Tala, Tāḷa, Tāla, Talā, Ṭala: 30 definitions


Tala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Tāḷa can be transliterated into English as Tala or Talia, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Tala (तल) is a synonym for adhiṣṭhāna (‘platform’), according to the Mayamata 14.40. The word adhiṣṭhāna is Sanskrit technical term referring to the “base” or “platform” on which a structure is built.

Source: Google Books: The Theory of Citrasutras in Indian Painting

Tāla: one of the two basic units of measurement, according to the Viṣṇudharmottara Purāṇa; the other being called Aṅgula. But not all the early texts use the word tāla; in the Bṛhat Saṃhitā and Citralakṣaṇa of Nagnajit, for example, the term tāla was not employed but what is important is that the concept of a palm length as module for computing parts of the body was implicit.

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra (iconography)

Tāla (ताल).—Even though each of these options of measurement are elabarated further by the Mānasāra, the most elaborate treatment is reserved for the tāla option. Tāla, the system of iconometry, is based on the “span”. Tāla has the mearungs of “palm” (of the hand) as well as “span” (that is, the distance between the stretched thumb and middle finger). This measurement is equal to that of the face from hair to chin.

Among the several iconometric schemes possible with the tāla, the text elaborates the daśatāla, “ten-span”, scheme. In the daśatāla scheme, the height of the image has ten basic divisions (each division being one tāla). Each tāla has twelve subdivisions (echoing the division 12 aṅgula = 1 vitasti); thus basically, the height in the daśatāla scheme has 120 (10 x 12) subdivisions.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

1) Tāla (ताल) refers to a “unit of measurement”, as defined in the texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The unit of measurement chosen for stating the proportions of the images of the various gods, goddesses and other beings belonging to the Hindu pantheon is called the tāla. For measuring lengths along plumb-lines an instrument called the lamba-phalaka is employed.

2) Tāla refers to “cymbals”, representing one of the several “attributes” (āyudha) or “accessories” of a detiy commonly seen depicted in Hindu iconography.—The śilpa texts have classified the various accessories under the broad heading of āyudha or karuvi (implement), including even flowers, animals, and musical instruments. Some of the work tools held in the hands of deities are, for example, Tāla.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

The term ‘tala’ stands for the inner part (the palm). That inner portion of the hand which extends up to the long palm-line and faces one’s own eyes is the part ‘dedicated to Brahmā.’ (Manubhāṣya, II.62)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

The term ‘tala’ stands for the inner part (the palm). That inner portion of the hand which extends up to the long palm-line and faces one’s own eyes is the part ‘dedicated to Brahmā.’

Tala’ is the palm; and that part of the palm which extends from the base of the thumb to the first long line in it constitutes the ‘Brāhma-tīrtha’; (Vīramitrodaya (Āhnika, p. 77))

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Tala (तल) is a Sanskrit technical term denoting a “residence” in general, according to the lists of synonyms given in the Mānasāra XIX.108-12, which is a populair treatise on Vāstuśāstra literature.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Tāla (ताल) is a Sanskrit word referring to Borassus flabellifer (palmyra palm), a plant species in the Arecaceae family. It was identified by Satish Chandra Sankhyadhar in his translation of the Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 9.83), which lists the following synonyms: Tāladruma, Patrī, Dīrghaskandha, Dhvajadruma, Tṛṇarāja, Madhurasa, Madāḍhya, Dīrghapādapa, Cirāyu, Tarurāja, Gajabhakṣya, Dṛḍhacchada, Dīrghapatra, Gucchapatra and Āsavadruma.

According to the Carakasaṃhitā (sūtrasthāna 27), Tālapralamba (tender top portion of tāla stem) forms part of the Śākavarga (vegetables) group of medicinal plants.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Tāla (ताल) refers to “palm fruit” and is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., tāla (palm fruit)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., bakula fruit (Mimusops elengi)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Tāla (ताल) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Borassus flabellifer Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning tāla] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Tāla (ताल).—A hell. There are many hells under water including Tāla. (Chapter 6, Aṃśa 2, Viṣṇu Purāṇa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Talā (तला).—One of the ten daughters of Raudrāśva.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 126.

2a) Tāla (ताल).—Span, employed in describing measurement in iconography; nine tālas generally for deities, dānavas and kinnaras; measurement made usually by the middle finger.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 7. 97; Matsya-purāṇa 258. 16 and 75; 259. 1-2; Vāyu-purāṇa 8. 103.

2b) —(c)—kingdom watered by the R. Cakṣa.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 46.

2c) A hell into which falls one, who murders a Kṣatriya or Vaiśya or Brahmana, or one who defiles a preceptor's bed.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 2. 146; Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 146, 153; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 6. 2.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

1) Tāla (ताल) refers to one of the thirty hells (naraka) mentioned in the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 8.21 (on the narrative of hells). The hells are destinations where dead beings brought by messengers of Yama (the God of the Pitṛs), and get punished by him according to their karmas and faults.

2) Tāla (ताल) is the name of a tree found in maṇidvīpa (Śakti’s abode), according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 12.10. Accordingly, these trees always bear flowers, fruits and new leaves, and the sweet fragrance of their scent is spread across all the quarters in this place. The trees (eg. Tāla) attract bees and birds of various species and rivers are seen flowing through their forests carrying many juicy liquids. Maṇidvīpa is defined as the home of Devī, built according to her will. It is compared with Sarvaloka, as it is superior to all other lokas.

The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam (mentioning Tāla), is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Tāla (ताल) refers to the “time-measure” in musical performance, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 28.

There are twenty aspects of tāla (time-measure) defined:

  1. āvāpa,
  2. niṣkrama,
  3. vikṣepa,
  4. praveśaka,
  5. śamyā,
  6. tāla,
  7. sannipāta,
  8. parivarta,
  9. vastu,
  10. mātrā,
  11. vidārī,
  12. aṅga,
  13. laya (tempo),
  14. yati,
  15. prakaraṇa,
  16. gīti,
  17. avayava,
  18. mārga,
  19. pādabhāga,
  20. pāṇi,

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 31, “the instrument named tāla is of the ‘solid’ class (ghana), and it relates to a division into kalās (kalāpāta) and to an observation of the tempo (laya). Those who apply tālas in a musical performance, should know kalās to be the measure of time (tāla). The tāla is so called because it measures time by a division of songs into kalās”.

According to this chapter, tāla is of two kinds, the origin of which is the same:

  1. caturasra (lit. four-cornered),
  2. tryasra (lit. three-cornered).

And the source of these is twofold:

  1. cañcatpuṭa,
  2. cāpapuṭa.

Also, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 31, tāla is one of the four varieties of the audible tāla. Accordingly, “the alternate placing (lit. falling) of these, is known as the pāta. These are to be known śamyā, tāla and sannipāta. The śamyā is of the right hand, the tāla of the left hand, and the two hands coming together is the sannipāta, and the dhruvā is stopping (lit. falling) for a mātrā, and it makes for the way of the rāgas, and moreover the placing (lit. falling) of the three kalās mentioned before, is also called dhruvā”. The tāla is so called because it measures time by a division of songs into kalās”.

2) Tala (तल) refers to one of the four kinds of vyañjana (indication), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. Vyañjana represents one of the four classes of dhātu (stroke), which relate to different aspects of strokes in playing stringed instruments (tata).

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “tala is striking a string with the left thumb after pressing it with the right one”.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Tāla (ताल).—This word comes from tala (the palm of the hand), and primarily refers to the beating of time by the clapping of hands. But generally it is used in the sense of ‘time-measure.’ Śārṅgadeva’s explanation of this word ( Saṃgītaratnākara VI. 2) seems to be fanciful. The word is also used as a variety of audible tāla which is of four kinds.

Source: WikiPedia: Natyashastra

Tāla (ताल, “clap”) is the term used in Indian classical music to refer to musical meter, that is any rhythmic beat or strike that measures musical time. The measure is typically established by hand clapping, waving, touching fingers on thigh or the other hand, verbally, striking of small cymbals, or a percussion instrument in the South Asian traditions. Along with raga which forms the fabric of a melodic structure, the tala forms the life cycle and thereby constitutes one of the two foundational elements of Indian music.

Tāla in the Indian tradition embraces the time dimension of music, the means by which musical rhythm and form were guided and expressed. Tāla is an ancient music concept traceable to Vedic era texts of Hinduism, such as the Samaveda and methods for singing the Vedic hymns. The tala system of the north is called Hindustani, while the south is called Carnatic. However, the tala system between them continues to have more common features than differences.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: academia.edu: The Yoga of the Mālinīvijayottaratantra

Tāla (ताल) refers to one of the ten kinds of sounds (śabda) according to the Matsyendrasaṃhitā and the Haṃsa-upaniṣad.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: BDK Tripiṭaka: The Susiddhikara-sūtra

Tāla (ताल) refers to the “palmyra tree”, as mentioned in Chapter 12 (“offering food”) of the Susiddhikara-sūtra. Accordingly, “the fruit of the tāla (palmyra) tree, the fruit of the coconut, the fruit of the bilva, the fruit of the nimba (neem), and other malodorous fruits unpleasant to all should not be offered. [...] There are many more kinds of fruit such as the above varieties, but with different names: examine their taste and use them accordingly to make offerings”.

When you wish to offer food [viz., tāla], first cleanse the ground, sprinkle scented water all around, spread out on the ground leaves that have been washed clean, such as lotus leaves, palāśa (dhak) leaves, and leaves from lactescent trees, or new cotton cloth, and then set down the oblatory dishes. [...] First smear and sprinkle the ground and then spread the leaves; wash your hands clean, rinse out your mouth several times, swallow some water, and then you should set down the food [viz., tāla]. [...]

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

1) Tāla (ताल) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the 1st century Uvavāiya-sutta (sanksrit: Aupapātika-sūtra). Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.

Different kinds of trees (eg., the Tāla tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.

2) Tāla (ताल) refers to the “palm”: a type of fruit (phala), according to Jain canonical texts (eg., the Jñātādharmakathāṅga-sūtra from the 3rd century B.C.). Various kinds of fruits were grown and consumed by the people in ancient India. Fruits were also dried up for preservation. Koṭṭaka was a place for this operation. Besides being grown in orchards, fruits were gathered from jungles and were carried to cities for sales.

The Jain canonical texts frequently mention different horticulture products viz. fruits (eg., Tāla fruit), vegetables and flowers which depict that horticulture was a popular pursuit of the people at that time. Gardens and parks (ārāma, ujjāṇa or nijjāṇa) were full of fruits and flowers of various kinds which besides yielding their products provided a calm and quiet place where people could enjoy the natural surroundings.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Tala.—cf. sa-tala (IE 8-5); surface of the ground. Note: tala is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Tāla.—(IE 8-5), a palmyra palm; cf. sa-tālaka as an epithet of a gift village referring to the right of enjoying the trees by privileged tenants in some areas. Note: tāla is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Tāla.—(SII 2), Tamil; a dish. (EI 21; SITI), Tamil; the treasury Note: tāla is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

tala : (nt.) a flat surface; level ground; a base; a flat roof; a stage; the blade of a weapon; the palm or sole. || tāla (m.) the palmyra tree. tāḷa (m.) a key; a cymbal; music (in general).

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Tāḷa, 2 (nt.) (Sk. tālaka=tāḍa AvŚ II. 56, tāḍaka Divy 577) a key (orig. a “knocker”?) Vin. II, 148 (3 kinds: loha°, kaṭṭha°, visāṇa°); Bdhd 1.

2) Tāḷa, 1 (taḍ, cp. Sk. tāla a blow, or musical time; tālīyaka cymbal) beating, striking, the thing beaten or struck, i.e. a musical instrument which is beaten, an Instr. of percussion, as a cymbal, gong, or tambourine (for tāḷa= gong cp. thāla): (a) gong, etc. J. I, 3; VI, 60; Th. 1, 893; DA. I, 85; DhsA. 319 (kaṃsa°).—(b) music in general DhA. IV, 67.

3) Tāla, (Sk. tāla, cp. Gr. ta_lis & thleqάw (be green, sprout up) Lat. talea shoot, sprout) 1. the palmyra tree (fan palm), Borassus flabelliformis; frequent in comparisons & similes M. I, 187; J. I, 202 (°vana), 273 (°matta as tall as a palm): VvA. 162; PvA. 100 (chinnamūlo viya tālo).—2. a strip, stripe, streak J. V, 372 (=raji).

4) Tala, (nt.) (Derivation uncertain. Cp. Sk. tala m. & nt.; cp. Gr. thli/Q (dice-board), Lat. tellus (earth), tabula (=table). Oir. talam (earth), Ags. pel (=deal), Ohg. dili=Ger. diele) (a) flat surface (w. ref. to either top or bottom: cp. Ger. boden), level, ground, base J. I, 60, 62 (pāsāda° flat roof); III, 60 (id.); paṭhavī° (level ground) J. II, 111, cp. bhūmi° PvA. 176; ādāsa° surface of a mirror Vism. 450, 456, 489; salila° (surface of pond) PvA. 157; VvA. 160; heṭṭhima° (the lowest level) J. I, 202; PvA. 281;— J. I, 233 (base); 266 (khagga° the flat of the sword); II, 102 (bheri°).—(b) the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot J. II, 223; Vism. 250; & cpds.—See also taṭa, tāla, tālu.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

1) Ṭāla (टाल).—a (In nandabhāṣā) Fifty.

2a) ṭāḷa (टाळ).—m (tāla S) A musical instrument of bellmetal (a sort of cymbal) played with a stick. 2 Beating time in music: also musical time or measure. 3 R (Commonly ṭahāḷa) Loppings. ṭāḷa vājaṇēṃ g. of s. To be consumed or spent--an article of provision or store. ṭāḷa vājaṇēṃ (ghōḍyācē) To be cat-hammed--a horse.

2b) ṭāḷa (टाळ).—a Epithet of that kind of pearl which is encircled around its centre by a furrow or line.

3) ṭāḷā (टाळा).—m (ṭāḷaṇēṃ) Putting off or procrastinating: also shuffling off; amusing with delusive promises. v . 2 Averting or preventing (of a trouble or an evil). 3 The roof of the mouth. 4 R (Usually ṭāhaḷā) A small leafy branch; a spray or sprig.

4) tala (तल).—n m (S) Bottom, the lowest part of, or the place underneath. 2 Ground, the ground-floor &c. 3 In comp. Extended surface; as caraṇatala or pādatala Sole of the foot; karatala or hastatala Palm of the hand; bhūtala or pṛthvītala Face of the earth. 4 Superficies, surface, bounding expanse.

5) taḷa (तळ).—m (tala S) Bottom, the lowest part of, or the place underneath. 2 Ground; the groundfloor &c.; the space under: (as under a tree, a couch, a roof.) 3 A place of encampment or a camp. v ghāla, dē, māṇḍa, dhara, paḍa, yē, sōḍa. 4 The spot which a body occupies:--viewed with reference to removal from it. Ex. āmbē sagaḷēca nēūṃ nakō kāṃhīṃ taḷāvara ṭhēva Leave a few behind. 5 A tract of ground; a plain or extended tract. Ex. tyā taḷācī pradakṣiṇā cāra kōsāñcī āhē. 6 The sole, or one of the layers composing it, of a shoe. 7 n The central board in a Potter's wheel. taḷa karaṇēṃ To encamp, alight, take up ground. taḷa ghālūna basaṇēṃ To sit down or stop at any place with all demonstrations of fixedness or permanency. 2 also taḷa māraṇēṃ q. v. To appropriate &c. taḷa jhāḍaṇēṃ g. of o. To sweep the thrashing-floor. Hence To consume or clear utterly. taḷa thāmbaṇēṃ g. of s. To get comfortably settled and fixed; and, with neg. con., to be a great gadabout or rover. taḷa māraṇēṃ To appropriate fraudulently (a deposit &c.) and, without attempt to flee or abscond, remain in bold and sturdy disallowal. taḷa lāgaṇēṃ or paḍaṇēṃ acc. of s. To be nearly exhausted or spent. taḷāvara basaṇēṃ or rāhaṇēṃ To be lying in utter destitution and wretchedness. 2 To stay at home, i. e. to get nothing. (From the figure of robbers who, when the band returns from a plundering expedition, consider him who has remained behind as without title to share.) See i. Sam. XXX. 22. Also taḷāvara basaviṇēṃ To pass by, giving nothing. To the above phrases add taḷacēṃ maḍakēṃ hāṇaṇēṃ or phōḍaṇēṃ (To strike or break the bottom-pitcher of a pile.) To strike a blow at the root. taḷacī āga mastakāsa jāṇēṃ-caḍhaṇēṃ (To be affected in the head from the burning of the feet.) To be all over in a passion.

6a) tāla (ताल).—n ( H A tank.) Used in Maraṭhi figuratively. A lake or pool (i. e. a great quantity spilled or shed) of milk, of blood &c.

6b) tāla (ताल).—m S Beating time in music: also musical time or measure. v dhara. Some of the Musical measures are aḍatāla, aḍhācautāla, āditāla, ēkā, cautāla, jhampā, tivaḍā, trivaṭa, bilandī, brahmatāla, rudratāla, rūpaka, lakṣmītāla, suraphāka. 2 Slapping or clapping the hands together or against the arms. 3 A musical instrument of bell-metal or brass played with a stick, a sort of cymbal. 4 A story of a house. 5 The Palmyra or Fan palm. 6 A certain medicinal preparation. tāla tōḍaṇēṃ To bluster, boast, swagger, swell.

6c) tāla (ताल).—f A mound or bank raised (in a field, across a road &c.) to preserve or turn off water. 2 A built-up bank of a river.

7) tālā (ताला).—m (tālaka S) A lock or padlock.

8) tāḷa (ताळ).—m See tāla m in the first four senses. 5 Tallying or agreeing (as of accounts or statements): congruity, correspondence, connectedness (of speech, conduct, action). 6 Freely. Consistency, coherence, power of lasting or holding together (as of substances, articles, the body). v asa, dhara, ṭāka, sōḍa. sātavyā tāḷīṃ basaṇēṃ To sit in the very Attics.

9) tāḷā (ताळा).—m (tāḷa or tāla) Agreement, correspondence, harmonious relation (as of accounts, of different statements or stories, of measures &c.) v ghē, pāha, paḍa, miḷa: also correspondence (of the event with the prediction, of a testimony with personal experience &c.) v miḷa. tāḷā pāhaṇēṃ or ghēṇēṃ with hyācā, tyācā To compare together. tāḷyāsa or tāḷyāvara yēṇēṃ To come round or to; to consent to and come under (some rules, laws, restraint).

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

1) Ṭāḷa (टाऌअ).—m A musical instrument of bell- metal (a sort of cymbal) played with a stick.

2) ṭāḷā (टाळा).—m Putting off or procrastinating: also shuffling off; amusing with de- lusive promises. The roof of the mouth. A spray or sprig.

3) tala (तल).—n m Bottom. Ground. Surface. karatala Palm of the hand. karatala, pādatala Sole of the foot. bhūtala face of the earth.

4) taḷa (तळ).—m Bottom. Ground. A camp. The sole of a shoe. taḷa karaṇēṃ Encamp, alight. taḷacī āga mastakāsa jāṇēṃ Be all over in passion. taḷa lāgaṇēṃ To be exhausted.

5a) tāla (ताल).—f An embankment.

5b) tāla (ताल).—m Beating time in music. A sort of cymbal. A storey of a house.

6) tālā (ताला).—m A lock or padlock.

7) tāḷa (ताळ).—m Tallying; congruity. Consist- ency. See tāla. tāḷa sōḍaṇēṃ To go out of control.

8) tāḷā (ताळा).—m Agreement, correspondence.tāḷā pāhaṇēṃ-ghēṇēṃ Compare together. tāḷyāvara yēṇēṃ Consent to and come under (some rules), to come-round.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of tala in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Ṭala (टल) or Ṭāla (टाल).—Confusion, perturbation.

Derivable forms: ṭalaḥ (टलः), ṭālaḥ (टालः).

See also (synonyms): ṭalana.

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Tala (तल).—[tal-ac]

1) A surface; भुवस्तलमिव व्योम कुर्वन् व्योमेव भूतलम् (bhuvastalamiva vyoma kurvan vyomeva bhūtalam) R.4.29; sometimes used at the end of comp. without much alteration of meaning; महीतलम् (mahītalam) 'surface of the earth' i. e. earth itself; शुद्धे तु दर्पणतले सुलभावकाशा (śuddhe tu darpaṇatale sulabhāvakāśā) Ś.7.32; नभस्तलम् (nabhastalam) &c.

2) The palm of the hand; R.6.18.

3) The sole of the foot; Bhāg.1.36. 8.

4) The fore-arm.

5) A slap with the hand.

6) Lowness, inferiority of position.

7) A lower part, part underneath, base, foot, bottom; रेवारोधसि वेतसीतरुतले चेतः समुत्कण्ठते (revārodhasi vetasītarutale cetaḥ samutkaṇṭhate) K. P.1.

8) (Hence) The ground under a tree or any other object, shelter afforded by anything; फणी मयूरस्य तले निषीदति (phaṇī mayūrasya tale niṣīdati) Ṛs.1.13.

9) A hole, pit.

1) A span.

-laḥ 1 The hilt of a sword.

2) The palmyra tree.

3) Name of Śiva.

4) Pressing the strings of a lute with the left hand; तत्र तत्र महानादैरुत्कृष्टतलनादितैः (tatra tatra mahānādairutkṛṣṭatalanāditaiḥ) Mb.1.221.6.

5) A division of hell.

-lam 1 A pond.

2) A forest, wood; भस्मप्रस्तरशायी च भूमिशय्या तलेषु च (bhasmaprastaraśāyī ca bhūmiśayyā taleṣu ca) Mb.12.33.11.

3) Cause, origin, motive.

4) A leathern fence worn round the left arm (talā also in this sense); उद्यतैरायुधैश्चित्रास्तलबद्धाः कलापिनः (udyatairāyudhaiścitrāstalabaddhāḥ kalāpinaḥ) Mb.6.16.14.

Derivable forms: talaḥ (तलः), talam (तलम्).

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Tāla (ताल).—[tal eva aṇ]

1) The palmyra tree, Bhāg. 8.2.12; विधिवशात्तालस्य मूलं गतः (vidhivaśāttālasya mūlaṃ gataḥ) Bh.2.9; R.15.23.

2) A banner formed of the palm.

3) Slapping or clapping the hands together, the noise made by it; तलतालांश्च वादयन् (talatālāṃśca vādayan) Mb.3.178.17; Māl.5.23.

4) Flapping in general; विस्तारितः कुञ्जरकर्णतालैः (vistāritaḥ kuñjarakarṇatālaiḥ) R.7.39.

5) Flapping of the ears of an elephant.

6) Beating time (in music); करकिसलयतालैर्मुग्धया नर्त्यमानम् (karakisalayatālairmugdhayā nartyamānam) U.3.1; Me.81.

7) A musical instrument made of bell-metal, Bhāg. 8.15.21; उषसि स गजयूथकर्णतालैः पटुपटहध्वनिभिर्विनीतनिद्रः (uṣasi sa gajayūthakarṇatālaiḥ paṭupaṭahadhvanibhirvinītanidraḥ) R.9.71.

8) The palm of the hand.

9) A lock, bolt.

1) The hilt of a sword.

11) An epithet of Śiva.

12) (In prosody) A trochee.

13) A particular measure of height; Rām.6.

14) A short span; a span measured by the thumb and the middle finger.

15) A dance; S. D.6.

-lam 1 The nut of the palmyra tree.

2) Yellow orpiment.

Derivable forms: tālaḥ (तालः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Tala (तल).—m. or nt. (= AMg. id. = Sanskrit bhūtala), surface of the ground: yehi iha kīṭakamardanāni vā kārāpitāni bhavanti talamardanāni vā…Mahāvastu i.21.12; tala-m° according to Senart stamping on the ground; but perhaps breaking up the surface of the ground, as in digging; reprobated as injurious to living creatures.

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Tāla (ताल).—nt. (in Sanskrit only m., and so [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit] usually), palm-tree: (sarvasmāc ca tālād ratnasūtrād, so read with Calcutta (see LV.) for Lefm. °trā) dvitīye tālam avasaktam abhūt Lalitavistara 273.22 (prose), and from a jewel-thread (extending) from each palm-tree, (each) palm-tree was attached to the next. As a measure of length or especially height, tāla, palm-tree, occurs also in Sanskrit ([Boehtlingk and Roth]), and much oftener in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit], where previous translators often erroneously render span, especially in the [compound] sapta-tāla; but this (= Pali satta-tāla) means, as in Pali, seven palm-trees, and so tāla regularly (con- firmed by Tibetan, regularly śiṅ ta la, tāla-tree). Acc. to Mahāvastu ii.313.3 ff. a tāla is one-eighth of a krośa, and eight times a pauruṣeya 3, q.v. In Lalitavistara 14.11 the cakra-ratna of the cakravartin is saptatālam uccaiḥ; in Lalitavistara 154.5 a metal figure of a boar (ayasmayī varāhapratimā) measures 7 tālas (read saptatālā as one word); in Lalitavistara 273.19 a vedikā is saptatālān uccaistvena; in Avadāna-śataka ii.104.4, 14 a throne is saptatālodgataṃ; in Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 428.10 kūṭāgāram abhiruhya vaihāyase saptatālamātreṇa, having mounted a tower-house seven tālas high in the air. Most commonly used as a measure of height to which someone, especially Buddha, magi- cally rises in the air; one tāla only, tālamātraṃ (vaihā- yasam…) Mahāvastu i.239.18; iii.107.12, 13; 108.5; 411.13, 15; oftener sapta-tāla-mātraṃ vaihāyasam abhyudgamya, or variations on this, Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 459.11; 465.7; Lalitavistara 18.16 (here a Pratyekabuddha, rising 7 tālas, passes thru the ‘fire- element’, tejodhātu, and disappears); 350.20—21; Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 16.6; Divyāvadāna 252.16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tala (तल).—n.

(-laṃ) 1. Essential nature, (in composition especially, as mahītalaṃ the earth itself, the very earth.) 2. Depth, bottom, lowness, inferiority of position, the place under or underneath. 3. A wood, a forest. 4. A hole, a pit, a chasm. 5. Cause, origin, motive, the root or seed of events. 6. Sole of the foot. 7. A slap with the hand. nf.

(-laṃ-lā) A leathern fence worn by archers on the left arm. m.

(-laḥ) 1. The palmyra tree. 2. The palm with extended fingers. 3. The hilt or handle of a sword, &c. 4. Pressing the strings of a lute with the left hand. 5. The stand or support of any thing, that which is under or below it. 6. The fore arm. 7. A span. E. tal to fix, affix ac.

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Tāla (ताल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lī-laṃ) Made of the palm wood. m.

(-laḥ) 1. Beating time in music, musical time or measure. 2. A short span, one measured by the thumb and middle finger. 3. Slapping or clapping the hands together, or against the arms, &c. 4. The open hand with the fingers extended, the palm. 5. A musical instrument of bell metal or brass, (a sort of cymbal,) played with a stick. 6. The hilt of a sword or sacrificial knife, &c. 7. The palmyra tree or fan palm, (Borassus flabelliformis.) 8. A lock, a bolt. 9. In prosody, a trochee. n.

(-laṃ) 1. The throne of Durga. 2. Yellow orpiment: see haritāla. 3. The fruit of the palm tree. f. (-lī) 1. A sort of key or pin. 2. A species of the mountain palm, (Corypha taliera, Rox.) 3. A plant, (Flacourtia cataphraeta:) see jhaṭā and amalā. 4. A fragrant earth: see tuvarikā. 5. A plant, (Curculigo orchioides.) 6. The spirituous juice of the palm, the common Tady. E. tal to fix or tan to spread, affix ghañ; or in the causal form, with ac affix fem. affix ṅīṣ, na changed to la; otherwise, taḍ to beat, to overcome, (disease, &c.) ac and ṅīṣ affixes, and ḍa changed to la; the adjective is derived from the substantive by adding aṇ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tala (तल).—m. and n. 1. Surface, Mahābhārata 3, 2412. 2. Bottom, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 13, 11. 3. Without a special signification, as latter part of many comp. words, e. g. nabhas-tala = nabhas, Heaven, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 2, 1, 27. 4. The palm, [Arjunasamāgama] 3, 40; often compounded with a word denoting hand, e. g. pāṇi-tala, Mahābhārata 13, 5013. 5. Sole of the foot, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 13, 47; usually compounded with a word signifying foot, e. g. pāda-tala, Mahābhārata 13, 7444. 6. That which is under or below anything, under, [Hitopadeśa] 43, 21; [Mṛcchakaṭikā, (ed. Stenzler.)] 34, 11; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 59 (aṅguṣṭhamūlasya tale, Under the root of the thumb). 7. (also f. ), A leathern fence worn by archers on the left arm, Mahābhārata 6, 621 (talabaddha = baddhatala, Having put on a leathern fence, etc., cf. talatra), [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 87, 23.

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Tāla (ताल).—I. m. 1. The palmyra tree, or fan palm, Borassus flabelliformis, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 1, 64; used as banner, Mahābhārata 6, 1811. 2. Slapping or clapping the hands together, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 77; often compounded with a word denoting hand, Mahābhārata 13, 1397. 3. Slapping together in general, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 9, 71. 4. Musical measure, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 43; Mahābhārata 13, 995. 5. A sort of cymbal, [Pañcatantra] 20, 8. Ii. n. The fruit of the palmyra tree, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 3711. Iii. f. li, The name of a tree. Corypha taliera Roxb., [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 43, 6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ṭāla (टाल).—[adjective] tender (of fruits).

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Tala (तल).—[masculine] [neuter] place on or under ([genetive] or —°), surface, bottom, plain; often corresp. to a more special word, as pāṇitala palm of the hand, nabhastala vault of the sky, often otiose. [neuter] arm-leather (cf. aṅgulitra).

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Tāla (ताल).—[masculine] the fan-palm (often mentioned as a banner or a measure of height); clapping of the hands, flapping ([especially] of the ears of an elephant); beating time, musical time or measure, dance; [Epithet] of Śiva, [plural] [Name] of a people. [feminine] ī a cert. tree, palm-wine, clapping of the hands. [neuter] the nut of the fan-palm.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Ṭala (टल):—[from ṭal] = ṭāla [gana] jvalādi.

2) Ṭāla (टाल):—mfn. (= ṭala [gana] jvalādi) tender (a fruit), [Śīlāṅka]on, [Ācāranirṇaya ii.]

3) Tala (तल):—(m., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) n. (√stṛ) surface, level, flat roof (of a house), [Mahābhārata] etc. (chiefly ifc. [f(ā). , [Rāmāyaṇa v, 13]] cf. nabhas-, mahīetc.)

4) the part underneath, lower part, base, bottom, [Manu-smṛti ii, 59; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Pañcatantra] etc. (cf. adhas-, taruetc.)

5) mn. the palm (of the hand See kara-, pāṇi-), [Rāmāyaṇa ii, 104, 17; Śakuntalā; Raghuvaṃśa vi, 18]

6) the sole (of the foot, aṅghri-, pāda-), [Mahābhārata i; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

7) (without karaetc.) the palm of the hand (anyo nyasya, or parasparaṃ talaṃ or lān-√dā, to slap each other with the palms of the hands), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Rāmāyaṇa; Suśruta]

8) m. n., [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] the sole of the foot, [Rāmāyaṇa v, 13, 47]

9) m. the fore-arm, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) = tāla (a span, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; the handle of a sword, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; the palmyra tree, [Viddhaśālabhañjikā ii, 13])

11) pressing the strings of a lute with the left hand, [Mahābhārata viii]

12) Name of a hell, [Āruṇeya-upaniṣad; Śiva-purāṇa] (cf. talātala)

13) Śiva, [Mahābhārata xiii, 17, 130]

14) Name of a teacher [gana] śaunakādi

15) n. = -hṛdaya, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) = talka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) = talaka (q.v.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) = talla (q.v.), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) the root or seed of events, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) = -tra, [Āśvalāyana-gṛhya-sūtra iii, 12, 11] (tala), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

21) Talā (तला):—[from tala] f. idem, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

22) [v.s. ...] Name of a daughter of Raudrāśva, [Vāyu-purāṇa ii, 37, 122]

23) [v.s. ...] cf. a-, jihvā-, ni-, nis-, pra-, mahā-, rasā-, vi-, su-.

24) Tāla (ताल):—m. ([Siddhānta-kaumudī napuṃs. 25 [Scholiast or Commentator]]) the palmyra tree or fan-palm (Borassus flabelliformis, producing a sort of spirituous liquor; considered as a measure of height, [Rāmāyaṇa iv; vi, 2, 6; Lalita-vistara iii, xxii]; forming a banner, [Mahābhārata iv, vi, xvi; Harivaṃśa]; to pierce seven fan-palms with one shot is held to be a great feat, [Rāmāyaṇa i, 1, 64; Agni-purāṇa viii, 2]), [Manu-smṛti viii, 246; Mahābhārata] etc.

25) ([from] tāḍa) slapping the hands together or against one’s arm, [xiii, 1397; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.

26) the flapping of an elephant’s ears, [Raghuvaṃśa ix, 71; Kathāsaritsāgara xii; xxi, 1; Prabodha-candrodaya i, v]

27) musical time or measure, [Mahābhārata] etc. (cf. -jña & -śīla)

28) a dance, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa vi, 277]

29) a cymbal, [Pañcatantra; Bhāgavata-purāṇa viii, 15, 21]

30) (in prosody) a trochee

31) a span measured by the thumb and middle finger, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi i, 3, 855 and 6, 171]

32) (= tala) the palm (of the hand), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

33) a lock, bolt, [Horace H. Wilson]

34) (= tala) the hilt of a sword, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

35) a goldsmith, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

36) Śiva, [Mahābhārata xiii, 1243]

37) [plural] Name of a people (cf. -vana and apara-), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā xiv, 22]

38) mn. orpiment, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

39) Name of a hell, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa ii, 6, 2 and 10; Śiva-purāṇa]

40) n. the nut of the fan-palm, [Mahābhārata iii, 8718; Harivaṃśa 3711] (cf. kākatālīya)

41) the throne of Durgā (cf. manas-), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] ([varia lectio])

42) mf(ī, [Pāṇini 4-3, 152])n. made of palmyra wood, [Manu-smṛti xi, 96/97]

43) Tālā (ताला):—[from tāla] f. ([gana] kuṇḍādi) See māsa-

44) Tāla (ताल):—cf. ucca-, ut-, eka-, kara-, kāṃsya-, kāma-, krośa-.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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