Marut; 11 Definition(s)

Introduction

Marut means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana

[Marut in Purana glossaries]

Marut (मरुत्) refers to a group of deities that was once worshipped in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Various groups of the deities like Ādityas, Vasus, Sādhyas, Viśvedevas and Maruts have their place in the pantheon of the Nīlamata but nothing significant is said about them.

(Source): archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Marut (मरुत्).—In the Purāṇas there are references to 49 gods who are known as "Maruts". All of them are the sons of Kaśyapa. The story of how the child in Diti’s womb was cut into 49 pieces which became 49 Maruts. is given in Chapter 71 of Vāmana Purāṇa as follows:

Kaśyapa’s first wife Aditi became the mother of Devas and his second wife Diti became the mother of Daityas. The chief of the Devas was Indra and the chiefs of Daityas were Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu. At the request of Indra, Hiraṇyākṣa and Hiraṇyakaśipu were slain by Mahāviṣṇu. Diti who was grieved at the death of her sons, approached Kaśyapa and requested him to give her a son who would be strong enough to kill Indra. Kaśyapa told her that if she could perform tapas for 10,000 Divyavarṣas with due observances, she would get a son who would be able to kill Indra and conquer the three worlds. He gave her a long list of conditions to be observed during the tapas, some of which were as follows:—Do not injure any creature; do not curse; do not tell lies; do not cut nails or hair; do not touch any unclean object; do not get angry, do not speak to wicked people; do not wear soiled clothes; do not wear garlands used by others; do not eat what is left over by another; do not eat meat touched by a Śūdra woman. Putting on clean, white dress, carrying auspicious substances, everyday before breakfast, cows, Brāhmaṇas, goddess Lakṣmī and Kaśyapa himself should be worshipped." This observance is known as "Puṃsavana." He said that if she performed the tapas with this austere observance, a son capable of killing Indra would be born to her. (See full article at Story of Maruts from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Marut (मरुत्).—Fortynine in number, born of Diti and Kaśyapa; seven in each of the seven vātaskandhas; brothers of Indra and participators in sacrifices;1 when Diti conceived a son to be the slayer of Indra, the latter began to serve her throughout her pregnancy. Once finding that she did not keep to her vows he entered her womb and cut the foetus into 49 pieces, when they cried. He said to them mā ruda and hence māruta: being divine, were born as 49 sons: at the request of their mother Indra made them a devagaṇa, called Marutgaṇa.2 Gods of the Vaivasvata epoch, Indra being their overlord: requested Soma to give up Tārā to Bṛhaspati.3 Fought with Nivātakavacas in the Devāsura war: mounted guards in Marutta's yajñas nourished Bharadvāja abandoned by Mamatā and gave him to Bharata as his son;4 helped Indra in the heavy downpour on Nandavraja: went with the gods to Dvārakā to request Kṛṣṇa to go back to Vaikuṇṭha;5 Fathers of Śobhavatya group of Apsarasas; presiding deity of Kālopanata mūrchana; line in Bhuvarloka and Lokāloka: perform śrāddha;6 are worshipped for lasting strength (ojas).7 Their service in the battle of Tripuram: Shaken by Hiraṇyakaśipu; glad at Hari's attack on the Asuras;8 attained siddhi at Siddeśvaram;9 companions of those who are devoted to their brothers;10 brought up Bharadvāja, son of Bṛhaspati.11

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 18. 19, 23-77: VIII. 13. 4: Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 79, 90, 99, 104: Matsya-purāṇa 6. 47; 163. 22-3.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa Ch. 7.
  • 3) Ib. 8. 4: 9. 29: 23. 35: 36. 1.
  • 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 10. 17: IX. 2. 28; 20. 35-9: Matsya-purāṇa 49. 15, 25-30: 58. 33.
  • 5) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 25. 7: XI. 6. 2.
  • 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 20: 61. 46: IV. 2. 27, 197: III. 10. 110.
  • 7) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 3. 8.
  • 8) Matsya-purāṇa 58. 33: 132. 3; 137. 18; 172. 14-44; 174. 32.
  • 9) Ib. 191. 117; 246. 60.
  • 10) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 5. 31.
  • 11) Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 139-51.

1b) One of the Marut gaṇas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 128.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

[Marut in Natyashastra glossaries]

1) Marut (मरुत्) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “storm deities”. Acording to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.82-88, when Brahmā, Indra and all other gods went to inspect the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) designed by Viśvakarmā, he assigned different deities for the protection of the playhouse itself, as well as for the objects relating to dramatic performance (prayoga).

As such, Brahmā assigned the Maruts to the protection of the four corners of the main building. The protection of the playhouse was enacted because of the jealous Vighnas (malevolent spirits), who began to create terror for the actors.

2) Marut is also to be worshipped during raṅgapūjā, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 3.1-8. Accordingly, the master of the dramatic art who has been initiated for the purpose shall consecrate the playhouse after he has made obeisance (eg., to Marut).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[Marut in Hinduism glossaries]

Marut (मरुत्):—Another name for Vāyu, a Vedic deity representing the cosmic life breath (the universal spirit). The name Marut means “he without whom one dies”.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Hinduism

The Maruts are the sons of Diti, and the companions of Indra, the King of the Devas. Their mother had sought a boon from their father Kashyapa that the son to be born to her should be the slayer of Indra. The sage granted her wish, but with the proviso that she had to observe a rigid vow known as the Pumsvana for the period of her pregnancy.

(Source): Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

Marut (मरुत्).—The demigod associates of King Indra, the gods of the air. They number forty-nine and are sons of Diti.

(Source): ISKCON Press: Glossary

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[Marut in Jainism glossaries]

Marut (मरुत्) refers to a class of kimpuruṣa deities according to the Śvetāmbara tradition, while the Digambara does not recognize this class. The kimpuruṣas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas). The kimpuruṣas are are golden in appearance according to Digambara, but white in complexion with very bright faces according to Śvetāmbara.

The deities such as the Maruts are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

[Marut in India history glossaries]

Marut or Marutkṣetra is the name of a village mentioned in the “Panhāle plates of Vikramāditya”. Marutkṣetra is evedently Muruḍ in the Kolābā District. It is probably identical Muru mentioned in the Cānje inscription (No. 22).

These copper plates (mentioning Marut) were found at Panhāle in the Dāpolī-tālukā of the Ratnāgiri District. It records a grant made by Aparāditya for the spiritual welfare of his son, the prince (Kumāra) Vikramāditya. It was made by Aparāditya on the occasion of a lunar eclipse, on Monday, the 15th tithi of the bright fortnight of Āśvina in the expired Śaka year 1061.

(Source): What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[Marut in Marathi glossaries]

marut (मरुत्).—m (S) A demigod of a class (marudgaṇa m The Immortals) comprising forty-nine.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[Marut in Sanskrit glossaries]

Marut (मरुत्).—m. [mṛ-uti Uṇ.1.94]

1) Wind, air, breeze; दिशः प्रसेदुर्मरुतो ववुः सुखाः (diśaḥ prasedurmaruto vavuḥ sukhāḥ) R.3.14.

2) Vital air or breath, life-wind; (vaśamanayat) अपरः प्रणिधानयोग्यया मरुतः पञ्च शरीर- गोचरान् (aparaḥ praṇidhānayogyayā marutaḥ pañca śarīra- gocarān) R.8.19; Ku.3.48.

3) The god of wind; इति दर्शितविक्रियं सुतं मरुतः कोपपरीतमानसम् (iti darśitavikriyaṃ sutaṃ marutaḥ kopaparītamānasam) Ki.2.25.

4) A god, deity; वैमानिकानां मरुतामपश्यदाकृष्टलीलान्नरलोकपालान् (vaimānikānāṃ marutāmapaśyadākṛṣṭalīlānnaralokapālān) R.6.1; 12.11.

5) A kind of plant (maruvaka).

6) Gold.

7) Beauty. -n. A kind of plant (granthiparṇa).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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