Vina, Vinā, Vīṇā, Vīnā: 29 definitions

Introduction

Vina means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

Vīṇā (वीणा): a Musical Instrument.—The Ṛgveda mentions that Kṣoṇī or Viṇā was the musical instrument of the Maruts. The Jātakas shed more light on the construction, size and use of this instrument. It was very popular in the period of the Jātakas. In the Rāmāyaṇa it is a favourite instrument of the songsters, and similar is the case with the Mahābhārata. Kauṭilya also mentions it. The Vāyu-purāṇa refers to Vīṇā at four places mostly associating it with Śiva and the Kurus. Of Śiva it was a pet instrument.

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Vīṇā (वीणा) refers to a “musical instruments” that existed in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Nīlamata says that the land of Kaśmīra was thronged with ever-sportive and joyful people enjoying continuous festivities. Living amidst scenes of sylvan beauty they played, danced and sang to express their joys, to mitigate their pains, to please their gods and to appease their demons.

The Nīlamata refers to Vīṇā thrice only but if the references to Tantrī-vādya be taken as referring to vīṇā, it will yield that vīṇā was resorted to most by the musicians of Kaśmīra. The modern hundredstringed santoor of Kaśmīra is probably śatatantrīvīṇā or vāṇa referred to in the Taittirīya Saṃhitā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vīṇā (वीणा).—Lute;1 presented by Sarasvatī to Skanda;2 in the garland of Umeśa, figures of apsaras with vīṇās3 in Pātālam4 in Rāma's abhiṣeka.5

  • 1) Vāyu-purāṇa 54. 35.
  • 2) Ib. 72. 46.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 260. 20.
  • 4) Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 5. 11.
  • 5) Ib. IV. 4. 100.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Vīnā (वीना, “lute”):—In Hindu iconology (śilpaśāstra), this symbol represents mastery of skills (in performing arts). The sound of the Vīnā represents creativity, which is the power of consciousness to express itself. It is also one of the items Īśāṇa is displayed carrying, who is a Vedic deity and represents the embodiment of all learning.

Source: Google Books: Elements of Hindu iconography

Vīṇā (वीणा).—It consists of a long hollow semi-cylidrical body with a number of keys on its sides. From each of these keys proceeds a string ofr wire which is stretched over the long body of the instrument and tied at the lower end. At this lower end is a square sounding box, and to the upper end a hollow gourd is attached to server as a resonator. It is played with the left hand by passing the fingers lightly over the strings and pressing them down a little in required positions. The right hand plucks the various strings periodically to suit the requirements of the musician.

Source: Google Books: Sarasvatī: Riverine Goddess of Knowledge (iconography)

Vīṇā (वीणा, “flute”).—An object being held by the four-armed Sarasvatī;—The vīṇā as Sarasvatī’s dominant, distinguishing iconographic feature found consistently in her representations to this day is of overwhelming importantce. We have already seen the instrument in connection with Vāc in the Brāhmaṇa myth of the Barter for Soma. Amongst the earlier Purāṇas, Sarasvatī’s association with the vīṇā appears also in the Vāyu-purāṇa 72.46, where she presents no kless than a ‘great-sounding great vīṇā’ to Skanda.

The Viṣṇudharmottara-purāṇa states that the vīṇā is to be known as accomplishment embodied.

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Devi

Vīnā (Lute) - Music, singing, dancing. Inner sound of spiritual harmony; the vibration of the atoms in motion, creation, the sound of the spheres, the harmony of all the diffuse elements of the cosmos.

Source: Red Zambala: Hindu Icons and Symbols | Introduction

Vīnā (Lute) - Inner sound of spiritual harmony; the vibration of the atoms in motion, creation, the sound of the spheres, the harmony of all the diffuse elements of the cosmos. Music and dancing — the arts.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

1) Vīṇā refers to a “stringed instrument”, representing one of the several “attributes” (āyudha) or “accessories” of a detiy commonly seen depicted in Hindu iconography, defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The śilpa texts have classified the various accessories under the broad heading of āyudha or karuvi (implement), including even flowers, animals, and musical instruments. The musical instruments held in the hands of deities are, for example, Vīṇā.

Vīṇā consists of a long hollow semi-cylindrical body with a number of keys on its sides. From each of these keys proceeds a string or wire, which is stretched over the long body of the instrument and tied at the lower end. At this lower end is a square sounding box, and to the upper end a hollow gourd is attached to serve as a resonator. It is played with the left hand by passing the fingers lightly over the strings and pressing them down a little in required positions. The right hand plucks the various strings periodically to suit the requirements of the musician.

2) Vīṇā (वीणा) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Vīṇaka forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Ākāśacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the ākāśacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Vīṇā] and Vīras are dark blue in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife. Alternatively, the Ḍākinīs have their own marks and motions according to the taste instead of a small drum and a skull staff.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Vīnā (वीना, “lute”).—One of the symbols that Sarasvatī is depicted as holding in one of her hands. It symbolizes the inner sound of spiritual harmony.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)

Vīṇā (वीणा) or Vīṇātantra refers to one of the twenty-three Vāmatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Vīṇā-tantra belonging to the Vāma class.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Vīṇā (वीणा) refers to a musical instrument, inhibiting various dhātus (finger techniques), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. The four dhātus relate to different aspects of strokes in playing stringed instruments (tata).

The Vīṇā produces three types of sound:

  1. tattva,
  2. anugata,
  3. ogha .
Source: Google Books: The Quest for Music Divine

Vīṇā (वीणा), one of the most beautiful instruments of Indian classical music, is not only associated with Goddess Sarasvatī, it is also the constant companion of the celestial sage Nārada, who is ubiquitous with the chanting of Lord Nārāyaṇa’s name in the three worlds... and Rudra-vīṇā, another variety of the instrument is associated with Rudradeva who is none else than, Lord Śaṅkara Himself.

The Vīṇā which used to be the common instrument of Indian music was superseded by the ‘Sitār’, ‘Sarod’ and ‘Sāraṅgī’ in the North, instruments not played at all by South Indian musicians. There the ‘vīṇā’ remains the queen of all classical music instruments.

Source: Google Books: Sanskrit Play Production in Ancient India

Vīṇā (वीणा, “lute”) was a stringed (tat) instrument. It was the principal instrument dominating the musical orchestra. Two kinds of vīṇās are mentioned in Nāṭyaśāstra: vipañcī and citrā. The former had nine strings and was played with a plektrum. The latter had seven strings and was probably played with the strokes of fingers.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Kosha (encyclopedic lexicons)

Source: Google Books: Kalātattvakośa

Vīṇā (वीणा).—The Aitareya-āraṇyaka (3.2.5) says that the body is a sound-producing organism akin to the vīṇā, a musical instrument. Indeed, the vīṇā is essentially an imitation of the body which produces musical sound (cf. Śāṅkhāyana-āraṇyaka 8.9)

context information

Kosha (कोश, kośa) refers to Sanskrit lexicons intended to provide additional information regarding technical terms used in religion, philosophy and the various sciences (shastra). The oldest extant thesaurus (kosha) dates to the 4th century AD.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Vīṇā (वीणा) refers to:—A stringed musical instrument of melodious sound, the favourite instrument of Nārada Muni and of various other celestial personalities. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: Sonic Theology: Hinduism and Sacred Sound

Vīṇā (वीणा).—Besides the singing or chanting of the Sāma-veda, instrumental music formed part of the Vedic sacrifices as well, the most important insttrument being the vīṇā, or lute, which was often played by the wife of the sacrificer. A recent study of the vīṇā has found it compared to the human body in the Aitareya-āraṇyaka.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Vīṇā (वीणा) refers to the “violin” and the deification thereof, as commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—Her Colour is yellow; her Symbol is the vīṇā instrument; she has two arms.

Vīṇā is described in the Niṣpannayogāvalī (vajraḍāka-maṇḍala) as follows:—

“Vīṇā is yellow in colour. With her two hands she plays on the musical instrument, the vīṇā”.

[All these deities are collectively described as nude, violent in appearance, wearing garlands of skulls and severed heads and dancing in pratyālīḍha. They display the different instruments as their special symbols.]

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

1) Vīṇā (वीणा) refers to a “lute” and represents one of the items held in the right hand of Heruka: one of the main deities of the Herukamaṇḍala described in the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Heruka is positioned in the Lotus (padma) at the center; He is the origin of all heroes; He has 17 faces (with three eyes on each) and 76 arms [holding, for example, vīṇā]; He is half black and half green in color; He is dancing on a flaming sun placed on Bhairava and Kālarātrī.

2) Vīṇā (वीणा) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Vīṇaka forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Ākāśacakra, according to the same work. Accordingly, the ākāśacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Vīṇā] and Vīras are dark blue in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife. Alternatively, the Ḍākinīs have their own marks and motions according to the taste instead of a small drum and a skull staff.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vīṇā.—(ASLV), a musical instrument. Cf. vīṇai-kkāṇi (SITI), right of playing on the vīṇā before the god in a temple during worship. Note: vīṇā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

vinā : (ind.) without

-- or --

vīṇā : (f.) a lute.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Vinā, (indecl.) (Vedic vinā=vi-nā (i.e. “not so”), of pron. base Idg. *no (cp. nānā “so & so”), as in Sk. ca-na, Lat. ego-ne, pō-ne behind, etc. See na1) without, used as prep. (or post-position) with (usually) Instr. e.g. Vin. II, 132 (vinā daṇḍena without a support); PvA. 152 (purisehi vinā without men); or Abl. e.g. Sn. 589 (ñāti saṅghā vinā hoti is separated from his relatives; cp. BSk. vinābhavati MVastu I. 243); or Acc. e.g. Mhvs 3, 10 (na sakkā hi taṃ vinā). In compn vinā-bhāva separation (cp. BSk. vinābhāva MVastu II. 141) Sn. 588, 805; Nd1 122; J. III, 95; IV, 155; V, 180; VI, 482 (=viyoga C.). (Page 624)

— or —

Vīṇā, (f.) (cp. Vedic vīṇā) the Indian lute, mandoline S. I, 122=Sn. 449 (kacchā bhassati “let the lyre slide down from hollow of his arm” K. S. I. 153); Th. 1, 467; S. IV, 196 (six parts); A. III, 375; J. III, 91; V, 196, 281 (named Kokanada “wolf’s howl”); VI, 465=580; Vv 6419; 8110; Miln. 53 (all its var. parts); VvA. 138, 161, 210; PvA. 151.—vīṇaṃ vādeti to play the lute Mhvs 31, 82; ThA. 203.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

viṇā (विणा).—m (Properly vīṇā q.v.) The Win̤a or Indian lute.

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viṇā (विणा).—prep (Properly vinā q.v.) Without: also except.

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vinā (विना).—prep (S) Without. vinākāraṇa Without cause or reason; vinādhāra Without foundation or support; vināparādha Without offence or fault. 2 Except. pōṭāvinā-viṇā-vīṇa-vāñcūna or annāvinā-&c. To employ or use without boarding or feeding (a servant, a beast); vastrāvinā &c. (...without clothing).

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vīṇa (वीण).—f (viṇēṃ) Littering: also the birth, brood, or litter. 2 The season or regular period of bringing forth.

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vīṇa (वीण).—f ī ē (viṇaṇēṃ) Texture, weftage, any particular texture, with respect whether to the manner of weaving, or to the quality or the form of the web.

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vīṇa (वीण).—prep (vinā S) Without: also except. See vinā.

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vīṇā (वीणा).—f (S) The Win̤a or Indian lute. It is a fretted instrument of the guitar kind, usually having seven wires or strings, and a large gourd at each end of the finger-board. There are many varieties.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vinā (विना).—prep Without. vinākāraṇa Without cause.

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vīṇa (वीण).—f Littering. The birth. Texture. prep Without.

--- OR ---

vīṇā (वीणा).—f The Indian lute.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vina (विन).—1 P. To bend oneself, stoop, be bent; विनमन्ति चास्य तरवः प्रचये (vinamanti cāsya taravaḥ pracaye) Ki.6.34; Bh.1.67; Bk.7.52. -Caus.

1) To bend (a bow).

2) (In gram.) To change into a cerebral letter.

Derivable forms: vinam (विनम्).

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Vinā (विना).—ind.

1) Without, except (with acc., instr. or abl.); यथा तानं विना रागो यथा मानं विना नृपः । यथा दानं विना हस्ती तथा ज्ञानं विना यतिः (yathā tānaṃ vinā rāgo yathā mānaṃ vinā nṛpaḥ | yathā dānaṃ vinā hastī tathā jñānaṃ vinā yatiḥ) Bv.1.119; पङ्कैर्विना सरो भाति सदः खलजनैर्विना कटुवर्णैर्विना काव्यं मानसं विषयैर्विना (paṅkairvinā saro bhāti sadaḥ khalajanairvinā kaṭuvarṇairvinā kāvyaṃ mānasaṃ viṣayairvinā) 1.116; विना वाहनहस्तिभ्यः क्रियतां सर्वमोक्षः (vinā vāhanahastibhyaḥ kriyatāṃ sarvamokṣaḥ) Mu. 7; Śi.2.9. (vinākṛ means 'to leave, abandon, bereave, deprive of'; madanena vinākṛtā ratiḥ Ku.4.21 'bereft of Cupid').

2) In the absence of; विना वचनेन अन्त्यलोप एव न्याय्यः (vinā vacanena antyalopa eva nyāyyaḥ) ŚB. on MS. 1.5.6.

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Vīṇā (वीणा).—

1) The (Indian) lute; मूकीभूतायां वीणायाम् (mūkībhūtāyāṃ vīṇāyām) K.; उत्सङ्गे वा मलिनवसने सौम्य निक्षिप्य वीणाम् (utsaṅge vā malinavasane saumya nikṣipya vīṇām) Me.88.

2) Lightning.

3) A particular configuration of stars.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vinā (विना).—Ind. Without, except. E. vi privative, aff.

--- OR ---

Vīṇā (वीणा).—f.

(-ṇā) 1. The Vina, or Indian lute, a fretted instrument of the guitar kind, usually having seven wires or strings, and a large gourd at each end of the finger board; the extent of the instrument is two octaves: it is supposed to be the invention of Narada, the son of Brahma, and has many varieties, enumerated according to the number of strings, &c. 2. Lightning. E. to go, &c., Unadi aff. na, form irr.; or aj-nak vībhāvaḥ pṛṣo0 ṇatvam .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vinā (विना).— (from vi), prep. Without, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 131; except (with acc., instr., and abl.), [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 10; [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 32, M.M.; [Pañcatantra] 250, 5; iii. [distich] 34 (na yānaṃ vinā pra śasyate, Nothing but, i. e. only, marching is recommended).

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Vīṇā (वीणा).—f. The Indian lute, [Hitopadeśa] ii. [distich] 73.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vinā (विना).—[preposition] without, except, beside ([accusative], [instrumental], or [ablative]). vinākṛta separated from, bereft of ([instrumental], abl, or —°); bhūta the same ([instrumental]); kṛtya without.

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Vīṇā (वीणा).—[feminine] lute.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vinā (विना):—or vinā ind. ([probably] a kind of [instrumental case] of 3. vi) without, except, short or exclusive of (preceded or followed by an [accusative] [instrumental case], rarely [ablative]; cf. [Pāṇini 2-3, 32]; exceptionally ifc.,[gana] e.g. śuci-vinā, without honesty, satya-v, without faith, [Subhāṣitāvali]), [Atharva-veda xx, 136, 13] (not in manuscript), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (sometimes vinā is used pleonastically, e.g. natad asti vinā deva yat te virahitaṃ hare, ‘there is nothing, O god Hari, that is without thee’ [Harivaṃśa 14966]).

2) Vīṇā (वीणा):—f. (of doubtful derivation) the Vīṇā or Indian lute (an instrument of the guitar kind, supposed to have been invented by Nārada q.v., usually having seven wires or strings raised upon nineteen frets or supports fixed on a long rounded board, towards the ends of which are two large gourds; its compass is said to be two octaves, but it has many varieties according to the number of strings etc.), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

3) (in [astrology]) a [particular] configuration of the stars (when all planets are situated in 7 houses), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

4) lightning, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Name of a Yoginī, [Catalogue(s)]

6) of a river, [Mahābhārata]

7) Vīnā (वीना):—f. Name of a river, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary] (cf. vīṇā).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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