Capala, Cāpala, Capalā, Cāpāla: 18 definitions


Capala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chapala.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Capala (चपल) is another name for Rājamāṣa (Vigna unguiculata “cow-peas”) according to the Bhāvaprakāśa, which is a 16th century medicinal thesaurus authored by Bhāvamiśra. The term is used throughout Āyurvedic literature.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Capala (चपल, “inconsiderate”).—One of the thirty-three vyabhicāribhāva (transitory states), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 7. These ‘transitory states’ accompany the ‘permanent state’ in co-operation. The term is used throughout nāṭyaśāstra literature. It is also known as Cāpala. (Also see the Daśarūpa 4.8-9)

2a) Capalā (चपला) refers to a type of syllabic metre (vṛtta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 16. Capalā falls in the Anuṣṭup (Anuṣṭubh) class of chandas (rhythm-type), which implies that verses constructed with this metre have four pādas (‘foot’ or ‘quarter-verse’) containing eighteen syllables each.

2b) Capalā (चपला) refers to a type of āryā syllabic metre (vṛtta), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 16. The Capalā variation is one amongst five types of āryā-meters.

3) Capalā (चपला) is the name of a meter belonging to the Triṣṭubh class of Dhruvā (songs) described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in its feet of eleven syllables, the first two, and the last long, is capalā”.

Capalā is also the name of a meter belonging to the Śīrṣaka class described in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 32:—“the metre which has in its feet of twenty-five syllables, the fifth, the eight, the eleventh, the twelfth and the last long, is capalā”.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Capala (चपल).—A king in ancient India. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 238).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Capala (चपल).—A son of mṛga elephant.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 333.

2) Capalā (चपला).—A śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 75.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

1) Capalā (चपला) is a type of mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) described in the Āryāprakaraṇa section of the second chapter of Kedārabhaṭṭa’s Vṛttaratnākara. The Vṛttaratnākara is considered as most popular work in Sanskrit prosody, because of its rich and number of commentaries. Kedārabhaṭṭa (C. 950-1050 C.E.) was a celebrated author in Sanskrit prosody.

2) Capalā (चपला) is the name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) to which Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) assigned the alternative name of Hari-vilasita, Tvarita-gati in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Capalā also corresponds to Drutagati according to Bharata. Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.

3) Capalā (चपला) refers to one of the thirty mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) mentioned in the 331st chapter of the Agnipurāṇa. The Agnipurāṇa deals with various subjects viz. literature, poetics, grammar, architecture in its 383 chapters and deals with the entire science of prosody (eg., the capalā metre) in 8 chapters (328-335) in 101 verses in total.

Capalā also refers to one of the eighteen viṣama-varṇavṛtta (irregular syllabo-quantitative verse) mentioned in the 332nd chapter of the Agnipurāṇa.

4) Capalā (चपला) refers to one of the thirty-four mātrāvṛtta (quantitative verse) mentioned in the Garuḍapurāṇa. The Garuḍapurāṇa also deals with the science of prosody (eg., the capalā) in its six chapters 207-212. The chapters comprise 5, 18, 41, 7 and 9 verses respectively.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A Yakkha. See Capala cetiya.

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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: A Critical Sanskrit Edition and a Translation of Kambala’s Sādhananidhi, Chapter 8

Capalā (चपला) is the name of a Deity associated with the syllable “ca” of the Devīhṛdayamantra (Goddess’ heart mantra): one of the four major mantras in the Cakrasaṃvara tradition, as taught in the eighth chapter of the 9th-century Herukābhidhāna and its commentary, the Sādhananidhi. The thirteen letters constituting the mantra are transformed in meditation into thirteen deities. All these female deities [viz., Capalā] have their male consorts who resemble their consort female deities in appearance and are in sexual union with them.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Capala (चपल) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Capala] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

capala : (adj.) fickle; wavering; unsteady.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Capala, (adj.) (Sk. capala cp. cāpa bow; from *qep to shake or quiver, see Walde Lat. Wtb. under caperro) moving to & fro, wavering, trembling, unsteady, fickle S. I, 204; V, 269; M. I, 470 (and a° steady); A. III, 199, 355, 391; Dh. 33; Pug. 35; J. I, 295; II, 360. At J. VI, 548 it means one who lets the saliva flow out of his mouth (explained by paggharita-lāla “trickle-spit”). (Page 262)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

capala (चपल).—a (S) pop. capaḷa a Active, agile, nimble, quick, smart. 2 Fickle, volatile, restless, fidgety. 3 Wanton--a woman.

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capala (चपल) [or ळ, ḷa].—f ē capaḷī f ( H) A sandal.

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capalā (चपला).—f S Lightning. Ex. aṅgāvarī ca0 paḍē ||. 2 A wanton woman, a rig.

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capaḷā (चपळा).—a (capaḷa) Smart, active, lively, agile.

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capaḷā (चपळा).—m A shrub of the Mimosa tribe.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

capala (चपल).—a Active, agile, nimble, quick, smart. Fickle, volatile, restless, fid- gety. Wanton-a woman.

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capalā (चपला).—f Lightning. A wanton woman, a rig.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Capala (चपल).—a. [cap-mandāyāṃ gatau kala upadhokārasyākāraḥ Tv.; cf. Uṇ.1.18]

1) Shaking, trembling, tremulous; कुल्याम्भोभिः पवनचपलैः शाखिनो धौतमूलाः (kulyāmbhobhiḥ pavanacapalaiḥ śākhino dhautamūlāḥ) Ś.1 15; चपलायताक्षी (capalāyatākṣī) Ch. P.8.

2) Unsteady, fickle, inconstant, wavering; Śānti.2. 12; चपलमति (capalamati) &c.

3) Frail, transient, momentary; नलिनीदलगतजलमतितरलं तद्वज्जीवितमतिशयचपलम् (nalinīdalagatajalamatitaralaṃ tadvajjīvitamatiśayacapalam) Moha M.5.

4) Quick, nimble, agile; (gatam) शैशवाच्चपलमप्यशोभत (śaiśavāccapalamapyaśobhata) R.11. 8.

5) Inconsiderate, rash; cf. चापल (cāpala).

6) off the mark; निमित्तचपलेषुणा (nimittacapaleṣuṇā) Mb.13.5.5.

-laḥ 1 A fish.

2) Quicksilver.

3) The Chātaka bird.

4) Consumption.

5) A sort of perfume.

6) Black mustard.

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Capalā (चपला).—

1) Lightning; कुरबककुसुमं चपलासुषमं रतिपतिमृगकानने (kurabakakusumaṃ capalāsuṣamaṃ ratipatimṛgakānane) Gīt.7.

2) An unchaste or disloyal wife.

3) Spirituous liquor.

4) Lakṣmī, the goddess of wealth.

5) The tongue.

6) Long pepper.

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Cāpala (चापल).—[capalasya bhāvaḥ karma vā aṇ pakṣe ṣyañ]

1) Quick motion, swiftness.

2) Fickleness, unsteadiness, transitoriness; Ki.2.41.

3) Inconsiderate or rash conduct, rashness, rash act; यत्तु केवलचापल्याद्बलदर्पोत्थितः स्वयम् (yattu kevalacāpalyādbaladarpotthitaḥ svayam) Mb.3.36.8; धिक् चापलम् (dhik cāpalam) U.4; तद्गुणैः कर्णमागत्य चापलाय प्रचोदितः (tadguṇaiḥ karṇamāgatya cāpalāya pracoditaḥ) R.1.9; स्वचित्तवृत्तिरिव चापलेभ्यो निवारणीया (svacittavṛttiriva cāpalebhyo nivāraṇīyā) K.11; Ku.3.41.

4) Restiveness (as of a horse); पुनः पुनः सूतनिषिद्धचापलम् (punaḥ punaḥ sūtaniṣiddhacāpalam) R.3.42.

5) Boldness; Ku.5.4.

6) Agitation, tremour.

Derivable forms: cāpalam (चापलम्).

See also (synonyms): cāpalya.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Cāpāla (चापाल).—nt. (= Pali id., near Vesāli), n. of a caitya near Vaiśālī: Mv i.299.22 (compare 297.16); pūrvasmin vai (Mv purimasmiṃ) diśo-bhāge cāpālaṃ (Senart em. cāpa- laṃ, but mss. of Mv text) nāma (Mv va nāma) cetiyaṃ LV 388.12 = Mv iii.306.14 (verse); Cāpāla-caityaṃ Divy 201.1 (at Vaiśālī); Vaiśālī Vṛjibhūmiś Cāpāla- (13 °laṃ)- caityaṃ 4 and 13; °laṃ caityaṃ Divy 207.11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Capala (चपल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā-laṃ) 1. Trembling, tremulous, shaking. 2. Wavering, unsteady. 3. Inconsiderately criminal. 4. Swift, expeditious; (also in this sense, or swiftly, adv. n.

(-laṃ) 5. Momentary, instantaneous. 6. Agitated violently, overcome with alarm, &c. m.

(-laḥ) 1. Quicksilver. 2. A kind of stone. 3. A fish. 4. A thief. f.

(-lā) 1. The goddess Lakshmi or fortune. 2. Lightning. 3. A whore. 4. Long pepper. 5. The tongue. 6. Spirituous liquor. 7. A species of the Arya metre. E. cap to go, affix alac or cup to move, Unadi affix kala and the radical vowel changed.

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Cāpala (चापल).—n.

(-laṃ) 1. Unsteadiness, (literally or metaphorically.) 2. Transitoriness. E. capala trembling, aṇ affix; also with yañ affix cāpalya n. (-lyaṃ.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Capala (चपल).— (i. e. kamp + ala adj., f. . 1. Trembling, unsteady, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 11, 8; [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 46. 2. Giddy, inconsiderate, [Matsyopākhyāna] 72; Mahābhārata 3, 13848. 3. Swift, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 4104; ºlam, adv. Quickly, [Daśakumāracarita] in Chr. 260, 2. 4. Wanton, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 51, 33.

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Cāpala (चापल).—i. e. capala + a, n. 1. Quickness, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 8, 12, 20. 2. Unsteadiness, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 377.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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