata, Devātithi, Ṛkṣa, Bhīma, Pratīca, Śantanu, Vyāsa, Pāṇḍu, Arjuna. (See full article at Story of Arjuna from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Arjuna (अर्जुन).—A son of Emperor, Nimi. One Arjuna, son of emperor Nimi, got philosophical advice from a Muni named Asita (Brahmāṇḍapurāṇa, Chapter 47).

3) Arjuna (अर्जुन).—(See Kārttavīryārjuna).

4) Arjuna (अर्जुन).—A member of Yama’s assembly. The other members are: Kapotaroma, Tṛṇaka, Sahadeva, Viśva, Sāśva, Kṛśāśva, Śaśabindu and Mahīśvara. (Mahābhārata, Sabhā Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 17).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Arjuna (अर्जुन).—(kārtavīrya)—son of Kṛtavīrya. Lord of seven islands and of Haihayaṣ, samrāṭ and cakravartin. By the grace of Hari he got 1000 arms and enjoyed aṣṭaaiśvaryas. Learnt the merit of yoga from Dattātreya. Ruled in peace for 85,000 years1 and was ambitious to have more territorial possessions.2 Was engaged in water-sports with women wearing the garland of Vaijayanti.3 Imprisoned Rāvaṇa in his capital Māhiṣmatī and released him on an appeal from Pulasya.4 In the course of a hunting expedition, he came to the hermitage of Jamadagni who entertained him with the help of his Kāmadhenu. The king, envious of the sage's prosperity, desired its possession, and on being refused by the sage, he took the cow by force.5 Parasurāma who was away, heard the story on his return, went to Arjuna's capital, cut off his head with his axe after a terrible battle in which Matsyarāja took part and recovered the cow and the calf.6 Jamadagni regretted his son's action as the king was a naradeva, and killing him was an offence greater than brāhmanicide.7 Had 1000 (?) sons, (100 sons) all of whom except five died in battles. These sons killed Jamadagni when Rāma and his brothers were gone out.8 These five were great warriors.9 His minister was the evil Candragupta and the purohita, Garga.10 Incarnation of Viṣṇu Cakra;11 to his family belonged Tālajaṅgha;12 performed thousands of yajñas with golden yūpas and vedis, which were attended by gods. A Rājaṛṣi, paśupāla, kṣetrapāla.13

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 15. 17-19; 23. 24-27; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 30. 4. 75; 69. 9, 49, 56; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 11. 11-21; Matsya-purāṇa 43. 15; Vāyu-purāṇa 94. 10.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 3. 9; I. 12. 21.
  • 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 15. 20.
  • 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 15. 21-22; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 33. 50; Matsya-purāṇa 43. 37-40;
  • 5) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 15. 23-26; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 26. 7 whole chapter, chaps. 27 and 28; 30. 4.
  • 6) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 15. 27-36; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 30. 5-15; 32. 61; 38 8, 27; 40. 19; 41, 37, 38; 44. 14; 47. 63, 88.
  • 7) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 15. 37-41; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 38. 8.
  • 8) Matsya-purāṇa 43. 46-51;
  • 9) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 16. 9-12.
  • 10) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 28. 31-63.
  • 11) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 37. 27-28; 40. 66.
  • 12) Vāyu-purāṇa 94. 50.
  • 13) Matsya-purāṇa 43. 13-25.

1b) A son of Raivata Manu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 5. 2.

1c) A Pāṇḍava, son of Indra and Kuntī and father of Śrutakīrti. Had a son Irāvān by Ulūpi and another son Babruvāhana by the daughter of Maṇipurapati. Father of Abhimanyu by Subhadrā.1 Promised Draupadī to cut off Aśvathāma's head and place it before her for his killing her sons when asleep. Aśvathāma heard this and ran for escape. Arjuna pursued him. Unwilling to slay the son of his preceptor, he bound him with ropes and took him to his queen's presence. She requested Arjuna to release him on the ground that he was a Brāhmaṇa, a son of the guru, and for the sake of his old mother Gautamī. Bhīma was not for the release. But Arjuna took the hint from Kṛṣṇa, and after depriving him of his crest-jewel, banished him.2 Accompanied Yudhiṣṭhira to see Bhīṣma on the eve of his death.3 A playmate of Kṛṣṇa.4 Had a chariot with monkey standard. When he was once in the forest with Kṛṣṇa, they met Kālindī, daughter of the Sun god anxious to marry Kṛṣṇa. When Arjuna burnt Khāṇḍava, Kṛṣṇa was his charioteer. Drove away the princes who attacked Kṛṣṇa returning with Satyā of Kośala.5 Commended by Indra to Kṛṣṇa's protection.6 Consoled by Kṛṣṇa when banished to the forest.7 A great name among the Kurus.8

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 29-33; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 154 and 178; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 14. 35; 20. 40; V. 12. 17-24; 35. 28.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 7. 15-57.
  • 3) Ib. I. 9. 3.
  • 4) Ib. X. 22. 31.
  • 5) Ib. X. 58. 4, 13-25, 54.
  • 6) Ib. X. [67 (V) 36]; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 13. 17-18.
  • 7) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 64. 9.
  • 8) Ib. X. 68. 28.
  • 9) Ib. X. 71. 22-30, 45-46; 72. 13-16, 29 and 32; 73. 31 and 34.

1d) The reference is to both Pāṇḍava Arjuna and Kārtavīrya Arjuna, both noted for military prowess. Parīkṣit is compared to them.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 12. 21.

1e) A tīrtha sacred to Pitṛs.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 22. 43.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Arjuna (अर्जुन) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.61.85) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Arjuna) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Arjuna (अर्जुन) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Terminalia arjuna (arjun tree) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as having thorns, and should therefore be considered as wild. The King shoud place such trees in forests (not in or near villages). He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.

The following is an ancient Indian horticultural recipe for the nourishment of such trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.110-112: “The powder of the dungs of goats and sheep, the powder of Yava (barley), Tila (seeds), beef as well as water should be kept together (undisturbed) for seven nights. The application of this water leads very much to the growth in flowers and fruits of all trees (such as arjuna).”

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Arjuna (अर्जुन) is the name of a mighty warrior, who was the great-grandfather of Janamejaya, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 9. He had a son named Abhimanyu.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Arjuna, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Arjuna (अर्जुन), son of Keśava, is the grand-father of Harivyāsamiśra (C. 1574 C.E.): the composer of the text Vṛttamuktāvalī. Harivyāsa belongs to Ṣanāḍhya family and he was the son of Rāmacandra, grandson of Arjuna and great grandson of Keśava. His grandfather is described as a mine of good qualities, a great devotee of Viṣṇu and well adorned among scholars.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Arjuna (अर्जुन) refers to “(1) Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s intimate friend and devotee to whom He spoke the Bhagavad-gītā (2) The Nara portion of the Nara-Nārāyaṇa sages, Śrī Kṛṣṇa being the Nārāyaṇa portion (3) An eternal liberated soul who always serves Śrī Kṛṣṇa out of love”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Arjuna (अर्जुन) refers to:—Third of the five Pāṇḍava brothers. He was Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s intimate friend, brother-in-law, and devotee, and it was to him that Śrī Kṛṣṇa spoke the Bhagavad-gītā on the Battlefield of Kurukṣetra. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (shaivism)

Arjuna (अर्जुन) are prohibited in the worship of Śiva, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—The text refers the following flowers and leaves to be offered to Lord Śiva [viz., Arjuna][...]. It is stated that if a person offers these flowers to Lord Śiva, planting himself, the Lord Himself receives those flowers.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Kavyashastra (science of poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: Bhismacaritam a critical study

Arjuna (अर्जुन) figures as a male character in the Bhīṣmacarita (Bhishma Charitra) which is a mahākāvya (‘epic poem’) written by Hari Narayan Dikshit.—Our poet has portrayed Arjuna as a great warrior. He was a great devotee of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa and also His friend, lover. The foundation of his career as a warrior was laid down when he was young. He learned everything that his guru Droṇācārya could teach him, attaining the status of “Mahārathī” or outstanding warrior. He has been well-built and extremely handsome. He was also true and loyal to his friends.

Arjuna was an ambidextrous master archer and played a central role in the conflict between the Pāṇḍavas and their adversaries, the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, known as the Kauravas. Skilled in archery, he was able to string and release dozens of arrows with deadly accuracy in mere seconds. He was not only a matchless archer and a valiant fighter unchallenged in the world, but also was pre-eminently true to his words and a virtuous and righteous man who exercised control over his senses. He was reluctant to take part in the battle because he knew he would be expected to potentially kill the enemy, which included many of his own relatives. He was persuaded by his charioteer and close friend, Lord Kṛṣṇa, to change his mind.

Arjuna was also sensitive and thoughtful, as demonstrated by his misgivings about the Kurukṣetra war. His sense of duty was acute; he once chose to go into exile rather than refuse to help a Brahmin subject. Although an unconquerable fighter at the start of the great battle, Arjuna experienced an intense feeling of self-doubt and loses his resolution to fight when he saw his grandfather Bhīṣma-pitāmaha, teacher Droṇācārya, cousins and other relatives. Śrī Kṛṣṇa any how motivated him to fight, but on the tenth day of Mahābhārata war when he was asked to shoot arrows on Bhīṣma, he hesitated from doing so.

Kavyashastra book cover
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Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Arjuna (अर्जुन) is a name of a tree, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “Having decided (to do this), those gods did as Brahmā suggested; (and so) having taken (this) order from them, Kāma reached Hara’s hermitage. Kāma, along with Spring, Passion (Rati) and Love (prīti), entered the forest where the Lord himself was. There were great Putrāṅga, Karṇikāra, Kadamba, Aśoka, mango, Arjuna and Campaka trees (there). (All of them) blossomed profusely due to Kāma’s arrival. These new flowers stimulated the god Hara. Gathering many (of them), the goddess come close to Hara. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (vastu)

Arjuna (अर्जुन) is classified as a “tree beneficial for the construction of temples”, according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The eco-friendly suggestions of Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa are seen to protect the greenery and to balance a pollution free environment. [...] The architect is suggested to go to the forest to collect appropriate wood (e.g., from the Arjuna tree) for temples in an auspicious day after taking advice from an astrologer. [...] According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, the woods of some particular trees remain beneficial for the construction of temples. At the time of cutting the trees [e.g., Arjuna] one should clean the axe by smearing honey and ghee. After collecting the suitable wood from forest, the architect uses it according to his requirements and purposes.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

1) Arjuna was the third Pandava, born to Kunti, the wife of Pandu, by the grace of Indra. He rivalled his divine father Indra in his prowess in arms. It was said that none of the mortals and few of the Gods could stand up to him in battle, such was his skill with his bow, Gandiva. His guru is Drona, who had taught all the Pandavas and Kauravas.

He is an incarnation of Nara, one of the primeval twins. He won the hand of Draupadi, the Panchala princess, by his feat of marksmanship and she became the common wife of all the five Pandavas. In addition to her he married many other women during his voluntary exile. One of his wives is Subhadra, the sister of Krishna, through who be had a valiant son Abhimanyu. Abhimanyu was slain treacherously by the great warriors on the Kaurava side, who could not defeat the young warrior in fair combat.

Arjuna's friendship with Krishna is legendary. Krishna is both his friend and his teacher. Krishna was Arjuna's charioteer in the great battle of Kurukshetra. The principal rival of Arjuna was Karna, whose skill with the bow came close to matching Arjuna's. So evenly matched were these two warriors, that Arjuna had to resort to an ignoble stratagem to slay Karna, killing him with a missile when Karna was attempting to move his chariot that had gotten stuck in the mud. This shameful act was against the laws of combat prevailing at that time.

2) Aruna was the son of the great sage Kashyapa and Vinata, a daughter of Daksha. His mother had obtained a boon from her husband that she would have two offspring who surpassed the thousand sons (the serpents) of her sister (and co-wife) Kadru in glory. She gave birth to two eggs, which did not hatch for a long time. In her impatience, she broke open one of them and found Aruna inside it, but he had an undeveloped lower body. He cursed his mother to bondage for her impatience. He then took to the skies and achieved great glory by becoming the charioteer of Surya, the sun.

Garuda, the mount of Lord Vishnu is his brother. He emerged from the other egg, which Vinata had left undisturbed for a thousand years. The story of the birth of Garuda and Aruna is told in greater detail here.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Arjuna: The third of Pāndavas and Krishna's cousin. He is, together with Krishna, considered the hero of Hindu epic Mahabharata. He plays the listener in the Hindu scripture, the Bhagavad Gita which is a philosophical conversation between Arjuna and Krishna.

etymology: Arjuna (Devanagari: अर्जुन, Thai: อรชุน Orachun, Tamil: அர்ஜுனன் Arjunan, Javanese: Harjuno, Herjuno, Malay: Ranjuna; pronounced [ɐrˈɟunɐ] in classical Sanskrit (lit. bright or silver (cf. Latin argentum))

The Mahabharata refers to Arjuna by ten different names. The names and their meanings are as follows.

  • Arjuna - one of taintless fame and glow like silver (Argentum)
  • Phalguna - one born on the star of Phalguna
  • Jishnu - conqueror of enemies
  • Kiriti - one who wears the celestial diadem, Kiriti, presented by Indra
  • Swetavahana - one with white horses mounted to his chariot
  • Bibhatsu - one who always fights wars in a fair manner
  • Vijaya - victorious warrior
  • Partha - Son of Pritha or Kunti
  • Savyasachi - Skillful in using both arms, ambidextrous
  • Dhananjaya - one who conquers riches
  • Gudakesa - Conqueror of sleep

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vajrayogini

Arjuna (अर्जुन) is the name of the tree (vṛkṣa), identified with Terminalia arjuna, and associated with Kilakilārava: the north-western cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. The tree associated with the north-west is sometimes given as Pārthiva or Dhanañjaya. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.

These trees (e.g., Arjuna) that are associated with the cremation grounds are often equated with the eight bodhi-trees of the Buddhas (the current buddha plus the seven previous one). According to the Śmaśānavidhi each tree has a secondary tree (upavṛkṣa) that is depicted as lovely and covered in vaṅga flowers and fruit. In each tree lives a naked rākṣasa who is wrathful in form, who eats human flesh and who has the animal face or the mount of the dikpati in his cremation ground.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Arjuna (अर्जुन) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the 1st century Uvavāiya-sutta (sanksrit: Aupapātika-sūtra). Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.

Different kinds of trees (e.g., the Arjuna tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Arjuna (अर्जुन) is the son of Vanamālā and Lakṣmaṇa (son of Sumitrā and Daśaratha), according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.8 [The abandonment of Sītā] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “In Lakṣmaṇa’s household there were sixteen thousand women. Among them were eight chief-queens: [e.g., Vanamālā, ...]. There were two hundred and fifty sons and among these were eight born of the chief-queens: [e.g., the son of Vanamālā, named Arjuna]”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras

Arjuna (अर्जुन) is the name of a member of the mahāparṣad (assembly) mentioned in the “Ciñcaṇī plate of the reign of Cittarāja”. Accordingly, “Now, while the Mahāmaṇḍaleśvara, the illustrious Cāmuṇḍarāja, who, by his religious merit, has obtained the right to the five mahāśabdas... is governing Saṃyāna, he addresses all persons, whether connected with himself or others (such as Arjuna)...”.

This plate (mentioning Arjuna) was found together with eight others at Chincaṇī in the Ḍahāṇu tāluka of the Ṭhāṇā District, North Koṅkaṇ, in 1955. The object of the inscription is to record the grant, by Cāmuṇḍarāja, of a ghāṇaka (oil-mill) in favour of the temple Kautuka-maṭhikā of the goddess Bhagavatī at Saṃyāna. The gift was made by pouring out water on the hand of the Svādhyāyika (scholar) Vīhaḍa, on the fifteenth tithi of the dark fortnight (i.e. amāvāsyā) of Bhādrapada in the śaka year 956.

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Arjuna is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—It is found in the Vindhya forest.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (e.g., Arjuna), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Arjuna, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Arjuna in India is the name of a plant defined with Bauhinia racemosa in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Piliostigma racemosum (Lam.) Benth. (among others).

2) Arjuna is also identified with Bauhinia variegata It has the synonym Phanera variegata Benth. (etc.).

3) Arjuna is also identified with Croton persimilis It has the synonym Oxydectes oblongifolia Kuntze (etc.).

4) Arjuna is also identified with Lagerstroemia speciosa It has the synonym Lagerstroemia regina Roxb. (etc.).

5) Arjuna is also identified with Sterculia urens It has the synonym Kavalama urens Raf. (etc.).

6) Arjuna is also identified with Terminalia alata It has the synonym Pentaptera tomentosa Roxb. ex DC., nom. illeg., nom. superfl. (etc.).

7) Arjuna is also identified with Terminalia arjuna It has the synonym Terminalia glabra Wight & Arn. (etc.).

8) Arjuna is also identified with Terminalia tomentosa.

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Taxon (1979)
· Taxon (1980)
· Flora Cochinchinensis (1852)
· Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India (1962)
· Der Hausvater (1770)
· Symbolae Botanicae (1794)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Arjuna, for example pregnancy safety, extract dosage, chemical composition, side effects, health benefits, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

arjūna (अर्जून).—m (S) The name of a warrior, the third of the pāṇḍava. 2 or arjunasātāḍā or arjunasādaḍā m A tree, Terminalia alata glabra. Also Pentaptera Urjuna. Grah.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Arjuna (अर्जुन).—a. [arj-unan ṇiluk ca Uṇādi-sūtra 3.58] (-nā, -nī f.).

1) White, clear, bright, of the colour of day; अहश्च कृष्णमहरर्जुनं च (ahaśca kṛṣṇamahararjunaṃ ca) Ṛgveda 6.9.1; पिशङ्गमौञ्जीयुजमर्जुनच्छविम् (piśaṅgamauñjīyujamarjunacchavim) Śiśupālavadha 1.6.

2) Silvery; यत्र वः प्रेङ्खा हरिता अर्जुना (yatra vaḥ preṅkhā haritā arjunā) Av.4.37.5.

-naḥ 1 The white colour.

2) A peacock.

3) A sort of cutaneous disease.

4) A tree (Mar. arjunasādaḍā), with useful rind; Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.64.3.

5) Name of the third Pāṇḍava who was a son of Kuntī by Indra and hence called ऐन्द्रि (aindri) also. [Arjuna was so called because he was 'white' or 'pure in actions' (pṛthivyāṃ caturantāyāṃ varṇo me durlabhaḥ samaḥ | karomi karma śuddhaṃ ca tena māmarjanaṃ viduḥ). He was taught the use of arms by Droṇa and was his favourite pupil. By his skill in arms he won Draupadī at her Svayaṃvara (see Draupadī). For an involuntary transgression he went into temporary exile and during that time he learnt the science of arms from Paraśurāma. He married Ulūpī, a Nāga Princess, by whom he had a son named Irāvat, and also Chitrāṅgadā, daughter of the king of Maṇipura, who bore him a son named Babhruvāhana. During this exile he visited Dvārakā, and with the help and advice of Kṛṣṇa succeeded in marrying Subhadrā. By her he had a son named Abhimanyu. Afterwards he obtained the bow (Gāṇḍiva from the god Agni whom he assisted in burning the Khāṇḍva forest. When Dharma, his eldest brother, lost the kingdom by gambling, and the five brothers went into exile, he went to the Himālayas to propitiate the gods and to obtain from them celestial weapons for use in the contemplated war against Kauravas. There he fought with Śiva who appeared in the disguise of a Kirāta; but when he discovered the true character of his adversary he worshipped him and Śiva gave him the Pāśupatāstra. Indra, Varuṇa, Yama and Kubera also presented him with their own weapons. In the 13th year of their exile, the Pāṇḍavas entered the service of the King of Virāṭa and he had to act the part of a eunuch, and music and dancing master. In the great war with the Kauravas Arjuna took a very distinguished part. He secured the assistance of Kṛṣṇa who acted as his charioteer and related to him the Bhagavadgītā when on the first day of the battle he hesitated to bend his bow against his own kinsmen. In the course of the great struggle he slew or vanquished several redoubtable warriors on the side of the Kauravas, such as Jayadratha, Bhīṣma, Karṇa &c. After Yudhiṣṭhira had been installed sovereign of Hastināpura, he resolved to perform the Aśvamedha sacrifice, and a horse was let loose with Arjuna as its guardian. Arjuna followed it through many cities and Countries and fought with many kings. At the city of Maṇipura he had to fight with his own son Babhruvāhana and was killed; but he was restored to life by a charm supplied by his wife Ulūpī. He traversed the whole of Bharatakhaṇda and returned to Hastināpura, loaded with spoils and tributes, and the great horse-sacrifice was then duly performed. He was afterwards called by Kṛṣna to Dvārakā amid the internecine struggles of the Yādavas and there he performed the funeral ceremonies of Vasudeva and Kṛṣṇa. Soon after this the five Pāṅdavas repaired to heaven having installed Parīkṣit -the only surviving son of Abhimanyu-on the throne of Hastināpura. Arjuna was the bravest of the Pāṇdavas, high-minded, generous, upright, handsome and the most prominent figure of all his brothers. He has several appellations, such a Pārtha, Gudākeśa, Savyasāchī, Dhanañjaya, Phālguna, Kirītin, Jīṣṇu, Śvetavāhana, Gāṇḍivin &c.] cf. arjanaḥ phālguno jiṣṇuḥ kirīṭī śvetavāhanaḥ | bībhatsurvijayaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ savyasācī dhanañjayaḥ ||

6) Name of Kārtavīrya, slain by Parasurāma See kārtavīrya.

7) Name of a country Bṛ. S.14. 25.

8) The only son of his mother.

9) Name of Indra.

1) Name of a tree, Jerminalia Arjuna (Mar. aīna). The tree is rarer in south India. The colour of its bark is white. It is a forest-tree bearing fragrant flowers appearing in panicles like those of the Mango-tree.

-nī 1 A procuress, bawd.

2) A cow. तथार्जुनीनां कपिला वरिष्ठा (tathārjunīnāṃ kapilā variṣṭhā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 13.73.42.

3) A kind of serpent; अर्जुनि पुनर्वोयन्तु° (arjuni punarvoyantu°) Av.2.24.7.

4) Name of Uṣā, wife of Aniruddha.

5) Name of a river commonly called करतोया (karatoyā).

6) (nyau, -nyaḥ dual and pl.) Name of the constellation Phalgunī. अघासु हन्यन्ते गावोऽर्जुन्योः पर्युह्यते (aghāsu hanyante gāvo'rjunyoḥ paryuhyate) Ṛgveda 1.85.13.

-nam 1 Silver. वीरुद्भिष्टे अर्जुनं संविदानम् (vīrudbhiṣṭe arjunaṃ saṃvidānam) Av.5.28.5.

2) Gold.

3) Slight inflammation of the white of the eye.

4) Grass. -न (na) (Pl.) The descendants of Arjuna; cf. अर्जुनः ककुभे पार्थे कार्तवीर्यमयूरयोः । मातुरेकसुते वृक्षे धवले नयनामये । तृणभेदे गवि स्त्री स्यात् (arjunaḥ kakubhe pārthe kārtavīryamayūrayoḥ | māturekasute vṛkṣe dhavale nayanāmaye | tṛṇabhede gavi strī syāt) ...Nm.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Arjuna (अर्जुन).—(1) name of a king of Hastināpura (= Pali Ajjuna; identified with Arjuna Kārtavīrya of Sanskrit epic), character in the Śarabhaṅga (q.v.) Jātaka: Mahāvastu iii.361.4 ff.; 368.15; (2) name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 23; (3) name of a Śākyan mathematician: Lalitavistara 146.9 ff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Arjuna (अर्जुन).—m.

(-naḥ) 1. The third of the Pandavas, the son of Indra and friend of Krishna. 2. The name of a king with a thousand arms. See kārttavīrya. 3. A tree, (Pentaptera arjuna.) 4. A peacock. 5. The only son of his mother. 6. White, (the colour.) nf. (-naṃ-nī) 1. Grass. 2. Slight inflammation of the conjunctiva or white of the eye. f. (-nī) 1. A cow. 2. Usha, the wife of Anirudd'Ha. 3. The Karatoya river in the north of Bengal. 4. A procuress, a bawd. mfn.

(-naḥ-nī-naṃ) White. E. arja to gain, unan Unadi affix, fem. ṅīp, also read arjjuna.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Arjuna (अर्जुन).—[arj-una] (from a lost vb. akin to rāj). I. adj., f. , White, Chr. 288, 3 = [Rigveda.] i. 49, 3. Ii. m. 1. A tree, Terminalia Arjuna, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 19, 13. 2. The name of the third son of Pāṇḍu, [Indralokāgamana] 1, 10. Iii. f. , The dawn, Rām, 2, 114, 14.

— Cf. [Latin] argentum; the base of these forms is arj + vant: cf. also see rañj, rajata.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Arjuna (अर्जुन).—[feminine] ī silver-white. [masculine] Arjuna, one of the Pāṇḍavas, [Name] of a tree; [feminine] [dual] & [plural] name of a lunar mansion.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Arjuna (अर्जुन) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—son of Keśava, father of Harivyāsa (Vṛttamuktāvalī 1574). W. p. 226.

2) Arjuna (अर्जुन):—son of Pradyumna Bhaṭṭa, guru of Mahādeva Bhaṭṭa. Report. Clxviii.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Arjuna (अर्जुन):—mfn. (cf. ṛjra and √raj) white, clear (the colour of the day, [Ṛg-veda vi, 9, 1]; of the dawn, [Ṛg-veda i, 49, 3]; of the lightning; of the milk; of silver, etc.)

2) made of silver, [Atharva-veda iv, 37, 4]

3) m. the white colour, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) a peacock, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) cutaneous disease, [Sāyaṇa on Ṛg-veda i, 122, 5]

6) the tree Terminalia Arjuna, [Horace H. Wilson] and, [Apte’s The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

7) Name of a man, [Ṛg-veda i, 122, 5]

8) of Indra, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

9) of the third of the Pāṇḍava princes (who was a son of Indra and Kuntī), [Mahābhārata] etc.

10) of a son of Kṛtavīrya (who was slain by Paraśurāma), ibidem

11) of a Śākhya (known as a mathematician)

12) of different other persons

13) the only son of his mother, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) n. silver, [Atharva-veda v, 28, 5 and 9]

15) gold, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) slight inflammation of the conjunctiva or white of the eye, [Suśruta]

17) a particular grass (used as a substitute for the Soma plant), [Pbr.] etc.

18) (= rūpa) shape, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska]

19) m. [plural] the descendants of Arjuna, [Pāṇini 2-4, 66 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

20) Ārjuna (आर्जुन):—m. Name of Indra (= arjuna q.v.), [Kāṭhaka 34, 3.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Arjuna (अर्जुन):—(naḥ) 1. m. Arjuna; whiteness. () f. A cow; grass. n. Grass.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Arjuna (अर्जुन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Ajjuṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Arjuna in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Arjuna (ಅರ್ಜುನ):—

1) [noun] white colour.

2) [noun] the tree Terminalia arjuna ( = T. glabra) of Combretaceae family.

3) [noun] the hero of the Indian epic, the Mahābhārata, known for his expertise in archery.

4) [noun] any of various plants, with long, narrow leaves and tubular stems, of the grass family that are usually used for food, fodder or grazing and as lawns; grass.

5) [noun] gold.

6) [noun] silver.

7) [noun] an ophthalmic disease with the white of the eye having a slight inflammation.

8) [noun] (myth.) name of a king, also known as Kārtavīrya, slain by Paraśurāma.

9) [noun] in India, a national title awarded to outstanding sportsmen.

10) [noun] the state of being free from diseases; good health.

11) [noun] a healthy man.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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