Pramatha, Pramātha: 17 definitions


Pramatha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Pramatha in Purana glossary
Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Pramātha (प्रमाथ).—A son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (Śloka 13, Chapter 116, Ādi Parva).

2) Pramātha (प्रमाथ).—One of the two pārṣadas given to Subrahmaṇya by Yamarāja. The other one was named Unmātha. (Śloka 30, Chapter 45, Śalya Parva).

3) Pramātha (प्रमाथ).—A rākṣasa (demon). This rākṣasa was a minister of demons Khara and Dūṣaṇa. (Sarga 23, Araṇyakāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyana).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Pramatha (प्रमथ) refers to a group of deities who together with the nine Durgās participated in Vīrabhadra’s campaign against Dakṣa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.33. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“Mahākālī went ahead for the destruction of Dakṣa accompanied by nine Durgās [...]. Eager in executing the command of Śiva, they accompanied the marching heroes—[viz., Pramathas] and set out quickly for the destruction of Dakṣa’s sacrifice”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Pramatha (प्रमथ).—A class of bhūtas who constituted the gaṇa of Śiva;1 evil-eyed spirits;2 followers of Rudra and of Dakṣiṇa Agni;3 of animal and other cruel faces;4 fight of, under the leadership of Nandi, against the Asuras;5 defended the chariot of Tripurāri;6 put down by Kṛṣṇa;7 at Bāṇa's capital.

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 2. 15; V. 5. 21; Vāyu-purāṇa 39. 43; 72. 50.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 16 51; 42. 33; Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 8. 25.
  • 3) Ib. X. 63. 6; 66. 30.
  • 4) Matsya-purāṇa 135. 33.
  • 5) Ib. 136. 19, 34, 67; 137. 1; 138. 10, 55.
  • 6) Ib. 133. 66 and 69.
  • 7) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 37. 13; 85. 41; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 33. 13, 24 and 27, 34. 40.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Pramatha in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

1) Pramatha (प्रमथ) refers to a group of deites, representing “attendants of Śiva”, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara.

2) Pramātha (प्रमाथ) is the name of a king whose strength is considered as equaling a half-power warrior (ardharatha), according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 47. Accordingly, as the Asura Maya explained the arrangement of warriors in Sunītha’s army: “... [Pramātha, and others], are considered half-power warriors”.

The story of Pramātha was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Pramatha, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Pramatha (प्रमथ) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Pramathanṛsiṃha or Pramathanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Pramatha (प्रमथ) is the name of the deity associated with Hāsya or the “comic sentiment”, which represents one of the nine kinds of Rasa (“soul of Drama”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa says that hāsyarasa is generated from some irrelevant or funny conversations or attires which bring humour to the viewers’ mind and the viewers start laughing. [...] Hāsa is the sthāyibhāva of this sentiment. Sita i.e., white is the colour and Pramatha is the God of this sentiment.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Pramatha in India is the name of a plant defined with Terminalia chebula in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Myrobalanus chebula (Retz.) Gaertn. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Plant Systematics and Evolution (1996)
· FBI (1878)
· De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum (1790)
· Journal of Cytology and Genetics (1990)
· Systema Naturae, ed. 12 (1767)
· Observationes Botanicae (1789)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Pramatha, for example pregnancy safety, chemical composition, side effects, diet and recipes, health benefits, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pramatha (प्रमथ).—

1) A horse.

2) Name of a class of Beings (said to be goblins) attending on Śiva; प्रमथमुखविकारैर्हासयामास गूढम् (pramathamukhavikārairhāsayāmāsa gūḍham) Kumārasambhava 7.95.

Derivable forms: pramathaḥ (प्रमथः).

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Pramātha (प्रमाथ).—

1) Excessive paining, tormenting, torturing.

2) Agitating, churning.

3) Killing, slaughter, destruction, सैनिकानां प्रमाथेन सत्यमोजायितं त्वया (sainikānāṃ pramāthena satyamojāyitaṃ tvayā) Uttararāmacarita 5.31;4.

4) Violence, outrage.

5) Rape, forcible abduction.

-thāḥ m. (pl.) Epithet of the fiends attendant upon Śiva.

Derivable forms: pramāthaḥ (प्रमाथः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pramatha (प्रमथ).—m.

(-thaḥ) 1. An attendant on Siva. 2. A horse. f.

(-thā) 1. Yellow myrobalan, (Terminalia chebula.) “haritakyām”. 2. Pain, affliction. E. pra excess, mathi to churn, (the enemies of Siva,) aff. ac .

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Pramātha (प्रमाथ).—m.

(-thaḥ) 1. Killing. 2. Paining, afflicting, torturing. 3. Violence. E. pra before, mathi to churn, ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pramatha (प्रमथ).—[pra-math + a], I. m. 1. A horse. 2. An attendant on Śiva, Mahābhārata 13, 983. Ii. f. thā, Terminalia chebula.

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Pramātha (प्रमाथ).—i. e. pra-math + a, m. 1. Paining, torturing. 2. Violence. 3. Carrying off forcibly (ŚKd.), [Draupadīpramātha]; title. 4. Killing, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 120, 8.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pramatha (प्रमथ).—[masculine] tormentor (a kind of goblin); [Name] of a man, [feminine] ā of a woman.

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Pramātha (प्रमाथ).—[masculine] tearing, rape (of a woman), overwhelming, destruction.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pramatha (प्रमथ):—[=pra-matha] [from pra-math] m. ‘Tormentor’, Name of a class of demons attending on Śiva, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (cf. [Religious Thought and Life in India 238])

2) [v.s. ...] of a son of Dhṛta-rāṣṭra, [Mahābhārata]

3) [v.s. ...] a horse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) Pramathā (प्रमथा):—[=pra-mathā] [from pra-matha > pra-math] f. Terminalia Chebula or Citrina, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of the wife of Kṣupa and mother of Vīra, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] pain, affliction, [Horace H. Wilson]

7) Pramātha (प्रमाथ):—[=pra-mātha] [from pra-math] a m. stirring about, racking, paining, tormenting, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]

8) [v.s. ...] rape (cf. draupadī-pr)

9) [v.s. ...] subjugation, destruction (of enemies), [Uttararāma-carita]

10) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Dhṛta-rāṣṭra, [Mahābhārata]

11) [v.s. ...] of one of the attendants of Skanda, [ib.]

12) [v.s. ...] of a Dānava, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

13) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of a class of fiends attending on Śiva, [Harivaṃśa] (cf. pramatha).

14) [=pra-mātha] b etc. See pra-√math.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pramatha (प्रमथ):—[pra-matha] (thaḥ) 1. m. An attendant on Shiva; a horse. f. (thā) Yellow myrobalan; pain, affliction.

2) Pramātha (प्रमाथ):—[pra-mātha] (thaḥ) 1. m. Killing; violence.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Pramatha (प्रमथ) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Pamaha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pramatha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Pramatha (ಪ್ರಮಥ):—

1) [noun] a member of a class of demigods attending on Śiva.

2) [noun] a man who torments; a tomentor.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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