Marut: 18 definitions

Introduction

Marut means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Marut (मरुत्).—The demigod associates of King Indra, the gods of the air. They number forty-nine and are sons of Diti.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Marut (मरुत्) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “storm deities”. Acording to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.82-88, when Brahmā, Indra and all other gods went to inspect the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) designed by Viśvakarmā, he assigned different deities for the protection of the playhouse itself, as well as for the objects relating to dramatic performance (prayoga).

As such, Brahmā assigned the Maruts to the protection of the four corners of the main building. The protection of the playhouse was enacted because of the jealous Vighnas (malevolent spirits), who began to create terror for the actors.

2) Marut is also to be worshipped during raṅgapūjā, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.1-8. Accordingly, the master of the dramatic art who has been initiated for the purpose shall consecrate the playhouse after he has made obeisance (eg., to Marut).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Marut (मरुत्) refers to a group of deities that was once worshipped in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Various groups of the deities like Ādityas, Vasus, Sādhyas, Viśvedevas and Maruts have their place in the pantheon of the Nīlamata but nothing significant is said about them.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Marut (मरुत्).—In the Purāṇas there are references to 49 gods who are known as "Maruts". All of them are the sons of Kaśyapa. The story of how the child in Diti’s womb was cut into 49 pieces which became 49 Maruts. is given in Chapter 71 of Vāmana Purāṇa as follows:

Kaśyapa’s first wife Aditi became the mother of Devas and his second wife Diti became the mother of Daityas. The chief of the Devas was Indra and the chiefs of Daityas were Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu. At the request of Indra, Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu were slain by Mahāviṣṇu. Diti who was grieved at the death of her sons, approached Kaśyapa and requested him to give her a son who would be strong enough to kill Indra. Kaśyapa told her that if she could perform tapas for 10,000 Divyavarṣas with due observances, she would get a son who would be able to kill Indra and conquer the three worlds. He gave her a long list of conditions to be observed during the tapas, some of which were as follows:—Do not injure any creature; do not curse; do not tell lies; do not cut nails or hair; do not touch any unclean object; do not get angry, do not speak to wicked people; do not wear soiled clothes; do not wear garlands used by others; do not eat what is left over by another; do not eat meat touched by a Śūdra woman. Putting on clean, white dress, carrying auspicious substances, everyday before breakfast, cows, Brāhmaṇas, goddess Lakṣmī and Kaśyapa himself should be worshipped." This observance is known as "Puṃsavana." He said that if she performed the tapas with this austere observance, a son capable of killing Indra would be born to her. (See full article at Story of Maruts from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Marut (मरुत्) refers to one of the eight guardians of the quarters, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Śiva said to Sitā:—“[...] the different parts of the mountain Meru seem to be echoing the pleasing sweet sounds of bees etc. which cause the incitement of love of the guardians of the quarters viz. Indra, Kubera, Yama, Varuṇa, Agni, Nirṛti, Marut (Wind) and the Supreme lord (Īśa). Heaven, the abode of the Devas is stationed on the summits of the Meru wherein the cities of the guardians of the quarters are also situated. They are brilliant. Beautiful celestial damsels, Rambhā, Śacī, Menakā and others heighten their glory”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Marut (मरुत्).—Fortynine in number, born of Diti and Kaśyapa; seven in each of the seven vātaskandhas; brothers of Indra and participators in sacrifices;1 when Diti conceived a son to be the slayer of Indra, the latter began to serve her throughout her pregnancy. Once finding that she did not keep to her vows he entered her womb and cut the foetus into 49 pieces, when they cried. He said to them mā ruda and hence māruta: being divine, were born as 49 sons: at the request of their mother Indra made them a devagaṇa, called Marutgaṇa.2 Gods of the Vaivasvata epoch, Indra being their overlord: requested Soma to give up Tārā to Bṛhaspati.3 Fought with Nivātakavacas in the Devāsura war: mounted guards in Marutta's yajñas nourished Bharadvāja abandoned by Mamatā and gave him to Bharata as his son;4 helped Indra in the heavy downpour on Nandavraja: went with the gods to Dvārakā to request Kṛṣṇa to go back to Vaikuṇṭha;5 Fathers of Śobhavatya group of Apsarasas; presiding deity of Kālopanata mūrchana; line in Bhuvarloka and Lokāloka: perform śrāddha;6 are worshipped for lasting strength (ojas).7 Their service in the battle of Tripuram: Shaken by Hiraṇyakaśipu; glad at Hari's attack on the Asuras;8 attained siddhi at Siddeśvaram;9 companions of those who are devoted to their brothers;10 brought up Bharadvāja, son of Bṛhaspati.11

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 18. 19, 23-77: VIII. 13. 4: Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 79, 90, 99, 104: Matsya-purāṇa 6. 47; 163. 22-3.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa Ch. 7.
  • 3) Ib. 8. 4: 9. 29: 23. 35: 36. 1.
  • 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 10. 17: IX. 2. 28; 20. 35-9: Matsya-purāṇa 49. 15, 25-30: 58. 33.
  • 5) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 25. 7: XI. 6. 2.
  • 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 20: 61. 46: IV. 2. 27, 197: III. 10. 110.
  • 7) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 3. 8.
  • 8) Matsya-purāṇa 58. 33: 132. 3; 137. 18; 172. 14-44; 174. 32.
  • 9) Ib. 191. 117; 246. 60.
  • 10) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 5. 31.
  • 11) Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 139-51.

1b) One of the Marut gaṇas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 128.
Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

1( Marut (मरुत्) refers to the son of Marutvatī: one of the daughters of Dakṣa given to Dharma in marriage, according to one account of Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Dakṣa gets married to Asikni, the daughter of Prajāpati Viraṇa and begot sixty daughters. [He gave ten daughters to Dharma in marriage] [...] The ten wives of Dharma are Sādhyā, Viśvā, Saṃkalpā, Muhūrtā, Arundhatī, Marutvatī, Vasu, Bhūnu, Lambā and Jāmī. Marutvatī gave birth to the Maruts.

2) Marut (मरुत्) refers to a group of deities in the Vaivasvatamanvantara.—Accordingly, “The present, the seventh manvantara is Vaivasvata [viz., vaivasvatamanvantara]. In this manvantara, Purandara is the Indra who is the Subduer of the pride of the Asuras; The gods are the Ādityas, the Rudras, the Vasus and the Maruts. The seven seers are Vasiṣṭha, Kaśyapa, Atri, Jamadagni, Gautama, Viśvāmitra and Bharadvāja.”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Marut (मरुत्):—Another name for Vāyu, a Vedic deity representing the cosmic life breath (the universal spirit). The name Marut means “he without whom one dies”.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

The Maruts are the sons of Diti, and the companions of Indra, the King of the Devas. Their mother had sought a boon from their father Kashyapa that the son to be born to her should be the slayer of Indra. The sage granted her wish, but with the proviso that she had to observe a rigid vow known as the Pumsvana for the period of her pregnancy.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Marut (मरुत्) refers to a class of kimpuruṣa deities according to the Śvetāmbara tradition, while the Digambara does not recognize this class. The kimpuruṣas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas). The kimpuruṣas are are golden in appearance according to Digambara, but white in complexion with very bright faces according to Śvetāmbara.

The deities such as the Maruts are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras

Marut or Marutkṣetra is the name of a village mentioned in the “Panhāle plates of Vikramāditya”. Marutkṣetra is evedently Muruḍ in the Kolābā District. It is probably identical Muru mentioned in the Cānje inscription (No. 22).

These copper plates (mentioning Marut) were found at Panhāle in the Dāpolī-tālukā of the Ratnāgiri District. It records a grant made by Aparāditya for the spiritual welfare of his son, the prince (Kumāra) Vikramāditya. It was made by Aparāditya on the occasion of a lunar eclipse, on Monday, the 15th tithi of the bright fortnight of Āśvina in the expired Śaka year 1061.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

marut (मरुत्).—m (S) A demigod of a class (marudgaṇa m The Immortals) comprising forty-nine.

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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Marut (मरुत्).—m. [mṛ-uti Uṇ.1.94]

1) Wind, air, breeze; दिशः प्रसेदुर्मरुतो ववुः सुखाः (diśaḥ prasedurmaruto vavuḥ sukhāḥ) R.3.14.

2) Vital air or breath, life-wind; (vaśamanayat) अपरः प्रणिधानयोग्यया मरुतः पञ्च शरीर- गोचरान् (aparaḥ praṇidhānayogyayā marutaḥ pañca śarīra- gocarān) R.8.19; Ku.3.48.

3) The god of wind; इति दर्शितविक्रियं सुतं मरुतः कोपपरीतमानसम् (iti darśitavikriyaṃ sutaṃ marutaḥ kopaparītamānasam) Ki.2.25.

4) A god, deity; वैमानिकानां मरुतामपश्यदाकृष्टलीलान्नरलोकपालान् (vaimānikānāṃ marutāmapaśyadākṛṣṭalīlānnaralokapālān) R.6.1; 12.11.

5) A kind of plant (maruvaka).

6) Gold.

7) Beauty. -n. A kind of plant (granthiparṇa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Marut (मरुत्).—(compare next) = maru (2), god: marutaḥ, n. pl., Lalitavistara 93.10; Mahāvastu ii.28.6; nara-marutaś (v.l. °tāṃś), acc. pl., Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 251.5; marut-, stem in composition, Mahāvastu iii.82.9; Lalitavistara 44.3; 124.3 (prose); Avadāna-śataka i.67.7 ff. (prose); marud, n. sg., Lalitavistara 113.16; marud, perhaps n. pl., Lalitavistara 113.19 (§§ 15.16; 23.10); marut'(as) āgata (= °tāḥ) Lalitavistara 114.20; marutaivam = maruta(ḥ) evam Lalitavistara 115.3. All these verses except as indi- cated. This meaning seems essentially Buddh. (in Sanskrit Lex. and Raghuvaṃśa 12.101).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Marut (मरुत्).—m. (-rut) 1. Wind, air, or its deified personification. 2. A deity, an immortal. n. (-ruta) A sort of perfume, commonly Grant'hiparna. f. (-rut) A kind of grass, (Trigonella corniculata.) E. mṛ to die, Unadi aff. uti .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Marut (मरुत्).— (vb. mṛ ?), I. m. 1. pl. The deities of wind, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 36. 2. Wind, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 353. 3. Air, Bhā- ṣāp. 2. Ii. n. A sort of perfume.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Marut (मरुत्).—[masculine] wind, god of the wind (only [plural]), breath, air.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Marut (मरुत्):—m. [plural] ([probably] the ‘flashing or shining ones’; cf. marīci and [Greek] μαρμαίρω) the storm-gods (Indra’s companions and sometimes e.g. [Raghuvaṃśa xii, 101] = devāḥ, the gods or deities in general; said in the Veda to be the sons of Rudra and Pṛśni q.v., or the children of heaven or of ocean; and described as armed with golden weapons id est. lightnings and thunderbolts, as having iron teeth and roaring like lions, as residing in the north, as riding in golden cars drawn by ruddy horses sometimes called Pṛṣatīḥ q.v.; they are reckoned in [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska v, 5] among the gods of the middle sphere, and in [Ṛg-veda viii, 96, 8] are held to be three times sixty in number; in the later literature they are the children of Diti, either seven or seven times seven in number, and are sometimes said to be led by Mātariśvan), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) the god of the wind (father of Hanumat and regent of the north-west quarter of the sky), [Kirātārjunīya; Rājataraṅgiṇī] (cf. [compound])

3) wind, air, breath (also applied to the five winds in the body), [Kāvya literature; Purāṇa] etc.

4) a species of plant, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

5) = ṛtvij, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska iii, 18]

6) gold, [ib. i, 2]

7) beauty, [ib. iii, 7]

8) Name of a Sādhya, [Harivaṃśa]

9) of the prince Bṛhad-ratha, [Maitrī-upaniṣad]

10) f. Trigonella Corniculata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) n. a kind of fragrant substance (= granthi-parṇa), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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