Hari, Hāri, Harī: 40 definitions



Hari means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: humindian: 108 names of Lord Krishna

One of the 108 names of Krishna; Meaning: "The Lord Of Nature"

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Hari (हरि) refers to:—A name for Śrī kṛṣṇa that means ‘one who takes away’. (cf. Glossary page from Arcana-dīpikā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Hari (हरि) refers to:—A name of God; one who takes away; one who removes all obstacles to spiritual progress. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Hari (हरि, “bearing , carrying”):—One of the twenty-four forms of Viṣṇu through which Nārāyaṇa manifests himself. The meaning of this title is “The one who accepts oblations, or the remover of sin”. He is accompanied by a counterpart emanation of Lakṣmī (an aspect of Devī) who goes by the name Śuddhi.

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1

Hari (हरि) refers to one of the various Vibhava manifestations according to the Īśvarasaṃhitā 24.335-336.—Accordingly, “who holds a gourd and is of the colour of gold is to be meditated upon. He has the hand placed on the seat, who introduces the portion dealing with acts always reading the śāstras giving importance to Pāñcarātra”. These Vibhavas (e.g., Hari) represent the third of the five-fold manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness the Pāñcarātrins believe in.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Hari (हरि) is another name for Mahiṣa, one of the seven major mountains in Kuśadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 87. Kuśadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Vapuṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Hari (हरि).—A synonym of Viṣṇu. (See under Viṣṇu).

2) Hari (हरि).—A warrior of Subrahmaṇya. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 61).

3) Hari (हरि).—A warrior who fought on the side of the Pāṇḍavas and was killed by Karṇa.

4) Hari (हरि).—An asura, the son of Tārakākṣa, who got from Brahmā a boon enabling him to prepare Mṛtasaṅjīvanī. (a medicine to revive dead people). (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 33, Verse 27).

5) Hari (हरि).—Son of King Akaṃpana. Though he was as powerful and proficient in archery as Mahāviṣṇu, and equal in prowess to Indra in war he got into the hands of his enemies and was killed. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 27).

6) Hari (हरि).—A particular sect of the attendants of Rāvaṇa. They attacked the army of monkeys. (Vana Parva, Chapter 285).

7) Hari (हरि).—A very powerful bird born in Garuḍa’s dynasty. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 101, Verse 13).

8) Hari (हरि).—A particular species of horses. They possess long hairs on the neck and are golden in colour. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 23, Verse 13).

9) Hari (हरि).—A daughter born to Kaśyapaprajāpati by his wife Krodhavaśā. Lions and monkeys originated from this Hari. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇyakāṇḍa, Canto 14).

10) Hari (हरि).—A son of Dharmadeva. Dharmadeva begot four sons, Hari, Kṛṣṇa, Nara and Nārāyaṇa of the daughters of Dakṣa. (Devi Bhāgavata, 4th Skandha).

11) Hari (हरि).—A sect of Devas. During the Tāmasamanvantara there were four such sects, viz. Haris, Satyas, Supāras and Sudhīs. (See Manvantara).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Hari (हरि).—Praise of: by Arjuna;1 by Kuntī;2 by Bhīṣma;3 by women of Hāstinapura;4 by Śuka;5 by Brahmā;6 by Jīva in embryo;7 by Devahūtī;8 by Dakṣa and others;9 by Sunīti;10 by Dhruva;11 by Pṛthu;12 by Pracetasas;13 by Nārada;14 Rudragītā in praise of: taught by Śiva to Pracetasas;15 praise of Hari leads to attain divine knowledge and also to mokṣa;16 praise of, by Manu (Svāyambhuva),17 by Gajendra;18 by Brahmā;19 by Śiva;20 by Aditi;21 by Bali in bondage22 , by Prahlāda;23 and by Satyavrata;24 by Trayī and Upaniṣadic and Yoga literature;25 praise of: by Garuḍa;26 by Mucukunda;27 by Jāmbavat;28 by Kṛtavarman, and Akrūra;29 by Bhūmi, mother of Naraka;30 by Rukmiṇī;31 by Indra;32 by Nṛga;33 and by Rudra;34 his deeds recalled by the citizens of Mathurā;35 praise of; nature of; much in evidence in Draviḍa;36 by Nārada;37 by kings in Jarāsandha's prison, and after their release;38 by Yudhiṣṭira;39 by Ṛṣis;40 by Vasudeva, Devakī and Bali;41 by Bahulāśva;42 by Śrutadeva;43 by Śrutis (Śrutigīti);44 by gods;45 by Brahmā;46 by Uddhava;47 by Nalakūbara and Maṇigrīva;48 by Kāliya and his wives;49 by Gopis (Gopigītā);50 by Indra.51

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 7. 22-26.
  • 2) Ib. 8. 18-43.
  • 3) Ib. 9. 32-42.
  • 4) Ib. 10. 21-30.
  • 5) Ib. II. 4. 12-24; 9. 5-16.
  • 6) Ib. 9. 24-29.
  • 7) Ib. III. 12-21.
  • 8) Ib. 33. 2-8.
  • 9) Ib. IV. 7. 26-47.
  • 10) Ib. 8. 19-3.
  • 11) Ib. 9. 6-17.
  • 12) Ib. 20. 23-31.
  • 13) Ib. 30. 22-42.
  • 14) Ib. 31. 9-22[4].
  • 15) Ib. 24. 33-79.
  • 16) Ib. VII. 1. 4-5 [1-2]; 7. 31.
  • 17) Ib. VIII. 1. 9-16.
  • 18) Ib. 3. 2-29.
  • 19) Ib. 5. 26-50; 6. 8-15; 17. 25-28.
  • 20) Ib. 12. 4-13.
  • 21) 17. 8-10.
  • 22) Ib. 22. 2-11, 21-23.
  • 23) Ib. 23. 6-8.
  • 24) Ib. 24. 29-30, 46-53.
  • 25) Ib. X. 8. 45.
  • 26) Ib. X. [53v 14-16].
  • 27) Ib. 51. 46-58.
  • 28) Ib. 56. 26-8.
  • 29) Ib. 40. 1-30; 57. 12-17.
  • 30) Ib. 59. 25-31.
  • 31) Ib. 60. 34-48.
  • 32) [67 (v) 24-30].
  • 33) Ib. 60. 44; 64. 10-29.
  • 34) Ib. 63. 34-45.
  • 35) Ib. X. 43. 22-31.
  • 36) Ib. XI. 5. 32-40.
  • 37) Ib. X. 37. 9-23; 69. 17-18; 70. 37-44.
  • 38) Ib. 70. 25-30; 73. 8-16.
  • 39) Ib. 74. 2-5.
  • 40) Ib. 84. 16-26.
  • 41) Ib. 85. (whole).
  • 42) Ib. 86. 31-6.
  • 43) Ib. 86. 44-9.
  • 44) Ib. 87. 14-41.
  • 45) Ib. XI. 6. 7-19.
  • 46) Ib. 6. 21-7; X. 14. 1-40.
  • 47) Ib. 42. 49; 7. 14-18; 11. 13, 34, 36; 29. 37-40.
  • 48) Ib. X. 10. 29-38.
  • 49) Ib. 16. 33-59.
  • 50) Ib. 21. 7-19; 31. 1-19; 35. 2-25.
  • 51) Ib. 27. 4-13.

1b) A name given to Viṣṇu by Svāyambhuva Manu for saving three worlds from affliction;1 acted as Brahmā in Soma's Rājasūya;2 adhidevata for the planet Budha;3 does praṇāma every day to Śaṅkara.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 7. 2.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 23. 21.
  • 3) Ib. 93. 13; 246. 4, 34: 247. 19; 248. 36.
  • 4) Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 7; 35. 13.

1c) A son of Ṛṣabha and a Bhāgavata: expounded to Nimi the nature of a Bhāgavatottama.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 4. 11; XI. 2. 21, 45-55.

1d) An avatār born as son of Hariṇī and Harimedhas: awarded mokṣa to Gajendra.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 1. 30.

1e) Son of Vasudeva and Devakī to put down adharma.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 55-67.

1f) (Matsya).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 40. 17.

1g) (as horse) killed Madhu and Kaiṭabha.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 40. 17.

1h) (Kūrma) bore Mandara.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 40. 18.

1i) (Varāha) raised the Earth.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 40. 18; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa 5. 15.

1j) Narasimha.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 40. 19.

1k) Nirguṇa and apart from Prakṛti: makes his devotees the poorest so as to create in them a spirit of detachment: Blesses and curses: In the garb of a Brahmacārin persuaded Vṛka to test Śiva's boon on himself: Bhṛgu kicked the sleeping Hari in his chest and helped him to get united with Lakṣmī: Bhṛgu's wonder at it;1 Has root in religious performances of Brahmanas and is himself Yajña and source of all Dharma: the 25th principle: Helped Śiva in regaining his lost glory through Maya: took the form of a cow and with Brahmā as calf drank the immortalising fluid of the well in Tripura;2 Vibhūtis of;3 Brahmā born of his grace and Rudra of his wrath.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. Chh. 88-89.
  • 2) Ib. VII. 2. 11; 8. 52; 10. 51 and 62; 11. 7.
  • 3) Ib. 16. 9-40.
  • 4) Ib. XII 5. 1.

1l) avatārs of: Puruṣa as Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Rudra, Naranārāyaṇa, Haṃsa, Datta, Kumāra, Ṛṣabha, Hayagrīva, Matsya, Varāha, Kūrma, Nṛsimha, Vāmana, Paraśurāma and Rāma.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 4 (whole).

1m) In a group—form of Vāsudeva, Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna and Aniruddha: as the indwellers of sūrya: spoken of in nine forms such as time, place and so on. In the form of time, for every month seven attendants lead him;1 other attendants of.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 21 and 28, 31-44.
  • 2) Ib. XI. 27. 27-9.

1n) A Tuṣita god in the Svārociṣa and a Sādhya in the Cākṣuṣa epoch.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 15.

1o) A son of Rukmakavaca appointed over Videha with his brother Parigha.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 70. 29; Matsya-purāṇa 44. 28-9; Vāyu-purāṇa 95. 28.

1p) Same as Mahiṣa.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 122. 59.

1q) An attribute of Viṣṇu; everywhere in his universal form (Viśvarūpa).*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 2. 51; III. 8. 10; V. 1. 32; 4. 4; 13. 48, 50; 17. 8, 17; 18. 31; 20. 59; 21. 8, 11; 24. 1; 31. 20; 32. 8; 33. 11 ff; 34. 13, 17; VI. 4. 4; 8. 18, 31 ff.

1r) Mountain a chief hill of Kuśadvīpa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 44. 41.

1s) A son of Viśvāmitra.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 7. 38.

1t) The gods of the Tāmasa epoch, see Haraya.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 1. 28.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Hari (हरि) refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. ). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Hari) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Hari is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. IX.44.12, IX.44.56, VI.9.15) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

1) Hari (हरि) is another name for Viṣṇu, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—The first chapters opens with a salutation to Pinaki (Śiva) at whose biding Virañci (Prajāpati Brahmā) is the creator of the universe, Hari (Viṣṇu) is the preserver and Kāla-Rudra is the destroyer.

2) Hari (हरि) refers to one of the names for the “sun” [viz., Sūrya], according to the eulogy of the Sun by Manu in the Saurapurāṇa.—Accordingly, the Saurapurāṇa which is purely a Śaivite work, though it purports to be revealed by the Sun, contains some references to practices of Saura Sects, and here and there it identifies Śiva with the Sun. From the eulogy of the Sun by Manu it appears that the sun is the Supreme deity. He is [viz., Hari] [...] In another passage Manu while eulogizing the Sun god expresses that the Sun is another form of Lord Śiva. [...]

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Hari (हरि) refers to one of the seven regions (navakhaṇḍa) situated within Jambūdvīpa, according to Parākhyatantra 5.61. It is also known as Harikhaṇḍa. Jambūdvīpa is one of the seven continents situated within the world of the earth (pṛthivī). These continents are located above the seven pātālas and may contain even more sub-continents within them, are round in shape, and are encircled within seven concentric oceans.

According to the Parākhyatantra, “to the south of that is the landmass called Hari, which is like Ramaṇa in dimensions and in which Hari was propitiated by the serpent Śeṣa”.

In the middle of these nine regions (e.g., Hari) is situated the golden mountain named Meru which rises above the surface of the earth by 84,000 yojanas while it penetrates the circle of the earth to a depth of sixteen yojanas.

The Parākhyatantra is an old Śaiva-siddhānta tantra dating from before the 10th century.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Hari (हरि).—A short form used for भर्तृहरि (bhartṛhari), the stalwart grammarian Bhartrhari,by later grammarians and commentators in their references to him. See the word भर्तृहरि (bhartṛhari) above.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Hārī (हारी) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (e.g., hārī) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Siva Gita A Critical Study

Hari (हरि) or Harigītā refers to one of the sixty-four Gītās commonly referred to in Hindu scriptures.—Gītā is the name given to certain sacred writings in verse (often in the form of a dialogue) which are devoted to the exposition of particular religious and theosophical doctrines. Most of these Gītās [i.e., Hari-gītā] originate from the Mahābhārata or the various Purāṇas.

context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Hari (हरि) (lit. “one who is reddish brown”) is a synonym (another name) for Garuḍa, according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Sanskrit Hari is in origin a colour term for yellowish hues, including yellow, golden, yellowish-brown or reddish brown, fallow or khaki, pale yellow, greenish or green-yellow It has important symbolism in the Rigveda and hence in Hinduism; in Rigvedic symbolism, it unites the colours of Soma, the Sun, and bay horses under a single term.

The word Hari is widely used in later Sanskrit and Prakrit literature, Hindu, Buddhist, Jain and Sikh religions. It appears as 650th name of Vishnu in the Vishnu sahasranama of the Mahabharata and hence rose to special importance in Hindu Vaishnavism.

Usage in Indian religion and mythology


In Sikhism, it is the holy symbol consisting of the three Gurmukhi letters and is used as "हरि" "ਹਰਿ". The Guru Granth Sahib which Sikhs revere as their 11th guru contains this word more than 8500 times.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

See Harayo.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Hari (हरि) is the name of a deity summoned by the Yamāntaka-mantra and mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Hari).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Hari (हरि).—One of the seven regions (kṣetra) of Jambūdvīpa according to Jaina cosmology. Jambūdvīpa sits at the centre of madhyaloka (‘middle world’) is the most important of all continents and it is here where human beings reside. In Hari flows the twin rivers Harit and Harikāntā.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Hari (हरि) and Harisaha are the two Indras of the Vidyutkumāras who came to the peak of Meru for partaking in the birth-ceremonies of Ṛṣabha, according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

2) Hari (हरि) refers to a sub-division of the Jātyārya class of Āryas (one of the two types of human beings), taking birth in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3.—Accordingly, “In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. The Āryas have sub-divisions: kṣetra (country), jāti (caste), kula (family), karma (work), śilpa (craft), and bhāṣā (language). [...] The Jātyāryas are the Ikṣvākus, Jñātas, Haris, Videhas, Kurus, Ugras, Bhojas, and Rājanyas”.

3) Hari (हरि) and Hariṇī were are later incarnations of Sumukha nad Vanamālā, according to chapter 6.7 [śrī-munisuvratanātha-caritra].—Accordingly:—“ [...] As they [i.e., Sumukha and Vanamālā] were blaming themselves and praising those devoted to dharma, a stroke of lightning struck them and killed them. [...] Because of the development of their mutual affection and of their pure meditation, after death they became twins in Harivarṣa. Their parents named them Hari and Hariṇī and they were never separated day or night, husband and wife as in the former birth. Their wishes were fulfilled by the ten wishing-trees and they remained there happily, enjoying themselves like gods.[...]”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Hari (हरि) or Harivarṣa refers to a region of Jambūdvīpa: the first continent of the Madhya-loka (middle-word), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.10. The green (harit) colour of the bodies of inhabitants of the 3rd region is the cause for assigning it the name Harivarṣa. The mountain chain Mahāhimavān separates the Haimavata and Harivarṣa. The mountain chain Niṣadha separates the Harivarṣa and Videha regions. Harit and Harit-Kāntā rivers divide Harivarṣa-kṣetra.

The life span of inhabitants of Haimavat, Harivarṣa and Devakuru beings is one, two and three palyopama. The five Harivarsia regions in which inhabitants live have a happy period (2nd time period) always. There the inhabitants have a life span of two palya, height of their bodies is 4000 bows, they take food once after an interval of two days, and the body are of white colour (like conch shell).

Jambūdvīpa (containing the Hari region) is in the centre of all continents and oceans; all continents and oceans are concentric circles with Jambūdvīpa in the centre. Like the navel is in the centre of the body, Jambūdvīpa is in the centre of all continents and oceans. Sumeru Mount is in the centre of Jambūdvīpa. It is also called Mount Sudarśana.

Source: WikiPedia: Jainism

Hari (हरि) is another name for the nine Vāsudevas (or Viṣṇu, Nārāyaṇa), referring to a set of nine “heroes” and counterpart of the antagonistic Prativāsudevas (or Prativiṣṇus, Pratinārāyaṇas), mentioned in both Śvetāmbara and Digambara literature.—In every half time cycle, there are 9 sets of Balabhadras (gentle heroes), Vasudevas (violent heroes) and Prativāsudevas (anti-heroes). Unlike in the Hindu Puranas, the names Balabhadra and Narayana are not restricted to Balarama and Krishna in Jain Puranas. Instead they serve as names of two distinct classes of mighty half brothers, who appear nine times in each half of the time cycles of the Jain cosmology and jointly rule half the earth as half-chakravarti. Ultimately Pratinaryana is killed by Narayana for his unrighteousness and immorality.

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context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Hari (हरि) is an example of a Vaiṣṇavite name mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. Classification of personal names according to deities (e.g., from Vaiṣṇavism) were sometimes used by more than one person and somehow seem to have been popular. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Derivation of personal names (e.g., Hari) during the rule of the Guptas followed patterns such as tribes, places, rivers and mountains.

Source: What is India: Epigraphia Indica volume XXXI (1955-56)

Harī is one of the Brāhmaṇa donees mentioned in the “Asankhali plates of Narasiṃha II” (1302 A.D.). When a grant was made to a large number of Brāhmaṇas, the chief amongst the donees seems to have been called Pānīyagrāhin especially. In the present record, though all the donees (e.g., Harī) are referred to as Pāṇigrāhi-mahājana, their list is headed by a Brāhmaṇa with Pāṇigrahī as his surname.

These copper plates (mentioning Harī) were discovered from the house of a Santal inhabitant of Pargana Asankhali in the Mayurbhanj State (Orissa). It was made when king Vīra-Narasiṃhadeva was staying at the Bhairavapura-kaṭaka (city, camp or residence).

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

hari : (aor. of harati) carried; took away; plundered; stealed. (m.), the God Vishnu.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Hāri, (adj.) (fr. hṛ; cp. Sk. hāri) attractive, charming S.IV, 316; J.I, 204 (°sadda). (Page 731)

— or —

Hari, (adj.) (Idg. *ĝhel, as in Lat. helvus yellow, holus cabbage; Sk. harita, hariṇa pale (yellow or green), hiri (yellow); Av. ƶairi; Gr. xlόos green, xlόh “greens”; Ags. geolo=E. yellow. Also the words for “gold”: hāṭaka & hiraṇya) green, tawny Dhs.617; DhsA.317; °-ssavaṇṇa gold-coloured J.II, 33 (=hari-samāna-vaṇṇa suvaṇṇa° C.).

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context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

hari (हरि).—m (S) A name of Vishn̤u, or as considered to be the same deity, of Krishn̤a. 2 In Sanskrit, and, accordingly, in old Prakrit books, the word signifies A horse; a lion; an ape or monkey; a frog; the sun; the god Indra; the god Yama; air or wind; the moon; a ray of light; a parrot; a snake; one of the nine Warsha or divisions of the earth.

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harī (हरी).—f (hāra) A line or row (as of trees, standing crops &c.) Used restrictedly.

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hārī (हारी).—f (Commonly hāra) A line or row.

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hārī (हारी).—a (S) That takes away or from; that seizes, plunders, robs; that bears off or removes generally; as duḥkhahārī, jvarahārī, rōṅgahārī, kāma- hārī, krōdhahārī, lōbhahārī, cintāhārī, santāpahārī, pāpahārī, puṇyahārī. See others under hāraka. 2 That carries away (the mind or affections); delightful, charming, captivating.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

hari (हरि).—m A name of Vishnu. A lion. A horse. An ape. The God Indra.

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harī (हरी).—f A lion or row.

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hārī (हारी).—a That takes away or from, that ravishes, robs.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Hari (हरि).—a. [hṛ-in]

1) Green, greenish-yellow; हरिता हरिभिः शष्पैरिन्द्रगोपैश्च लोहिताः (haritā haribhiḥ śaṣpairindragopaiśca lohitāḥ) Bhāg.1.2.11.

2) Tawny, bay, reddish-brown (kapila); हरियुग्यं रथं तस्मै प्रजिघाय पुरंदरः (hariyugyaṃ rathaṃ tasmai prajighāya puraṃdaraḥ) R. 12.84;3.43.

3) Yellow; महोरगवराहाद्य हरिकेश विभो जय (mahoragavarāhādya harikeśa vibho jaya) Mb.6.65.52;3.42.7.

-riḥ 1 Name of Viṣṇu; हरिर्यथैकः- पुरुषोत्तमः स्मृतः (hariryathaikaḥ- puruṣottamaḥ smṛtaḥ) R.3.49.

2) Name of Indra; प्रजिधाय समाधि- भेदिनीं हरिरस्मै हरिणीं सुराङ्गनाम् (prajidhāya samādhi- bhedinīṃ harirasmai hariṇīṃ surāṅganām) R.8.79;3.55,68.

3) Name of Śiva.

4) Name of Brahman.

5) Name of Yama.

6) The sun; एवं स्तुतः स भगवान् वाजिरूपधरो हरिः (evaṃ stutaḥ sa bhagavān vājirūpadharo hariḥ) Bhāg.12. 6.73.

7) The moon.

8) A man.

9) A ray of light.

1) Fire.

11) Wind; तासां तु वचनं श्रुत्वा हरिः परमकोपनः । प्रविश्य सर्वगात्राणि बभञ्ज भगवान् प्रभुः (tāsāṃ tu vacanaṃ śrutvā hariḥ paramakopanaḥ | praviśya sarvagātrāṇi babhañja bhagavān prabhuḥ) || Rām.1.32.23.

12) A lion; करिणामरिणा हरिणा हरिणाली हन्यतां नु कथम् (kariṇāmariṇā hariṇā hariṇālī hanyatāṃ nu katham) Bv.1. 5,51.

13) A horse; ततः कदाचिद्धरिसंप्रयुक्तं महेन्द्रवाहं सहसोपयातम् (tataḥ kadāciddharisaṃprayuktaṃ mahendravāhaṃ sahasopayātam) Mb.3.165.1; Śukra.4.946.

14) A horse of Indra; सत्यमतीत्य हरितो हरींश्च वर्तन्ते वाजिनः (satyamatītya harito harīṃśca vartante vājinaḥ) Ś.1;7.7.

15) An ape, a monkey; व्रयर्थं यत्र कपीन्द्रसख्यमपि मे वीर्यं हरीणां वृथा (vrayarthaṃ yatra kapīndrasakhyamapi me vīryaṃ harīṇāṃ vṛthā) U.3.45; शत्रुर्वर्जधरात्मजेन हरिणा घोरेण घानिष्यते (śatrurvarjadharātmajena hariṇā ghoreṇa ghāniṣyate) Mv. 4.6; R.12.57.

16) The cuckoo.

17) A frog.

18) A parrot.

19) A snake.

2) The tawny green or yellow colour.

21) A peacock.

22) Name of the poet Bhartṛhari.

23) The sign of the zodiac, Leo.

24) An organ of sense (indriya); युक्ता ह्यस्य हरयः शता दशेति (yuktā hyasya harayaḥ śatā daśeti) Bṛ. Up.2.5. 19.

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Hāri (हारि).—a. Attraction, captivating, pleasing, charming.

-riḥ f.

1) Defeat.

2) Losing a game.

3) A body of travellers, caravan.

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Hārī (हारी).—f. A pearl; L. D. B.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Hari (हरि).—m., (1) name of a nāga king: May 246.32; (2) (m. or f.) a high number: Mahāvyutpatti 7868, cited from Gaṇḍavyūha 133.13; = harisa, v.l. hārisa, m., Mahāvyutpatti 7740; Tibetan thiṅ yug in both Mahāvyutpatti citations; in Gaṇḍavyūha 106.3 represented by harita.

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Hāri (हारि).—(-hāri), acc. adv. (udaka)-hāriṃ, as quasi-ger. ex-pressing purpose, to fetch water: Mahāvastu ii.65.10, etc. (see § 35.6).

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Hārī (हारी).—(Sanskrit Lex. id.; perhaps once in late Sanskrit, see Schmidt), pearl: hārī strīviṣaye Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.13.13, a pearl among women.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hari (हरि).—mfn. (-riḥ-riḥ-ri) 1. Green, greenish. 2. Tawny. 3. Yellow. m.

(-riḥ) 1. Vishnu, or as considered to be the same deity, with Krishna. 2. Yama. 3. Air, wind. 4. Indra. 5. The moon. 6. The sun. 7. A lion. 8. A ray of light 9. A horse. 10. A parrot. 11. An ape. 12. A snake. 13. A frog. 14. Siva. 15. One of the nine Varshas into which the known continent is divided. 16. Brahma. 17. Fire. 18. The Kokila or Indian cuckoo. 19. A goose. 20. A peacock. 21. Green, (the colour.) 22. Tawny, (the colour.) 23. A golden colour, or yellow. 24. A horse of Indra. 25. A name of the poet Bhartrihari. 26. A learned man. E. hṛ to take, to seize, (the world or men’s hearts, &c.,) Unadi aff. in .

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Hāri (हारि).—mfn. (-riḥ-riḥ or -rī-ri) Handsome, charming. f.

(-riḥ) 1. Defeat, discomfiture, either in war or gambling, &c. 2. A traveller’s progeny or family. 3. A caravan. f. (-rī) A pearl. E. hṛ to take or steal, causal v., aff. in; ṅīṣ added optionally in the fem. form.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hari (हरि).— (curtailed harit), I. adj. 1. Green. 2. Tawny. 3. Yellow, [Indralokāgamana] 1, 7; [Arjunasamāgama] 4, 12. Ii. m. 1. Green, tawny, yellow, the colour. 2. Viṣṇu or Kṛṣṇa, [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 28, M. M.; [Pañcatantra] pr. [distich] 1. 3. Indra, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 156. 4. Śiva. 5. Yama. 6. The sun, [Mālatīmādhava, (ed. Calc.)] 149, 1. 7. The moon. 8. A ray of light. 9. Fire. 10. Wind. 11. A horse (of Indra; cf. the ved. use of harit, and [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 6, 5); [Arjunasamāgama] 4, 32. 12. A lion, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 16. 13. A parrot. 14. The Indian cuckoo. 15. A peacock. 16. A goose. 17. An ape, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 84, 9. 18. A frog. 19. A snake. 20. One of the varṣas, or divisions, into which the continent is divided.

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Hāri (हारि).—I. i. e. hṛ + i, adj. Handsome. Ii. f. 1. A caravan. 2. Defeat in war or gambling. Iii. f. , A pearl.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hari (हरि).—[adjective] fallow, yellowish, greenish. [masculine] horse, [especially] the steeds of Indra (2, but also 20-200), lion, ape, the sun, fire, wind, [Epithet] of Viṣṇu, Indra etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Hari (हरि) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—a common abbreviation for Bhartṛhari, as the author of the Vākyapadīya.

2) Hari (हरि):—guru of Kṛṣṇa Bhaṭṭa Ārḍe (Gādādharīvivṛti). Hall. p. 31.

3) Hari (हरि):—son of Nāḍiga, father of Soma, father of Mahādeva, father of Goṇiga, father of Acyuta (Rasasaṃgrahasiddhānta). W. p. 294.

4) Hari (हरि):—of Gurjara, father of Devadatta (Dhāturatnamālā). Oxf. 320^b.

5) Hari (हरि):—son of Kṛṣṇa, son of Ananta, father of Ananta, grandfather of Nārāyaṇa (Muhūrtamārtaṇḍa 1572). Oxf. 335^a.

6) Hari (हरि):—poet. Padyāvalī.

7) Hari (हरि):—a writer on Alaṃkāra (in Prākṛt). Quoted by Nami on Kāvyālaṃkāra 2, 19.

8) Hari (हरि):—Āśaucamrṇaya.

9) Hari (हरि):—Padakaumudī [grammatical]

10) Hari (हरि):—Pramāṇapramoda [nyāya]

11) Hari (हरि):—Śivārādhanadīpikā.

12) Hari (हरि):—Saptapadārthīvyākhyā.

13) Hari (हरि):—Sahṛdaya [dharma]

14) Hari (हरि):—Haihayendrakāvya and—[commentary].

15) Hari (हरि):—father of Somanātha (Ramalasikatā).

16) Hari (हरि):—Āśaucadaśkaṭīkā.

17) Hari (हरि):—son of Narasiṃha: Kṛṣṇāmṛtaṭīkā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Hari (हरि):—[from hara] 1. hari mfn. (for 2. See [column]3) bearing, carrying (See dṛti and nātha-h).

2) Hārī (हारी):—[from hāra > hara] f. a pearl, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] a girl of bad reputation (unfit for marriage), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] a kind of metre, [Colebrooke]

5) Hāri (हारि):—[from hara] m. = hāra1 (See aṅga-h)

6) [v.s. ...] a caravan, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] losing a game (in gambling), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] mfn. captivating, charming, beautiful, [Horace H. Wilson]

9) Hari (हरि):—2. hari mfn. ([probably] [from] a lost √hṛ, ‘to be yellow or green’; for 1. hari See above, [column]2) fawn-coloured, reddish brown, brown, tawny, pale yellow, yellow, fallow, bay ([especially] applied to horses), green, greenish, [Ṛg-veda] etc., etc.

10) m. yellow or reddish brown or green (the colour), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) a horse, steed ([especially] of Indra), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

12) a lion, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

13) the sign of the zodiac Leo, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

14) the sun, [ib.]

15) = hari-nakṣatra, [ib.]

16) a monkey, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

17) ([cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] also, a ray of light; the moon; Phaseolus Mungo; a jackal; a parrot; a peacock; the Koil or Indian cuckoo; a goose; a frog; a snake; fire)

18) the wind or Name of Vāyu (god of the wind), [Rāmāyaṇa]

19) of Indra, [ib.] etc.

20) ([especially]) Name of Viṣṇu-Kṛṣṇa (in this sense thought by some to be derived from √hṛ, ‘to take away or remove evil or sin’), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

21) of Brahmā, [Taittirīya-āraṇyaka]

22) of Yama, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

23) of Śiva, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

24) of Śukra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) of Su-parṇa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

26) of a son of Garuḍa, [Mahābhārata]

27) of a Rākṣasa, [ib.]

28) of a Dānava, [Harivaṃśa]

29) of a son of Akampana (or Anukampana), [Mahābhārata]

30) of a son of Tārakākṣa, [ib.]

31) of a son of Parājit, [Harivaṃśa]

32) of a son of Parāvṛt, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

33) of a worshipper of Viṣṇu, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

34) of various authors and scholars ([especially] of the poet Bhartṛ-hari as the author of the Vākya-padīya; also with miśra, bhaṭṭa, dīkṣita etc.), [Catalogue(s)]

35) of a mountain, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

36) of a world (cf. hari-varṣa), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

37) of a metre, [Colebrooke]

38) of a [particular] high number, [Buddhist literature]

39) [plural] men, people (= manuṣyāḥ), [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska ii, 3]

40) a [particular] class of gods under Manu Tāmasa, [Purāṇa]

41) Harī (हरी):—[from hari] f. Name of the mythical mother of the monkeys, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

42) Hari (हरि):—cf. [Latin] holus, helvus, fulvus; [Lithuanian] żálias, żélti; [Slavonic or Slavonian] zelenŭ; [German] gëlo, gelb; [English] yellow.

43) 3. hari ind. (for 1. See p. 1289, col. 2; for 2, [ib., [column]3]) an exclamation (‘alas!’), [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Hari (हरि):—[(riḥ-riḥ-ri) a.] Green; tawny; yellow. m. Vishnu; Krishna; name of a number of yellow, green or tawny objects; as, fire, moon, sun; parrot, peacock, snake, lion, &c.

2) Hāri (हारि):—(riḥ) 2. f. Defeat; a traveller’s family. f. (ī) A pearl. a. Handsome, captivating.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Hari (हरि) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Hari, Hāri, Hārī.

[Sanskrit to German]

Hari in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Hari (हरि):—(nm) Lord Vishnu/Krishna; —[icchā] the will of God; •[balavāna] inevitable is the will of God; -[kathā] the tales of God's incarnations and activities; -[kīrtana] individual or collective singing of the eulogies of [hari; ~tālikā] the third day of the bright fortnight of the month of [bhādoṃ] when women observe fast; ~[dhāma] the heaven—abode of [hari; ~nāma] name(s) of [hari; 0 smaraṇa] remembering the names of [hari; -bhakti] devotion to [hari; -maṃdira] a temple of [hari; ~līlā] the playful sport of [hari; -smaraṇa] remembering [hari; -hara] Lords Vishnu and Shiv.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Hari (हरि) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Hari.

2) Hari (हरि) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Hari.

3) Hari (हरि) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Harit.

4) Hāri (हारि) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Hāri.

5) Hāri (हारि) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Hārin.

6) Hārī (हारी) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Hārī.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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