Pramatha, Pramātha: 10 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Pramatha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (P) next»] — Pramatha in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Pramatha (प्रमथ) refers to a group of deities who together with the nine Durgās participated in Vīrabhadra’s campaign against Dakṣa, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.33. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“Mahākālī went ahead for the destruction of Dakṣa accompanied by nine Durgās [...]. Eager in executing the command of Śiva, they accompanied the marching heroes—[viz., Pramathas] and set out quickly for the destruction of Dakṣa’s sacrifice”.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Pramātha (प्रमाथ).—A son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (Śloka 13, Chapter 116, Ādi Parva).

2) Pramātha (प्रमाथ).—One of the two pārṣadas given to Subrahmaṇya by Yamarāja. The other one was named Unmātha. (Śloka 30, Chapter 45, Śalya Parva).

3) Pramātha (प्रमाथ).—A rākṣasa (demon). This rākṣasa was a minister of demons Khara and Dūṣaṇa. (Sarga 23, Araṇyakāṇḍa, Vālmīki Rāmāyana).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Pramatha (प्रमथ).—A class of bhūtas who constituted the gaṇa of Śiva;1 evil-eyed spirits;2 followers of Rudra and of Dakṣiṇa Agni;3 of animal and other cruel faces;4 fight of, under the leadership of Nandi, against the Asuras;5 defended the chariot of Tripurāri;6 put down by Kṛṣṇa;7 at Bāṇa's capital.

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 2. 15; V. 5. 21; Vāyu-purāṇa 39. 43; 72. 50.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 16 51; 42. 33; Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 8. 25.
  • 3) Ib. X. 63. 6; 66. 30.
  • 4) Matsya-purāṇa 135. 33.
  • 5) Ib. 136. 19, 34, 67; 137. 1; 138. 10, 55.
  • 6) Ib. 133. 66 and 69.
  • 7) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 37. 13; 85. 41; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 33. 13, 24 and 27, 34. 40.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous (P) next»] — Pramatha in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

1) Pramatha (प्रमथ) refers to a group of deites, representing “attendants of Śiva”, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara.

2) Pramātha (प्रमाथ) is the name of a king whose strength is considered as equaling a half-power warrior (ardharatha), according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 47. Accordingly, as the Asura Maya explained the arrangement of warriors in Sunītha’s army: “... [Pramātha, and others], are considered half-power warriors”.

The story of Pramātha was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Pramatha, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Pramatha (प्रमथ) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Pramathanṛsiṃha or Pramathanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pramatha (प्रमथ).—

1) A horse.

2) Name of a class of Beings (said to be goblins) attending on Śiva; प्रमथमुखविकारैर्हासयामास गूढम् (pramathamukhavikārairhāsayāmāsa gūḍham) Ku.7.95.

Derivable forms: pramathaḥ (प्रमथः).

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Pramātha (प्रमाथ).—

1) Excessive paining, tormenting, torturing.

2) Agitating, churning.

3) Killing, slaughter, destruction, सैनिकानां प्रमाथेन सत्यमोजायितं त्वया (sainikānāṃ pramāthena satyamojāyitaṃ tvayā) U.5.31;4.

4) Violence, outrage.

5) Rape, forcible abduction.

-thāḥ m. (pl.) Epithet of the fiends attendant upon Śiva.

Derivable forms: pramāthaḥ (प्रमाथः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pramatha (प्रमथ).—m.

(-thaḥ) 1. An attendant on Siva. 2. A horse. f.

(-thā) 1. Yellow myrobalan, (Terminalia chebula.) “haritakyām”. 2. Pain, affliction. E. pra excess, mathi to churn, (the enemies of Siva,) aff. ac .

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Pramātha (प्रमाथ).—m.

(-thaḥ) 1. Killing. 2. Paining, afflicting, torturing. 3. Violence. E. pra before, mathi to churn, ghañ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pramatha (प्रमथ).—[pra-math + a], I. m. 1. A horse. 2. An attendant on Śiva, Mahābhārata 13, 983. Ii. f. thā, Terminalia chebula.

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Pramātha (प्रमाथ).—i. e. pra-math + a, m. 1. Paining, torturing. 2. Violence. 3. Carrying off forcibly (ŚKd.), [Draupadīpramātha]; title. 4. Killing, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 120, 8.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pramatha (प्रमथ).—[masculine] tormentor (a kind of goblin); [Name] of a man, [feminine] ā of a woman.

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Pramātha (प्रमाथ).—[masculine] tearing, rape (of a woman), overwhelming, destruction.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Pramatha (प्रमथ):—[=pra-matha] [from pra-math] m. ‘Tormentor’, Name of a class of demons attending on Śiva, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc. (cf. [Religious Thought and Life in India 238])

2) [v.s. ...] of a son of Dhṛta-rāṣṭra, [Mahābhārata]

3) [v.s. ...] a horse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) Pramathā (प्रमथा):—[=pra-mathā] [from pra-matha > pra-math] f. Terminalia Chebula or Citrina, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of the wife of Kṣupa and mother of Vīra, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] pain, affliction, [Horace H. Wilson]

7) Pramātha (प्रमाथ):—[=pra-mātha] [from pra-math] a m. stirring about, racking, paining, tormenting, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]

8) [v.s. ...] rape (cf. draupadī-pr)

9) [v.s. ...] subjugation, destruction (of enemies), [Uttararāma-carita]

10) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Dhṛta-rāṣṭra, [Mahābhārata]

11) [v.s. ...] of one of the attendants of Skanda, [ib.]

12) [v.s. ...] of a Dānava, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

13) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of a class of fiends attending on Śiva, [Harivaṃśa] (cf. pramatha).

14) [=pra-mātha] b etc. See pra-√math.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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