Khara, Khāra: 20 definitions

Introduction

Khara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Khara (खर).—A giant (Rākṣasa). Khara and Atikāya were the rebirths of Madhu and Kaiṭabha. For details see under Kaiṭabha and Atikāya. Birth and genealogy. Mahābhārata mentions as follows about the birth of this giant:—Viśravas was born from Pulastya the son of Brahmā. Kubera was born from Viśravas. Kubera ruled over Laṅkā. Viśravas who had no one to help him once looked with anger at Kubera, who, understanding the wish of his father gave him three giantesses named Puṣpotkaṭā, Rākā and Mālinī as attendants. They attended on him faithfully and Viśravas was pleased with them. To Viśravas two sons named Rāvaṇa and Kumbhakarṇa were born by Puṣpotkaṭā, Vibhīṣaṇa was born by Mālinī and the twin sister and brother Śūrpaṇakhā and Khara were born by Rākā. By and by Khara became a famous archer. Rāvaṇa, Kumbhakarṇa and Vibhīṣaṇa performed penance to obtain boons and Khara and Śūrpaṇakhā stayed with them to serve them. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 275). Other brothers. Khara had two other brothers Dūṣaṇa and Triśiras. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa). The slaughter of Khara. While Śrī Rāma, Sītā and Lakṣmaṇa were staying in the forest of Daṇḍakāraṇya Śūrpaṇakhā the sister of Khara came there once and tried to get one of the brothers Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa as her husband. Lakṣmaṇa cut off her nose and ears. She went to Khara, Dūṣaṇa and Triśiras and lamented before them. The three of them immediately started with an army of fourteen thousand giants and fought with Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa, who killed every one of them. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇyakāṇḍa, Sargas 19 to 30). (See full article at Story of Khara from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Khara (खर).—Another giant who helped Rāvaṇa in the battle between Rāma and Rāvaṇa. In Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 285, Stanza 2, it is said that "Parvaṇa, Patana, Jambha, Khara, Krodhavaśa, Hari, Praruja, Aruja, Praghasa and others fought with Rāma.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Khara (खर).—Vanquished by Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 7. 34.

1b) Śiva cursed to become Khara by the sages of Dāruvana inadvertently—described.1 Donkey born of Sugrīvi.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 27. 5-20.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 6. 33.

1c) A son of Vijvara.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 6. 33.

1d) A son of Viśravas and Puṣpotkaṭa;1 a Rākṣasa in the third talam (Vitalam);2 in the Tārakamāya;3 killed by Rāma.4

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 55; Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 49; 99. 406.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 10. 9; Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 27.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 173. 17; 177. 7.
  • 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 20. 28; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 4. 96.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Khara (खर) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “donkey/ass”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Āyurvedic literature. The animal Khara is part of the sub-group named prasaha, refering to animals “who take their food by snatching”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

2) Khara (खर, “rough”).—One of the twenty Gurvādiguṇa, or, ‘ten opposing pairs of qualities of drugs’.—Khara is the characteristic of a drug referring to the ‘roughness’, while its opposing quality, Ślakṣṇa, refers to its ‘smoothness’. It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.

The quality of Khara, present in drugs and herbs, increases the Vāta (bodily humour in control of motion and the nervous system). It exhibits a predominant presence of the elements Air (vāyu).

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Khara (खर)—Sanskrit word for the animal “donkey”. This animal is from the group called Grāmya (‘domestic animals’). Grāmya itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle).

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Khara (खर) is another name for Yavāsa, a medicinal plant identified with Alhagi pseudalhagi, synonym of Alhagi maurorum (“camelthorn”) from the Fabaceae or legume family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.44-46 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Khara and Yavāsa, there are a total of twenty-two Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Khara (खर).—Description of a women of ass (khara) type;—A woman who has a thick tongue and lips, rough skin and harsh words, is violent during sexual acts, impudent, fond of nail-scratches and biting from her lover, jealous of her co-wives, clever, not fickle, slow in her gait, angry by nature, and has many offsprings, is known to have the nature of an ass (khara).

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas

Khara (खर) refers to the twenty-fifth saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—One who is born in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘khara’ is lustful, dirty in his body, speaker of very harsh and loud words without any reason or purpose, is given to quarrelling, is shameless and possesses a huge body.

According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year khara (2011-2012 AD) will be unattractive, worthless, depressed in speech, sinful and mischievous.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Khara (खर, ‘ass’) is mentioned in the Aitareya Āraṇyaka, where a team of asses is alluded to. Probably the passages in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where the word is used to denote an earth mound on which the sacrificial vessels were placed, presuppose the sense of ‘ ass,’ the mound being shaped in this form.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Khara (खर): Khara was younger brother of Rāvana who was slain by Rama.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A yakkha, friend of Suciloma. He was passing through Gaya with Suciloma when the latter questioned the Buddha on his doctrine, as recorded in the Suciloma Sutta (S.i.207f.; SN., p.47f.; SNA.i.302). Khara had been a monk in a previous birth, and had once rubbed on his body oil belonging to the Sangha without asking the permission of the monks. As a result his body was ugly, and his skin coarse and rough and like a tiled roof. Whenever he wished to frighten anybody his skin would stand up like tiles on a roof. At the end of the recitation of the Suciloma Sutta, Khara became a sotapanna, and his skin became beautiful and golden hued. Ibid., 305.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

khara : (adj.) rough; hard; sharp; painful. || khāra (m.),alkaline substance; potash.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Khara, 2 (Sk. kṣara) water J. III, 282. (Page 235)

2) Khara, 1 (cp. Sk. khara) 1. (adj.) rough, hard, sharp; painful D. II, 127 (ābādha); J. III, 26 (vedanā) Miln. 26 (+sakkhara-kaṭhala-vālikā), PvA. 152 (loma, shaggy hair; cp. Np. Khara-loma-yakkha Vism. 208).—°ka= khara rough, stony PvA. 265 (=thaṇḍila).—2. (m.) a donkey, a mule, in —putta, nickname of a horse J. III, 278.—3. a saw J. II, 230 (=kakaca C.); VI, 261.

— or —

Khāra, (Sk. kṣāra, pungent, saline, sharp to ksā, kṣāyati to burn, cp. Gr. chrόs, dry; Lat. serenus, dry, clear, seresco to dry) any alkaline substance, potash, lye. In combination with ūsa (salt earth) at S. III, 131 (-gandha); A. I, 209.—Used as a caustic Pv III, 102; Sdhp. 281. See also chārikā.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

khara (खर).—m (S) An ass. 2 f Rubbish, dirt, or feculence of various kinds: e.g. white sediment in leucorhœa; light, fleecy, overspreading clouds, the stratus or cirrostratus; the red diffusion over the evening sky; the rubbish (old grass, leaves, sticks, dung) which is strewn over the loppings laid over ground to be burned; crumbly rock (murūma) or broken stones, or the matter dug up from a well &c. considered as rubbish; particles (of silver or gold) remaining, after fusion, in the ashes or earth; gravel and slime at the bottom of a river; sediment or dreggy matter in water.

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khara (खर).—a Sharp, pungent, pinching, biting-- peppers, heat, cold. 2 Steep, of sharp pitch, approaching to perpendicularity--a bank, a roof, any slope. 3 Exceeding (quasi sharper, smarter, swelling above);--used of measures and weights, as the sher &c. of one place exceeds that of another. 4 Of thick consistency--mud, batter, dough &c.

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kharā (खरा).—a ( H) True. Pr. khaṛyālā maraṇa nāhīṃ Truth has no danger to encounter or evil to fear. 2 Genuine, real, not counterfeit. 3 Good, undebased, unalloyed--coins, the precious metals. 4 True, faithful, honest, ingenuous, not perfidious or fraudulent. 5 Right, exact, true, square--a post, beam &c. prepared or fixed. 6 Complete, full, just, with all the surplusage custom prescribes--a purchase, as of kaḍabā with the pañcōtarī & saḷaī, of mangoes &c. with the percentage of 10, 15, or 20. 7 Fixed, settled, made fast and sure--an agreement &c. v kara.

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kharā (खरा).—m A piece of turmeric, esp. as made red by having been steeped in an acid or as peeled &c., in preparation for kuṅkūṃ. Used therefore with the words haḷakuṇḍa & kuṅkūṃ, as haḷakuṇḍācā kharā or kuṅkavācā kharā. 2 (Sing. of kharē q. v.) A pustule; a jag.

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kharā (खरा).—ad decl ( H) Well; at least; this at least grant or let be. Ex. tū tyālā bulāva tara kharā tō yēō na yēō.

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khāra (खार).—m (kṣāra S) Salt, mineral or vegetable, natural or factitious. 2 Impure alkaline salt obtained by burning plants (esp. aghāḍā or Achyranthes aspera and māṭha or pōkaḷā), boiling the ashes, straining the lixivium, and evaporating the water. 3 Saltness. 4 Briny or acetous liquor for pickling. 5 f Ground recovered from the sea; innings. 6 Fleecy clouds: also the dew which falls whilst the sky is so overspread; viewed as a blight to fruits and grain. v yē, paḍa. 7 Haziness and great coldness of weather, rawness. v suṭa, paḍa, hō. khāra differs from vāmaḷa. This may occur whether in the cold season or during the rains, following upon some heavy fall; that is confined to the cold season. 8 Moisture or dampness from salt (as appearing on the floor or wall). 9 (Commonly khara) Red clouds or red cirrus-diffusion upon the evening sky (esp. as appearing towards the close of the rains. 10 A squirrel, Sciurus palmarum. 11 m A species of serpent. 12 f A salt marsh or meadow. khāra (or padarāsa khāra) lāgaṇēṃ-paḍaṇēṃ-lāvūna ghēṇēṃ To sustain a loss or calamity. 2 To contract a slur or stigma. khāra (or padarāsa khāra) lāvaṇēṃ To occasion unto an expense, a loss, or a calamity.

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khārā (खारा).—a (khāra) Salt or saline. 2 Produced on salt marshes or grounds--a kind of rice &c. 3 Existing in salt water--fish. 4 Blowing over creeks or salt marshes--wind. 5 Hard, containing salts--water.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

khara (खर).—m An ass. f Dirt; white sediment in leucorrhœa. a Steep; sharp.

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kharā (खरा).—a True, genuine, good. ad At least; well. m A piece of turmeric in preparation for kuṅkūṃ. A jag.

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khāra (खार).—m Salt; saltness. f A squirrel. Dew. Innings. Rawness. khāra lāvaṇēṃ Sustain a loss or calamity; contract a stigma.

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khārā (खारा).—a Salt or saline; existing in salt water.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Khara (खर).—a. [opp. मृदु, श्लक्ष्ण, द्रव (mṛdu, ślakṣṇa, drava))

1) Hard, rough, solid.

2) Severe, sharp, strict, R.8.9; स्मरः खरः खलः कान्तः (smaraḥ kharaḥ khalaḥ kāntaḥ) Kāv.1.59.

3) Pungent, acid.

4) Dense, thick.

5) Hurtful, injurious, cutting, smart (words).

6) Sharpedged; देहि खरनयनशस्घातम् (dehi kharanayanaśasghātam) Gīt.1.

7) Hot; खरांशुः (kharāṃśuḥ) &c.

8) Cruel; Rām.6.59.17.

-raḥ 1 An ass, Ms.2.21; 4.115,12,8.37; Y.2.16.

2) A mule.

3) A heron.

4) A crow.

5) A kind of prickly nightshade.

6) A quadrangular mound of earth for receiving the sacrificial vessels.

7) A Daitya or demon in general

8) An attendant of (a) Sūrya, (b) Śiva.

9) Name of a demon, half-brother of Rāvaṇa and slain by Rāma; R.12.42.

1) Name of the 25th year of the sixty years cycle; खरो बालेयवर्षयोः (kharo bāleyavarṣayoḥ) Nm.

-ram ind. In a sharp way; Rām.3.

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Khāra (खार).—f. A measure of grain equal to 16 droṇas. [ 4 मुष्टि (muṣṭi)s = 1 निष्टिका (niṣṭikā); 2 निष्टिका (niṣṭikā)s = 1 अष्टिका (aṣṭikā); 2 अष्टिका (aṣṭikā)s = 1 कुडव (kuḍava); 4 कुटव (kuṭava)s = 1 प्रस्थ (prastha); 4 प्रस्थ (prastha)s = 1 आढकी (āḍhakī); 4 आढकी (āḍhakī)s = 1 द्रोण (droṇa); 16 or 2 द्रोण (droṇa)s = 1 खारी (khārī).] खारीशतसहस्रेण धान्यैनापूरितौ ततः (khārīśatasahasreṇa dhānyaināpūritau tataḥ) Parṇāl.4.73; Pt.4.26.

-rī A scar.

Derivable forms: khāraḥ (खारः).

See also (synonyms): khāri.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Khara (खर).—nt., n. of a hamlet: Divy 577.11.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Khara (खर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Hot. 2. Sharp, pungent. 3. Sharp, sharp-edged, cutting. 4. Cruel, harsh. mn.

(-raḥ-raṃ) Heat. m.

(-raḥ) 1. An ass. 2. A Rakshasa, the brother of Ravana. 3. A Daitya or demon in general. 4. A sort of prickly nightshade. 5. A crow. 6. A heron. 7. An osprey. f.

(-rā) A kind of grass, (Andropogon serratus. E. kha an organ of sense, and to get or give, affix ka.

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Khāra (खार).—mf. (-raḥ-riḥ or -rī) A K'hari, a measure of grain containing sixteen Dronas, or about three bushels: it is also reckoned at three or four Dronas; also at five Gonis, which is considered equal to 512 Ser's f. (-rī) A scar. E. khan to dig, deriv. irr.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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