Pada, aka: Pāda; 27 Definition(s)
Pada means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
According to the Matsya Purāṇa, Pāda (foot) is 4 aṅgulas.Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
The Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa mentions ‘Pāda’ also as a measure of length.Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
1) Pada (पद) is a Sanskrit technical term denoting a “residence” in general, according to the lists of synonyms given in the Mayamata XIX.10-12, which is a populair treatise on Vāstuśāstra.
2) Pāda (पाद) is another name (synonym) for stambha, a Sanskrit technical term referring to “pillar”. These synonyms are defined in texts such as Mayamata (verse 15.2), Mānasāra (verse 15.2-3), Kāśyapaśilpa (verse 8.2) and Īśānaśivagurudevapaddati (Kriya, verses 31.19-20).Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Pāda (पाद).—A type of moulding common to both the prastara (parapet) and adhiṣṭhana (plinth);—Pāda (literally ‘foot’ or ‘leg’) is the Sanskrit term for the pilasters (images of posts) in the wall of a tala, and by extension may be used to signify the wall zone. (The ‘wall’ of the parapet pavilions, is the grīvā)Source: Google Books: Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Yoga (school of philosophy)
Pāda (पाद) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “feet”. It is one of the fourteen Adhyātma (pertaining to the body) mentioned in the Subālopaniṣad (fifth section). The corresponding Ādhibhūta (pertaining to the elements) is called gantavya (that which is walked upon) and the corresponding Adhidaivata (presiding deity) is mṛtyu. Accordingly, “the nādis form their bond (or connect them). He who moves in the feet (pāda), in gantavya, in mṛtyu, in the nādis, in prāṇa, in vijñāna, in ānanda, in the ākāśa of the heart and within all else—That is Ātman. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow or end.”Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
1a) Pāda (पाद) refers to “feet”. It is one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used in dramatic performance, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. With these limbs are made the various gestures (āṅgika), which form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).
There are five kinds of “movements of the feet (pāda)” defined:
1b) Pāda (पाद) refers to a “foot”, or a “quarter” of a verse, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15.
2) Pada (पद) refers to “inflected words” in Sanskrit grammar, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15. These padas are of two kinds:
- padas used loosely in prose (not schematically combined).
- padas used metrically (schematically combined syllables).
2b) Pada (पद) refers to the “verbal theme” in musical performance, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 28. The verbal theme (pada) is of two kinds: composed (nibaddha) and improvised (anibaddha, lit. not composed).
Aspects of pada (verbal theme): Consonants (vyañjanāni), vowels (svara), euphonic combinations (sandhi), case-endings (vibhakti), nouns (nāma), verbs (ākhyāta), prefixes (upasarga), particles (nipāta), secondary suffixes (taddhita), and syllabic and moric metres always relate to the verbal themes of music (pada).
3) Pada according to verse Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“The vastu of the gāndharva which I have spoken of as consisting of notes, tāla and words, will be called pada when it will reflect notes and tālas. All that is made up of syllables, is called the pada It is of two kinds according as it is regularly composed (nibaddha) or not so composed (a-nibaddha). It is again of two kinds: conforming to no time-measure (a-tāla) and conforming to a time-measure (sa-tāla). For the purpose of the dhruvā, it is to conform to a time-measure and is to be regularly composed.”Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Pāda (पाद).—A verse in Sanskrit is of four feet or quarters or pādas. Each pāda is regulated either by a number of syllables (akṣaras) or by a number of syllabic instant or measures (mātrās). The metres regulated by akṣaras are called vṛttas and those regulated by mātrās are called jātis. A vṛtta is divided into three classes viz. samavṛtta, ardhasamavṛtta, and viṣamavṛtta. Again, yati or pause or caesura is a part of a verse, at which the reader is required to stop his breath and then proceed on.Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)
Pāda (पाद, “feet”) refers to one of the seven “major limbs” (aṅga), which represents a division of Āṅgikābhinaya (gesture language of the limbs) as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—Āṅgika-abhinaya is the gesture language of the limbs. Dance is an art that expresses itself through the medium of body, and therefore, āṅgikābhinaya is essential for any dance and especially for any classical dance of India. Aṅgas or major limbs include the head, hands, chest, sides, waist, and feet (viz., Pāda); at times the neck is also used as a separate limb.
Pāda refers to the “movements of the feet” according to the Abhinayadarpaṇa and they are termed as:—
- maṇḍala (the various postures of the feet),
- utplavana (the leaping movements),
- bhramari (the circling movements),
- pādacāri (the moving movements).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Pāda (पाद) is the tradition (ovallī) founded by Citranātha, who was one of the twelve princes born to Kuṃkumā, consort to Mīnanātha, who is the incarnation of Siddhanātha in the fourth yuga, belonging to the Pūrvāmnāya (‘eastern doctrine’) tradition of Kula Śaivism, according to the Ciñcinīmatasārasamuccaya. Siddhanātha incarnates as a Kaula master in each of the four yugas. Citranātha was one of the six princes having the authority to teach.Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Pada (पद) or Padādhvā refers to one of the six adhvans being purified during the Kriyāvatī-dīkṣā: an important Śākta ritual described Śāradātilaka-tantra, chapters III-V.—“... Looking with the divine eye he transfers the caitanya of his disciple into himself and unites it with that of his own, thereby effecting a purification of the six adhvans namely: kalā, tattva, bhavana, varṇa, pada, and mantra”.
The word adhvā means ‘path’, and when the above six adhvans (viz. pada) are purified they lead to Brahman-experience. Dīkṣā is one of the most important rituals of the Śāktas and so called because it imparts divine knowledge and destroys evil.
Padas are words formed by the combination of letters.Source: JSTOR: Tāntric Dīkṣā by Surya Kanta
Pada (पद) represents one of the four stages of creation corresponding to the Anāhata-cakra, and is explained in terms of kuṇḍalinī by Lakṣmaṇadeśika in his 11th-century Śaradātilaka verse 25.62.—“The ‘solid mass’ (piṇḍa) is doubtlessly the kuṇḍalinī, equivalent to Śiva; the “position” (pada), on the other hand, is doubtlessly the haṃsaḥ, the inner Self of all. The “form” (rūpa) is doubtlessly the bindu of infinite lustre; the blissful union (sāmarasya) with Śiva is “form transcended” (atītarūpa)”.
Note: The terms piṇḍa, pada, rūpa and rūpātīta refer to four stages of creation. These four are also said to correspond to four Cakras: piṇḍa to mūlādhāra, pada to anāhata, rūpa to ājñā and rūpātīta to sahasrāra.Source: academia.edu: The Śāradātilakatantra on Yoga
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Pada (पद).—A word; a unit forming a part of a sentence; a unit made up of a letter or of letters, possessed of sense; cf. अक्षरसमुदायः पदम् । अक्षरं वा । (akṣarasamudāyaḥ padam | akṣaraṃ vā |) V.Pr. VIII. 46, 47. The word originally was applied to the individual words which constituted the Vedic Samhitā; cf. पदप्रकृतिः संहिता (padaprakṛtiḥ saṃhitā) Nir.I.17. Accordingly, it is defined in the Vājasaneyi Prātiśākhya as ' अर्थः पदम् (arthaḥ padam) ' (V. Pr. III. 2) as contrasted with ' वर्णानामेकप्राणयोगः संहिता (varṇānāmekaprāṇayogaḥ saṃhitā) ' (V.Pr.I.158). The definition ' अर्थः पदम् (arthaḥ padam) ' is attributed to the ancient grammarian 'Indra', who is believed to have been the first Grammarian of India. Pāņini has defined the term पद (pada) as ' सुप्तिङन्तं पदम् (suptiṅantaṃ padam) ' P.I.4.14. His definition is applicable to complete noun-forms and verb-forms and also to prefixes and indeclinables where a caseaffix is placed and elided according to him; cf. अव्ययादाप्सुपः (avyayādāpsupaḥ) P. II. 4. 82. The noun-bases before case affixes and tad. affixes, mentioned in rules upto the end of the fifth adhyāya, which begin with a consonant excepting य् (y) are also termed पद (pada) by Pāņini to include parts of words before the case affixes भ्याम्, भिस्, सु (bhyām, bhis, su) etc. as also before the tad. affixes मत्, वत् (mat, vat) etc. which are given as separate padas many times in the pada-pātha of the Vedas; cf. स्वादि-ष्वसर्वनामस्थाने (svādi-ṣvasarvanāmasthāne) P. I. 4. 17. See for details the word पदपाठ (padapāṭha). There are given four kinds of padas or words viz. नाम, आख्यात, उपसर्ग (nāma, ākhyāta, upasarga) and निपात (nipāta) in the Nirukta and Prātiśākhya works; cf. also पदमर्थे प्रयुज्यते, विभक्त्यन्तं च पदम् (padamarthe prayujyate, vibhaktyantaṃ ca padam) M. Bh. on P. I. 2. 64 Vārt. 19, वर्णसमुदायः पदम् (varṇasamudāyaḥ padam) M.Bh. on I.1.21 Vārt. 5, पूर्वपरयोरर्थोपलब्धौ पदम् (pūrvaparayorarthopalabdhau padam) Kāt. I.1.20, पदशब्देनार्थ उच्यते (padaśabdenārtha ucyate) Kaiyata on P.I.2.42 Vārt. 2; cf. also पद्यते गम्यते अर्थः अनेनेति पदमित्यन्वर्थसंज्ञा (padyate gamyate arthaḥ aneneti padamityanvarthasaṃjñā) Nyāsa on P.III. 1.92. The verb endings or affixs ति, तस् (ti, tas) and others are also called पद (pada). The word पद (pada) in this sense is never used alone, but with the word परस्मै (parasmai) or आत्मने (ātmane) preceding it. The term परस्मैपद (parasmaipada) stands for the nine affixes तिप्, तस् (tip, tas), ...मस् (mas),while the term आत्मनेपद (ātmanepada) stands for the nine affixes त, आताम् (ta, ātām) ... महिङ् (mahiṅ). cf. लः परमैपदम्, तङानावात्मनेपदम् (laḥ paramaipadam, taṅānāvātmanepadam). It is possible to say that in the terms परस्मैपद (parasmaipada) and आत्मनेपद (ātmanepada) also, the term पद (pada) could be taken to mean a word, and it is very likely that the words परस्मैपद (parasmaipada) and आत्मनेपद (ātmanepada) were originally used in the sense of 'words referring to something meant for another' and 'referring to something meant for self' respectively. Such words, of course, referred to verbal forms, roughly corresponding to the verbs in the active voice and verbs in the passive voice. There are some modern scholars of grammar, especially linguists, who like to translate परस्मैपद (parasmaipada) as 'active voice' and आत्मनेपद (ātmanepada) as ' passive voice'. Pāņini appears, however, to have adapted the sense of the terms परस्मैपद (parasmaipada) and आत्मनेपद (ātmanepada) and taken them to mean mere affixes just as he has done in the case of the terms कृत् (kṛt) and तद्धित (taddhita). Presumably in ancient times, words current in use were grouped into four classes by the authors of the Nirukta works, viz. (a) कृत् (kṛt) (words derived from roots)such as कर्ता, कारकः, भवनम् (kartā, kārakaḥ, bhavanam) etc., (b) तद्धित (taddhita) (words derived from nouns) such as गार्ग्यः, काषायम् (gārgyaḥ, kāṣāyam), etc., (c) Parasmaipada words viz. verbs such as भवति, पचति (bhavati, pacati), and (d) Ātmanepada words i.e. verbs like एधते, वर्धते (edhate, vardhate), etc.Verbs करोति (karoti) and कुरुते (kurute) or हरति (harati) and हरते (harate) were looked upon as both परस्मैपद (parasmaipada) words and आत्मनेपद (ātmanepada) words. The question of simple words, as they are called by the followers of Pāņini, such as नर, तद्, गो, अश्व (nara, tad, go, aśva), and a number of similar underived words, did not occur to the authors of the Nirukta as they believed that every noun was derivable, and hence could be included in the kŗt words.
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Pāda (पाद).—lit. foot; the term is applied to a fourth part of a section such as अध्याय (adhyāya), or of a verse which is divisible into four parts or lines; cf प्रकृत्यान्तःपादमव्यपरे (prakṛtyāntaḥpādamavyapare) P. VI.1.115, also गोः पादान्ते (goḥ pādānte) P. VII. 1.57.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Pada (पद) refers to “inflected words” according to Pāṇini (7th century BCE) in his works Aṣṭādhyāyī dealing with vyākaraṇa (grammar): the science of analysis of sentences and words. Indian grammar analyzes language as a structure of five levels. The third level is of pada. Formation of pada from śabda (the third level) is in the scope of grammar. A pada is formed by a conjunction of prakṛti (base) and pratyaya (affix). Word formation includes derivation. All padas are divided into two sets: those that are like nouns and those are like verbs. From verbs nouns can be formed and from nouns verbs can be formed with the help of affixes that are called in grammar derivational affixesSource: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Language and Grammar (vyakarana)
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)
Pāda (पाद) is one of the general characteristics of the Vedic Metres (chandas).—The Vedic Metres are calculated by syllables (akṣaras). Each pāda is made of a specific number of syllables. A syllable is a vowel or a vowel with consonant or with anusvāra. A pāda may consist of different numbers of syllables viz. five, six, seven, eight, ten, eleven, or twenty syllables. According to this principle, a word is not found to be split.
Generally a metre has a specific name according to it’s number of syllables. But sometimes the same stanza is called by the name of another metre from the point of view of the pādas. A stanza may consist of two, three, four, five, six, seven or eight pādas. Sometimes in a stanza all the pādas are metrically identical i.e. have equal number of syllables.Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Pāda (पाद).—1. A quarter-verse; (lit., foot.) 2. Ascending Node. Note: Pāda is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)
Pāda (पाद, “section”).—The Pāñcarātra system of thought consists of four parts (pādas, sections) which are known as
With Jñāna is meant the philosophical structure of its belief system, with Kriyā the canons and principles governing the construction of the icons of its deities and other religious as well as non-religious buildings. Caryā is the detailed description of the ritual of daily Pūjā ceremony as well as of periodical festivals, whereas Yoga describes not only certain Yogic practices like Prāṇāyāma and dhyāna etc. used in Pūjā ceremony but also the method of merging individual consciousness into the Supreme consciousness in the state of complete meditation (samādhi).
The best description of all these four aspects of Pāñcarātra is found in the Padma-saṃhitā, a simplified elaboration of the Jayākhya-saṃhitā.Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Ayurveda (science of life)
1) Pada (पद) is a synonym for Deśa (“region”), according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands [viz., Pada], soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.
3) Pāda (पाद) refers to the “root” of a tree, as mentioned in a list of five synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) verse 27.Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
General definition (in Hinduism)
The metrical unit of verse is the pāda ("foot", "quarter"), generally of eight, eleven, or twelve syllables; these are termed gayatri, tristubh and jagati respectively, after meters of the same name.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
India history and geogprahy
Pada (पद) is a word denoting a ‘village’ or ‘hamlet’ and can be seen as a synonym for grāma, often used in inscriptions.—Terms such as pada are in many cases, associated with the names of the villages so as to become the ending part of the different place-names. Inscriptions throw light on the location of the villages in different ways. Firstly, they communicate us an idea about the country, the division and the sub-division to which these villages belonged. Secondly, the inscriptions provide information regarding theboundaries of the donated villages.Source: archive.org: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptions
Pada.—(EI 33), share; quarter of the standard land measure. (EI 4, 9; IA 17), a share. (EI 21), a land-measure; cf. paḍa (paṭa) in Sel. Ins. p. 408. Cf. sv-āṅgabhoga-pada (LP), ‘under the head of personal expenditure’. (LL; ML), foot-print. Note: pada is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Pāda.—(IE 8-6), same as Kannaḍa hāda; ‘one-fourth’; a measure equal to one-fourth of the standard land measure. Cf. poā (EI 19), literally, ‘one-fourth’; name of a land measure. Cf. sa-pādika (LP), ‘with one-fourth in addition’. (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 248), foot-print, foot-mark. Note: pāda is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Paḍā or Pāḍā.—(IE 8-4), corrupt forms of pāṭaka, ‘part of a village’; often suffixed to the names of localities. Note: paḍā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
pada : (nt.) foot; foot-step; a word; position; place; reason; cause; a line of stanza; the final rest. || pāda (m.; nt.) the foot; leg; a base; one-fourth of any measure or of a stanza.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pada, (nt.) (Ved. pad, pād (m.) foot, and also pāda; pada (nt.) step. Cp. Gr. pwζ (pouζ)=Lat. pēs, Goth. fōtus =Ohg fuoz=E. foot; further Arm. het track, Gr. pedά after, pέdon field, pezόs on foot, etc.; Lith. péda track; Ags. fetvan=E. fetch.—The decl. in Pāli is vocalic (a), viz. pada; a trace of the consonant (root) decl. is Instr. sg. padā (Th. 1, 457; Sn. 768), of cons. (s) decl. Instr. padasā with the foot, on foot (D. I, 107; J. III, 371; DhA. I, 391).—Gender is nt. , but Nom. pl. is frequently found as padā, e.g. at Dh. 273; Nett 192 (mūla°)) 1. foot Dh. 273=SnA 366 (? saccānaṃ caturo padā); DA. I, 85; usually —°, like hatthipadaṃ elephant’s foot M. I, 176, 184; S. I, 86; V, 43, 231; and with numerals dvi° & di°, catup°, aṭṭha° (q. v.). In aṭṭha° also meaning “square of a chessboard. ” — 2. step, footstep, track Dh. 179 (of a Buddha, cp. DhA. III, 194 & 197) J. I, 170 (footmark) II. 154; in redupl. -iterative formation padāpadaṃ step by step Sn. 446 (v. l. padânupadaṃ), and pade padaṃ Sn. p. 107 (cp. SnA 451).—3. (Often synonymous with °patha i.e. way, kind, & sometimes untranslatable) (a) lit. way, path, position, place Vin. II, 217 (nakkhatta° constellation); J. I, 315 (assama° =assama); V, 75 (id.), 321 (id.); VI, 76 (id.); VI, 180 (v. l. patha; C. mahāmagga); mantapada=manta D. I, 104 (cp. DA. I, 273). See also janapada, saggapada.—(b) in applied meaning (modal): case, lot, principle, part, constituent, characteristic, ingredient, item, thing, element M. I, 176 (cattāri padāni 4 characteristics); S. I, 7 (pade pade “now in this thing, now in that” C. ārammaṇe ārammaṇe), 212 (amataṃ p. =nibbāna); II, 280 (id.); A. II, 51 (id.), It. 39 (p. asaṅkhataṃ=nibbāna); Sn. 88 (dhammapade sudesite; explained as nibbānadhamma SnA 164; dhammapada=Dhamma), ibid. (anavajja-padāni sevamāna=principles), 700 (moneyyaṃ uttamaṃ padaṃ, thing; but SnA 491 explains as uttama-paṭipadaṃ), 765; Dh. 21, 93, 114 (amataṃ), 254, 368 (santaṃ=nibbānass’etaṃ nāmaṃ, santakoṭṭhāsaṃ DhA. IV, 108); Pv IV. 348 (amataṃ); Nett 2= 192 (nava padāni kusalāni); SnA 397 (nāmādi p.); Sdhp. 47 (accutaṃ santaṃ p.), 615 (paramaṃ). See further dhamma°, nibbāna°, santi°, sikkhā°.—4. a word, verse (or a quarter of a verse), stanza, line, sentence S. II, 36 (ekena padena sabbo attho vutto); S. IV, 379=A. V, 320 (agga°); A. II, 182 (+vyañjana & desanā); 189 (attha° text, motto); III, 356 (id.); Sn. 252 (=dhamma-desanā SnA 293), 374; Dh. 273; J. I, 72 (atireka-pada-satena); Nett 4 (akkharaṃ padaṃ vyañjanaṃ, cp. nāmādīhi padehi at SnA 397, which is to be understood as nāma, pada & vyañjana, i.e. word, sentence & letter, cp. Mvyutp. 104, 74—76); Miln. 148 (āhacca°); KhA 169; SnA 409 (ubhaya°), 444; VvA. 3, 13; PvA. 10, 26, 117 (word, term). Abl. padaso (adv.) sentence by stce or word by word Vin. IV, 14 (dhammaṃ vāceti=anupadaṃ C.; cp. KhA 190 p. °dhamma). At MA. I, 2 pada (sentence or division of a sentence) is contrasted with akkhara (word), when it is said that the Majjhima Nikāya consists of 80, 523 padas and 740, 053 akkharas.—Neg. apada (1) without feet, footless A. IV, 434 (Māra; v. l. apara); It. 87 (sattā, + dvipada etc.).—(2) trackless, leaving no footprint, fig. having no desires (i.e. signs of worldliness) Dh. 179 (rāga, etc., as padāni DhA. III, 197, but cp. also p. 194.)
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Pāda, (Vedic pāda, see etym. under pada) 1. the foot, usually pl. pādā both feet, e.g. Vin. I, 9, 34, 188; It. 111; Sn. 309, 547, 768, 835, 1028; J. II, 114; IV, 137; DhA. III, 196; PvA. 4, 10, 40, 68; VvA. 105. In sg. scarce, and then specified as eka° & dutiya°, e.g. at Nd2 304III; J. VI, 354.—2. foot or base of a mountain Vism. 399 (Sineru°); DhA. I, 108 (pabbata°).—3. the fourth part (“foot”) of a verse (cp. pada 4) SnA 239, 273, 343, 363; ThA. 23.—4. a coin Vin. III, 47; VvA. 77 (worth here 1/4 of a kahāpaṇa and double the value of māsaka; see also kākaṇikā).Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
paḍa (पड).—f (paḍaṇēṃ) The sinking and sitting (of a bullock &c.) in refusing the load. Hence a declining or refusing; a withholding of one's powers (in argument, fight &c.); a sitting still, composed, contented: in opp. to ucambaḷa, under which see ucambaḷa khāṇēṃ. v khā, ghē, patakara. 2 Mangoes fallen: as opp. to mangoes ripened in straw. 3 Fallow grounds. 4 A falling sick (of numerous persons): a becoming desolate (of several villages); or neglected and fallow (of much land). v paḍa. 5 A run of ill luck (at cards). v lāga. 6 m A pocket, partition, division, shelf, drawer &c. of a housewife or bag having many pockets; of a box; of a succession of shelves or drawers. 7 (para Beyond. ) Prefixed to certain names and titles it expresses subordinacy. Ex. paḍacākara An inferior servant, an underling, a mate; paḍaśiṣya A pupil of a pupil; paḍalaṅkā Thither or farther Lanka (the city of the brother of rāvaṇa) mentioned in affirming superiority in traveling to some boaster. Ex. tvāṃ laṅkā pāhilīsa tara kāya jhālēṃ myāṃ paḍalaṅkā pāhilī. Other such formations, as paḍakōṭa, paḍajībha, paḍasāḷa, paḍasākṣa &c. will occur in order. 8 m A strand or single string (of a rope &c.): also a rope of one strand; yarn rolled together. 9 W A quantity of two sher (of grain). Restrictedly used, Ex. paḍī uṇē dāhā śēra. paḍīcāāmbā A fallenmango (whetherripe or green). paḍīṃ paḍaṇēṃ To fall amongst the fallen; to become extinct, forgotten, cast away, disused, lost &c.: also to fall under stoppage or obstruction.
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pada (पद).—n (S) A foot. 2 A footstep or footprint; mark of a foot. 3 An office or a post; a rank or station. 4 A word. 5 An inflected word. 6 A variety of metrical composition. Used in hymns or anthems. 7 The fourth of a circle, a quadrant. 8 Place, site, spot. 9 A lot or quantity of articles (cloth, shoes, trinkets, pots, chhatri &c.) given at obsequies to each of a number of Brahmans, according to the ability of him ordering the rite. 10 In arithmetic &c. The number of the terms of a series. 11 A factor or term. 12 The square root. In combination with a word prefixed pada is the root of the number thus designated; as ghanapada Cube root.
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pāḍa (पाड).—m (paḍaṇēṃ) Market rate, price current. 2 fig. Estimation, weight, worth. Neg. con. Ex. tyācā pāḍa kitī; tyācā kāya pāḍa lāgalā āhē Who is he? who cares for him? tujhēnī pāḍēṃ tribhu- vanīṃ || vīra dusarā na disē kōṇhī. See equivalent words under kimata. 3 Ripeness and readiness to be gathered (of fruits gen. and of mangoes esp.) Ex. āmbyāṃlā pāḍa lāgalā. Pr. āmbē ālē pāḍāṃ nimbuṇī ālyā rasāṃ. 4 A mango that has attained this state, or that is fit to be plucked and ripened in straw. 5 Scaffolding.
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pāḍā (पाडा).—m A male calf. 2 A hamlet or a cluster of houses of agriculturists. 3 The gathering of tree-fruits. 4 A column of the multiplication table. 5 (paṭhana S) A class of letters (as arranged in the nāgarī alphabet). 6 fig. Detail or minutiæ of; lengthy account of or story about. v vāca. 7 A ward or quarter of a town. 8 A young tree or plant; a plantlet or sapling. Ex. pṛthvīvarīla tṛṇācē pāḍē || tyācīhī gaṇatī hōīla kōḍē ||.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
paḍa (पड).—f The sinking and sitting (of a bullock &c.) in refusing the load. A declining or refusing. Mangoes fallen. Fallow grounds. A becoming desolate (of several villages). A run of ill luck (at cards). Prefixed to certain names and titles, it express- es subordination. Ex. paḍacākara An inferior servant. paḍaśiṣya A pupil of a pupil. paḍajībha, paḍasākṣa &c. paḍīcā āmbā A fallen mango (whether ripe or green). paḍīṃ paḍaṇēṃ To fall amongst the fallen; to become extinct, forgotten, cast away, disused, cast &c. also to fall under stoppage or obstruction.
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pada (पद).—n A foot. A footstep or footprint. An office or a post; a rank or station. A word. An inflected word. A variety of metrical composition. A factor or term. The square root. In combination with a word prefixed pada is the root of the number thus designated; as ghanapada Cube root.
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pāḍa (पाड).—m Market rate. Fig. Estimation, worth. Ex. tyācā kāya pāḍa lāgalā āhē Time of ripening. āmbyālā pāḍa lāgalā.
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pāḍā (पाडा).—m A male calf. A hamlet. A column of the multiplication table. pāḍā vācaṇēṃ To tell the particulars of; to detail minutely.
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pāda (पाद).—m A foot. Flatulence. A fourth or quarter. A foot of a śrlōka or quatrain. The quadrant of a circle.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
1) A foot (said to be m. also in this sense); पदेन (padena) on foot; शिखरिषु पदं न्यस्य (śikhariṣu padaṃ nyasya) Me.13; अपथे पदमर्पयन्ति हि (apathe padamarpayanti hi) R.9.74 'set foot on (follow) a wrong road'; 3.5;12.52; पदं हि सर्वत्र गुणैर्निधीयते (padaṃ hi sarvatra guṇairnidhīyate) 3.62 'good qualities set foot everywhere' i. e. command notice or make themselves felt; जनपदे न गदः पदमादधौ (janapade na gadaḥ padamādadhau) 9.4. 'no disease stepped into the country'; यदवधि न पदं दधाति चित्ते (yadavadhi na padaṃ dadhāti citte) Bv.2.14; पदं कृ (padaṃ kṛ) (a) to set foot in, on or over (lit.); शान्ते करिष्यसि पदं पुनराश्रमेऽस्मिन् (śānte kariṣyasi padaṃ punarāśrame'smin) Ś.4.2. (b) to enter upon or into, take possession of, occupy (fig.); कृतं वपुषि नवयौवनेन पदम् (kṛtaṃ vapuṣi navayauvanena padam) K.137; कृतं हि मे कुतूहलेन प्रश्नाशया हृदि पदम् (kṛtaṃ hi me kutūhalena praśnāśayā hṛdi padam) 133; so Ku.5.21; Pt.1.24; कृत्वा पदं नो गले (kṛtvā padaṃ no gale) Mu.3.26 'in defiance of us'; (lit. planting his foot on our neck); मूर्ध्नि पदं कृ (mūrdhni padaṃ kṛ) 'to mount on the head of', 'to humble'; पदं मूर्ध्नि समाधत्ते केसरी मत्तदन्तिनः (padaṃ mūrdhni samādhatte kesarī mattadantinaḥ) Pt.1.327; आकृतिविशेषेष्वादरः पदं करोति (ākṛtiviśeṣeṣvādaraḥ padaṃ karoti) M.1 'good forms attract attention (command respect); जने सखी पदं कारिता (jane sakhī padaṃ kāritā) Ś.4; 'made to have dealings with (to confide in)'; धर्मेण शर्वे पार्वतीं प्रति पदं कारिते (dharmeṇa śarve pārvatīṃ prati padaṃ kārite) Ku.6.14.
2) A step, pace, stride; तन्वी स्थिता कतिचिदेव पदानि गत्वा (tanvī sthitā katicideva padāni gatvā) Ś.2.13; पदे पदे (pade pade) 'at every step'; अक्षमालामदत्त्वा पदात् पदमपि न गन्तव्यम् (akṣamālāmadattvā padāt padamapi na gantavyam) or चलितव्यम् (calitavyam) 'do not move even a step' &c.; पितुः पदं मध्यममुत्पतन्ती (pituḥ padaṃ madhyamamutpatantī) V.1.19 'the middle pace or stride of Viṣṇu.'; i. e. the sky (for mythologically speaking, the earth, sky, and lower world are considered as the three paces of Viṣṇu in his fifth or dwarf incarnation vāmanāvatāra); so अथात्मनः शब्दगुणं गुणज्ञः पदं विमानेन विगाहमानः (athātmanaḥ śabdaguṇaṃ guṇajñaḥ padaṃ vimānena vigāhamānaḥ) R.13.1.
3) A foot-step, footprint, foot-mark; पदपङ्क्तिः (padapaṅktiḥ) Ś.3.7; or पदावली (padāvalī) foot-prints; पदमनुविधेयं च महताम् (padamanuvidheyaṃ ca mahatām) Bh.2.28 'the foot-steps of the great must be followed'; पदैगृर्ह्यते चौरः (padaigṛrhyate cauraḥ) Y.2.286.
4) A trace, mark, impression, vestige; रतिवलयपदाङ्के चापमासज्य कण्ठे (rativalayapadāṅke cāpamāsajya kaṇṭhe) Ku.2.64; Me.37,98; M.3.
5) A place, position, station; अधोऽधः पदम् (adho'dhaḥ padam) Bh.2.1; आत्मा परिश्रमस्य पदमुपनीतः (ātmā pariśramasya padamupanītaḥ) Ś.1, 'brought to the point of or exposed to trouble'; तदलब्धपदं हृदि शोकघने (tadalabdhapadaṃ hṛdi śokaghane) R.8.91, 'found no place in (left no impression on) the heart'; अपदे शङ्कितोऽस्मि (apade śaṅkito'smi) M.1, 'my doubts were out of place', i. e. groundless; कृशकुटुम्बेषु लोभः पदमधत्त (kṛśakuṭumbeṣu lobhaḥ padamadhatta) Dk.162; Ku.6.72;3.4; R.2.5;9.82; कृतपदं स्तनयुगलम् (kṛtapadaṃ stanayugalam) U.6.35, 'brought into relief or bursting forth'.
6) Dignity, rank, office, station or position; भगवत्या प्रश्निकपदमध्यासितव्यम् (bhagavatyā praśnikapadamadhyāsitavyam) M.1; यान्त्येवं गृहिणीपदं युवतयः (yāntyevaṃ gṛhiṇīpadaṃ yuvatayaḥ) Ś.4.18, 'attain to the rank or position, &c.; स्थिता गृहिणीपदे (sthitā gṛhiṇīpade) 4.19; so सचिव°, राज° (saciva°, rāja°) &c.
7) Cause, subject, occasion, thing, matter, business, affair; व्यवहारपदं हि तत् (vyavahārapadaṃ hi tat) Y.2.5; 'occasion or matter of dispute, title of law, judicial proceeding'; Ms.8.7; सतां हि सन्देहपदेषु वस्तुषु (satāṃ hi sandehapadeṣu vastuṣu) Ś.1.22; वाञ्छितफलप्राप्तेः पदम् (vāñchitaphalaprāpteḥ padam) Ratn.1.6.
8) Abode, object, receptacle; पदं दृशः स्याः कथमीश मादृशाम् (padaṃ dṛśaḥ syāḥ kathamīśa mādṛśām) Śi.1.37; 15.22; अगरीयान्न पदं नृपश्रियः (agarīyānna padaṃ nṛpaśriyaḥ) Ki.2.14; अविवेकः परमापदां पदम् (avivekaḥ paramāpadāṃ padam) 2.3; के वा न स्युः परिभवपदं निष्फलारम्भयत्नाः (ke vā na syuḥ paribhavapadaṃ niṣphalārambhayatnāḥ) Me.56; संपदः पदमापदाम् (saṃpadaḥ padamāpadām) H.4.65.
9) A quarter or line of a stanza, verse; विरचितपदम् (viracitapadam) (geyam) Me.88,15; M.5.2; Ś.3.14.
10) A complete or inflected word; सुप्तिडन्तं पदम् (suptiḍantaṃ padam) P.I. 4.14. वर्णाः पदं प्रयोगार्हानन्वितैकार्थबोधकाः (varṇāḥ padaṃ prayogārhānanvitaikārthabodhakāḥ) S. D.9; R.8.77; Ku.4.9.
11) A name for the base of nouns before all consonantal case-terminations except nom. singular.
12) Detachment of the Vedic words from one another, separation of a Vedic text into its several constituent words; वेदैः साङ्गपदक्रमोपनिषदैर्गायन्ति यं सामगाः (vedaiḥ sāṅgapadakramopaniṣadairgāyanti yaṃ sāmagāḥ) Bhāg.12.13.1.
13) A pretext; अनिभृतपदपातमापपात प्रियमिति कोपपदेन कापि सख्या (anibhṛtapadapātamāpapāta priyamiti kopapadena kāpi sakhyā) Śi.7.14.
14) A sqare root.
15) A part, portion or division (as of a sentence); as त्रिपदा गायत्री (tripadā gāyatrī).
16) A measure of length.
17) Protection, preservation; ते विंशतिपदे यत्ताः संप्रहारं प्रचक्रिरे (te viṃśatipade yattāḥ saṃprahāraṃ pracakrire) Mb.7.36.13.
18) A square or house on a chessboard; अष्टापदपदालेख्यैः (aṣṭāpadapadālekhyaiḥ) Rām.
19) A quadrant.
20) The last of a series.
21) A plot of ground.
22) (In Arith.) Any one in a set of numbers the sum of which is required.
23) A coin; माता पुत्रः पिता भ्राता भार्या मित्रजनस्तथा । अष्टापदपदस्थाने दक्षमुद्रेव लक्ष्यते (mātā putraḥ pitā bhrātā bhāryā mitrajanastathā | aṣṭāpadapadasthāne dakṣamudreva lakṣyate) || Mb.12.298.4. (com. aṣṭāpadapadaṃ suvarṇakārṣāpaṇaḥ).
24) A way, road; षट्पदं नवसंख्यानं निवेशं चक्रिरे द्विजाः (ṣaṭpadaṃ navasaṃkhyānaṃ niveśaṃ cakrire dvijāḥ) Mb.14.64.1.
25) Retribution (phala); ईहोपरमयोर्नॄणां पदान्यध्यात्मचक्षुषा (īhoparamayornṝṇāṃ padānyadhyātmacakṣuṣā) Bhāg.7.13.2.
-daḥ A ray of light.
Derivable forms: padam (पदम्).
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Pāda (पाद).—[padyate gamyate'nena karaṇe karmaṇi vā ghañ]
1) The foot (whether of men or animals); तयोर्जगृहतुः पादान् (tayorjagṛhatuḥ pādān) R.1.57; पादयोर्निपत्य, पादपतित (pādayornipatya, pādapatita) &c. (The word pāda at the end of comp. is changed to pād after su and numerals; i. e. supād, dvipād, tripād &c.; and also when the first member is used as a standard of comparison, but is a word other than hasti &c.; see P.V.4.138-14; e. g. vyāghrapād. The nom. pl. of pāda is often added to names of persons or titles of address to show great respect or veneration; mṛṣyantu lavasya bāliśatāṃ tātapādāḥ U.6; jīvatsu tātapādeṣu 1.19; devapādānāṃ nāsmābhiḥ prayojanam Pt.1; so evamārādhyapādā ājñāpayanti Prab.1; so kumārilapādāḥ &c.
2) A ray of light; bālasyāpi raveḥ pādāḥ patantyupari bhūbhṛtām Pt.1.328; Śi.9.34; R.16.53 (where the word has sense 1 also).
3) The foot or leg of an inanimate object, as of a bed-stead; चतुष्पदी हि निःश्रेणी ब्रह्मण्येव प्रतिष्ठिता (catuṣpadī hi niḥśreṇī brahmaṇyeva pratiṣṭhitā) Mb.12.2.4.
4) The foot or root of a tree; as in पादप (pādapa).
5) The foot of a mountain, a hill at the foot of a mountain (pādāḥ pratyantaparvatāḥ); रेवां द्रक्ष्यस्युपलविषमे विन्ध्यपादे विशीर्णाम् (revāṃ drakṣyasyupalaviṣame vindhyapāde viśīrṇām) Me.19; Ś.6.17.
6) A quarter, fourth part; as in सपादो रूपकः (sapādo rūpakaḥ) 'one and one fourth rupee'; Ms.8.241; Y.2.174; कार्षापणे दीयमाने पादोऽपि दत्तो भवति (kārṣāpaṇe dīyamāne pādo'pi datto bhavati) ŚB. on MS.6.7.2.
7) The fourth part of a stanza, a line.
8) The fourth part of a chapter or book, as of the Adhyāyas of Pāṇini, or of the Brahma-sūtras.
9) A part in general.
10) A column, pillar; सहस्रपादं प्रासादं (sahasrapādaṃ prāsādaṃ)......अधिरोहन्मया दृष्टः (adhirohanmayā dṛṣṭaḥ) Mb.5.143.3.
11) A foot as a measure equal to twelve Aṅgulis.
12) The quadrant of a circle.
13) The foot-hole or bottom of a water-skin; इन्द्रियाणां तु सर्वेषां यद्येकं क्षरतीन्द्रियम् । तेनास्य क्षरति प्रज्ञा दृतेः पादादिवोदकम् (indriyāṇāṃ tu sarveṣāṃ yadyekaṃ kṣaratīndriyam | tenāsya kṣarati prajñā dṛteḥ pādādivodakam) || Ms.2.99.
14) A wheel; गिरिकूबरपादाक्षं शुभवेणु त्रिवेणुमत् (girikūbarapādākṣaṃ śubhaveṇu triveṇumat) Mb.3.175.4; Ki.12 21.
15) A golden coin (weighing one tola); स ह गवां सहस्रमव- रुरोध दश दश पादा एकैकस्याः शृङ्गयोराबद्धा बभुवुः (sa ha gavāṃ sahasramava- rurodha daśa daśa pādā ekaikasyāḥ śṛṅgayorābaddhā babhuvuḥ) Bṛ. Up.3.1.1.
Derivable forms: pādaḥ (पादः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Pada (पद).—(= Pali id.), sentence, complete utterance, in contrast with nāman, word, and vyañjana, sound (same triad in Pali, PTSD s.v. pada, 4): Mvy 1998 (-kāyaḥ), see s.v. kāya (2); defined AbhidhK. LaV-P. ii.238 as = vākya, a complete statement which makes sense; this may perhaps be the meaning in agra-pada; where the context contains no contrasting word for word, that common Sanskrit meaning of pada may ordinarily be assumed; see s.v. vyañjana for one or two such passages where pada is thus ambiguous (word or sentence).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 1578 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
Padārtha (पदार्थ).—m. (-rthaḥ) 1. Thing, substantial or material form of being. 2. A category o...
Janapada (जनपद).—m. (-daḥ) 1. Any inhabited country. 2. Man, mankind E. jana man, and pada goin...
Ekapāda (एकपाद).—In iconography, ekapāda does not come under the heading sthānaka, but is found...
Catuppada (Sk. caturpād, Gr. tetrάpous, Lat. quadrupes) a quadruped Vin. II, 110; S. I, 6; A. V...
Pādapīṭha refers to: a foot-stool Vin. I, 9 (cp. Vin. Texts I. 92); IV, 310; DhA. III, 120=186;...
Kalmāṣapāda (कल्माषपाद).—m. (-daḥ) The name of a king, also Saudassa; transformed to a Rakshasa...
Pādapa (पादप).—m. (-paḥ) 1. A tree. 2. A foot-stool, a cushion, &c. for the feet. f. (-pā) ...
Viṣṇupada (विष्णुपद).—n. (-daṃ) 1. The sky, heaven, atmosphere. 2. The sea of milk. 3. A lotus....
Samapāda (समपाद) is one of the six divisions of sthānaka, one of the nine maṇḍala (postures of ...
Tripada (त्रिपद).—mfn. (-daḥ-dā-dī-daṃ) 1. Three-footed. 2. Having three lines or divisions, (a...
Uttānapāda (उत्तानपाद) is one of the two sons of Svāyambhuvamanu and Śatarūpā, according to the...
Dvipada (द्विपद).—mfn. (-daḥ-dā-daṃ) 1. Two-footed. 2. Having two parts. 3. Binomial. m. (-daḥ)...
Aṣṭapāda (अष्टपाद).—m. (-pāt or -pād) 1. A spider. 2. A fabulous animal with eight legs: see śa...
Haṃsapāda (हंसपाद).—n. (-daṃ) Vermilion. f. (-dī) A shrub, (Clitoria ternata.) E. haṃsa a goose...
Pādāṅguṣṭha (पादाङ्गुष्ठ).—m. (-ṣṭhaḥ) The great toe. E. pāda a foot, aṅguṣṭha the thumb.
Search found 100 books and stories containing Pada, Pāda, Paḍa, Pāḍa, Pāḍā, Paḍā; (plurals include: Padas, Pādas, Paḍas, Pāḍas, Pāḍās, Paḍās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Early Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Kailasanathar Temple < [Chapter XIV - Conclusion]
Introduction < [Chapter XIII - Prasada: Component Parts]
Temples in Tiruvalanjuli < [Chapter X - Historical Survey]
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)
Mandukya Upanishad, verse 2 < [Chapter I - Agama Prakarana (Scripture)]
Mandukya Karika, verse 2.20-28 < [Chapter II - Vaitathya Prakarana (Illusion)]
Mandukya Upanishad, verse 4 < [Chapter I - Agama Prakarana (Scripture)]
Kautilya Arthashastra (by R. Shamasastry)
Chapter 8 - Buildings < [Book 3 - Concerning Law]
Chapter 10 - The Procedure, of Forming Royal Writs < [Book 2 - The duties of Government Superintendents]
Satapatha Brahmana (by Julius Eggeling)