Khara, Khāra: 29 definitions
Khara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Images (photo gallery)
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
1) Khara (खर) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “donkey/ass”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Khara is part of the sub-group named prasaha, refering to animals “who take their food by snatching”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.
2) Khara (खर, “rough”).—One of the twenty Gurvādiguṇa, or, ‘ten opposing pairs of qualities of drugs’.—Khara is the characteristic of a drug referring to the ‘roughness’, while its opposing quality, Ślakṣṇa, refers to its ‘smoothness’. It is a Sanskrit technical term from Āyurveda (Indian medicine) and used in literature such the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā.
The quality of Khara, present in drugs and herbs, increases the Vāta (bodily humour in control of motion and the nervous system). It exhibits a predominant presence of the elements Air (vāyu).Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Khara (खर)—Sanskrit word for the animal “donkey”. This animal is from the group called Grāmya (‘domestic animals’). Grāmya itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle).Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Khara (खर) is another name for Yavāsa, a medicinal plant identified with Alhagi pseudalhagi, synonym of Alhagi maurorum (“camelthorn”) from the Fabaceae or legume family of flowering plants, according to verse 4.44-46 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Together with the names Khara and Yavāsa, there are a total of twenty-two Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
1) Khara (खर):—Rough tongue
2) Roughness / coarseness; one among 20 gurvadi gunas; caused due activated vayu; denotes physiological & pharmacological roughness & harshness; causes depletion.Source: National Mission for Manuscripts: Traditional Medicine System in India
Khara (खर, “rough”) and Ślakṣṇa (“smooth”) refers to one of the ten counterpart-couples of the twenty Śārīraguṇa (or Gurvādiguṇa), which refers to the “twenty qualities of the body”—where guṇa (property) represents one of the six divisions of dravya (drugs).—Śārīraka-guṇas are twenty in number. There are ten guṇas with their opposite guṇas. [...] Ślakṣṇa (“smooth”) has the predominant bhūta (element) of earth, water and the associated actions of “healing/ropaṇa”; while Khara (“rough”) has the predominant bhūta (element) of air and is associated with the action “scraping/lekhana”.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Khara (खर) refers to the “rough” type of winds that were seen at the time of the destruction of Dakṣa’s sacrifice, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.34. Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] When Vīrabhadra set off thus, bad omens were seen by Dakṣa and the Devas. [...] Rough (khara) winds (vāta) raising a lot of dust blew there. Locusts and moths were tossed about by whirlwinds”.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Khara (खर).—A giant (Rākṣasa). Khara and Atikāya were the rebirths of Madhu and Kaiṭabha. For details see under Kaiṭabha and Atikāya. Birth and genealogy. Mahābhārata mentions as follows about the birth of this giant:—Viśravas was born from Pulastya the son of Brahmā. Kubera was born from Viśravas. Kubera ruled over Laṅkā. Viśravas who had no one to help him once looked with anger at Kubera, who, understanding the wish of his father gave him three giantesses named Puṣpotkaṭā, Rākā and Mālinī as attendants. They attended on him faithfully and Viśravas was pleased with them. To Viśravas two sons named Rāvaṇa and Kumbhakarṇa were born by Puṣpotkaṭā, Vibhīṣaṇa was born by Mālinī and the twin sister and brother Śūrpaṇakhā and Khara were born by Rākā. By and by Khara became a famous archer. Rāvaṇa, Kumbhakarṇa and Vibhīṣaṇa performed penance to obtain boons and Khara and Śūrpaṇakhā stayed with them to serve them. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 275). Other brothers. Khara had two other brothers Dūṣaṇa and Triśiras. (Uttara Rāmāyaṇa). The slaughter of Khara. While Śrī Rāma, Sītā and Lakṣmaṇa were staying in the forest of Daṇḍakāraṇya Śūrpaṇakhā the sister of Khara came there once and tried to get one of the brothers Śrī Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa as her husband. Lakṣmaṇa cut off her nose and ears. She went to Khara, Dūṣaṇa and Triśiras and lamented before them. The three of them immediately started with an army of fourteen thousand giants and fought with Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa, who killed every one of them. (Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Araṇyakāṇḍa, Sargas 19 to 30). (See full article at Story of Khara from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Khara (खर).—Another giant who helped Rāvaṇa in the battle between Rāma and Rāvaṇa. In Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 285, Stanza 2, it is said that "Parvaṇa, Patana, Jambha, Khara, Krodhavaśa, Hari, Praruja, Aruja, Praghasa and others fought with Rāma.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Khara (खर).—Vanquished by Kṛṣṇa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 7. 34.
1c) A son of Vijvara.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 6. 33.
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 55; Vāyu-purāṇa 70. 49; 99. 406.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 10. 9; Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 27.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 173. 17; 177. 7.
- 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 20. 28; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 4. 96.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Khara (खर).—Description of a women of ass (khara) type;—A woman who has a thick tongue and lips, rough skin and harsh words, is violent during sexual acts, impudent, fond of nail-scratches and biting from her lover, jealous of her co-wives, clever, not fickle, slow in her gait, angry by nature, and has many offsprings, is known to have the nature of an ass (khara).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas
Khara (खर) refers to the twenty-fifth saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—One who is born in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘khara’ is lustful, dirty in his body, speaker of very harsh and loud words without any reason or purpose, is given to quarrelling, is shameless and possesses a huge body.
According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year khara (2011-2012 AD) will be unattractive, worthless, depressed in speech, sinful and mischievous.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition
Khara (खर) is the twenty-fifth of sixty years (saṃvatsara) in the Vedic lunar calendar according to the Arcana-dīpikā by Vāmana Mahārāja (cf. Appendix).—Accordingl, There are sixty different names for each year in the Vedic lunar calendar, which begins on the new moon day (Amāvasyā) after the appearance day of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu (Gaura-pūrṇimā), in February or March. The Vedic year [viz., Khara], therefore, does not correspond exactly with the Christian solar calendar year.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts
Khara (खर) or Gardhabha refers to the animal “Ass” (Equus hemionus).—The Smṛtis mention several domestic as well as wild animals that are enumerated in context of specifying expiation for killing them, the flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the Manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites, the law of transmigration due to various sins committed as well as in the context of specifying gifts to be given on various occasions. These animals [viz., Khara] are chiefly mentioned in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [Chap.6], Gautamasmṛti [17.2 and 15.1], Śātātapasmṛti [II.45-54], Uśānasmṛti [IX.7-9; IX.12-13], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.170-171; I.175; I.258- 260], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.3;51.6;51.26;51.33;80.3-14], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.15-17], Prajāpatismṛti [Śrāddhatyājyavastuvarṇanam. 138-143], 9 Kāśyapasmṛti [Section on Prāyaścittavarṇanam], Vṛddha Hārītasmṛti [6.253-255] and Kātyāyanasmṛti [27.11].
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Khara (खर, ‘ass’) is mentioned in the Aitareya Āraṇyaka, where a team of asses is alluded to. Probably the passages in the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, where the word is used to denote an earth mound on which the sacrificial vessels were placed, presuppose the sense of ‘ ass,’ the mound being shaped in this form.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Khara (खर): Khara was younger brother of Rāvana who was slain by Rama.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
A yakkha, friend of Suciloma. He was passing through Gaya with Suciloma when the latter questioned the Buddha on his doctrine, as recorded in the Suciloma Sutta (S.i.207f.; SN., p.47f.; SNA.i.302). Khara had been a monk in a previous birth, and had once rubbed on his body oil belonging to the Sangha without asking the permission of the monks. As a result his body was ugly, and his skin coarse and rough and like a tiled roof. Whenever he wished to frighten anybody his skin would stand up like tiles on a roof. At the end of the recitation of the Suciloma Sutta, Khara became a sotapanna, and his skin became beautiful and golden hued. Ibid., 305.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
khara : (adj.) rough; hard; sharp; painful. || khāra (m.),alkaline substance; potash.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
1) Khara, 2 (Sk. kṣara) water J. III, 282. (Page 235)
2) Khara, 1 (cp. Sk. khara) 1. (adj.) rough, hard, sharp; painful D. II, 127 (ābādha); J. III, 26 (vedanā) Miln. 26 (+sakkhara-kaṭhala-vālikā), PvA. 152 (loma, shaggy hair; cp. Np. Khara-loma-yakkha Vism. 208).—°ka= khara rough, stony PvA. 265 (=thaṇḍila).—2. (m.) a donkey, a mule, in —putta, nickname of a horse J. III, 278.—3. a saw J. II, 230 (=kakaca C.); VI, 261.
— or —
Khāra, (Sk. kṣāra, pungent, saline, sharp to ksā, kṣāyati to burn, cp. Gr. chrόs, dry; Lat. serenus, dry, clear, seresco to dry) any alkaline substance, potash, lye. In combination with ūsa (salt earth) at S. III, 131 (-gandha); A. I, 209.—Used as a caustic Pv III, 102; Sdhp. 281. See also chārikā.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
khara (खर).—m (S) An ass. 2 f Rubbish, dirt, or feculence of various kinds: e.g. white sediment in leucorhœa; light, fleecy, overspreading clouds, the stratus or cirrostratus; the red diffusion over the evening sky; the rubbish (old grass, leaves, sticks, dung) which is strewn over the loppings laid over ground to be burned; crumbly rock (murūma) or broken stones, or the matter dug up from a well &c. considered as rubbish; particles (of silver or gold) remaining, after fusion, in the ashes or earth; gravel and slime at the bottom of a river; sediment or dreggy matter in water.
--- OR ---
khara (खर).—a Sharp, pungent, pinching, biting-- peppers, heat, cold. 2 Steep, of sharp pitch, approaching to perpendicularity--a bank, a roof, any slope. 3 Exceeding (quasi sharper, smarter, swelling above);--used of measures and weights, as the sher &c. of one place exceeds that of another. 4 Of thick consistency--mud, batter, dough &c.
--- OR ---
kharā (खरा).—a ( H) True. Pr. khaṛyālā maraṇa nāhīṃ Truth has no danger to encounter or evil to fear. 2 Genuine, real, not counterfeit. 3 Good, undebased, unalloyed--coins, the precious metals. 4 True, faithful, honest, ingenuous, not perfidious or fraudulent. 5 Right, exact, true, square--a post, beam &c. prepared or fixed. 6 Complete, full, just, with all the surplusage custom prescribes--a purchase, as of kaḍabā with the pañcōtarī & saḷaī, of mangoes &c. with the percentage of 10, 15, or 20. 7 Fixed, settled, made fast and sure--an agreement &c. v kara.
--- OR ---
kharā (खरा).—m A piece of turmeric, esp. as made red by having been steeped in an acid or as peeled &c., in preparation for kuṅkūṃ. Used therefore with the words haḷakuṇḍa & kuṅkūṃ, as haḷakuṇḍācā kharā or kuṅkavācā kharā. 2 (Sing. of kharē q. v.) A pustule; a jag.
--- OR ---
kharā (खरा).—ad decl ( H) Well; at least; this at least grant or let be. Ex. tū tyālā bulāva tara kharā tō yēō na yēō.
--- OR ---
khāra (खार).—m (kṣāra S) Salt, mineral or vegetable, natural or factitious. 2 Impure alkaline salt obtained by burning plants (esp. aghāḍā or Achyranthes aspera and māṭha or pōkaḷā), boiling the ashes, straining the lixivium, and evaporating the water. 3 Saltness. 4 Briny or acetous liquor for pickling. 5 f Ground recovered from the sea; innings. 6 Fleecy clouds: also the dew which falls whilst the sky is so overspread; viewed as a blight to fruits and grain. v yē, paḍa. 7 Haziness and great coldness of weather, rawness. v suṭa, paḍa, hō. khāra differs from vāmaḷa. This may occur whether in the cold season or during the rains, following upon some heavy fall; that is confined to the cold season. 8 Moisture or dampness from salt (as appearing on the floor or wall). 9 (Commonly khara) Red clouds or red cirrus-diffusion upon the evening sky (esp. as appearing towards the close of the rains. 10 A squirrel, Sciurus palmarum. 11 m A species of serpent. 12 f A salt marsh or meadow. khāra (or padarāsa khāra) lāgaṇēṃ-paḍaṇēṃ-lāvūna ghēṇēṃ To sustain a loss or calamity. 2 To contract a slur or stigma. khāra (or padarāsa khāra) lāvaṇēṃ To occasion unto an expense, a loss, or a calamity.
--- OR ---
khārā (खारा).—a (khāra) Salt or saline. 2 Produced on salt marshes or grounds--a kind of rice &c. 3 Existing in salt water--fish. 4 Blowing over creeks or salt marshes--wind. 5 Hard, containing salts--water.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
khara (खर).—m An ass. f Dirt; white sediment in leucorrhœa. a Steep; sharp.
--- OR ---
kharā (खरा).—a True, genuine, good. ad At least; well. m A piece of turmeric in preparation for kuṅkūṃ. A jag.
--- OR ---
khāra (खार).—m Salt; saltness. f A squirrel. Dew. Innings. Rawness. khāra lāvaṇēṃ Sustain a loss or calamity; contract a stigma.
--- OR ---
khārā (खारा).—a Salt or saline; existing in salt water.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Khara (खर).—a. [opp. मृदु, श्लक्ष्ण, द्रव (mṛdu, ślakṣṇa, drava))
1) Hard, rough, solid.
2) Severe, sharp, strict, R.8.9; स्मरः खरः खलः कान्तः (smaraḥ kharaḥ khalaḥ kāntaḥ) Kāv.1.59.
3) Pungent, acid.
4) Dense, thick.
5) Hurtful, injurious, cutting, smart (words).
6) Sharpedged; देहि खरनयनशस्घातम् (dehi kharanayanaśasghātam) Gīt.1.
7) Hot; खरांशुः (kharāṃśuḥ) &c.
8) Cruel; Rām.6.59.17.
-raḥ 1 An ass, Ms.2.21; 4.115,12,8.37; Y.2.16.
2) A mule.
3) A heron.
4) A crow.
5) A kind of prickly nightshade.
6) A quadrangular mound of earth for receiving the sacrificial vessels.
7) A Daitya or demon in general
8) An attendant of (a) Sūrya, (b) Śiva.
9) Name of a demon, half-brother of Rāvaṇa and slain by Rāma; R.12.42.
1) Name of the 25th year of the sixty years cycle; खरो बालेयवर्षयोः (kharo bāleyavarṣayoḥ) Nm.
-ram ind. In a sharp way; Rām.3.
--- OR ---
Khāra (खार).—f. A measure of grain equal to 16 droṇas. [ 4 मुष्टि (muṣṭi)s = 1 निष्टिका (niṣṭikā); 2 निष्टिका (niṣṭikā)s = 1 अष्टिका (aṣṭikā); 2 अष्टिका (aṣṭikā)s = 1 कुडव (kuḍava); 4 कुटव (kuṭava)s = 1 प्रस्थ (prastha); 4 प्रस्थ (prastha)s = 1 आढकी (āḍhakī); 4 आढकी (āḍhakī)s = 1 द्रोण (droṇa); 16 or 2 द्रोण (droṇa)s = 1 खारी (khārī).] खारीशतसहस्रेण धान्यैनापूरितौ ततः (khārīśatasahasreṇa dhānyaināpūritau tataḥ) Parṇāl.4.73; Pt.4.26.
-rī A scar.
Derivable forms: khāraḥ (खारः).
See also (synonyms): khāri.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Khara (खर).—nt., name of a hamlet: Divyāvadāna 577.11.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ-rā-raṃ) 1. Hot. 2. Sharp, pungent. 3. Sharp, sharp-edged, cutting. 4. Cruel, harsh. mn.
(-raḥ-raṃ) Heat. m.
(-raḥ) 1. An ass. 2. A Rakshasa, the brother of Ravana. 3. A Daitya or demon in general. 4. A sort of prickly nightshade. 5. A crow. 6. A heron. 7. An osprey. f.
(-rā) A kind of grass, (Andropogon serratus. E. kha an organ of sense, and rā to get or give, affix ka.
--- OR ---
Khāra (खार).—mf. (-raḥ-riḥ or -rī) A K'hari, a measure of grain containing sixteen Dronas, or about three bushels: it is also reckoned at three or four Dronas; also at five Gonis, which is considered equal to 512 Ser's f. (-rī) A scar. E. khan to dig, deriv. irr.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Khara (खर).—I. adj. 1. Solid, [Suśruta] 2, 176, 12. 2. Pointed (?), [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 87, 3. 3. Sharp, [Suśruta] 1, 76, 14. 4. Hoarse, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 28, 42. 5. Hot, Cāt. 7. Ii. ram, adv. Hoarsely, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 29, 9. Iii. m. 1. An ass, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 201. 2. A proper name, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 1, 45.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Khara (खर).—[adjective] harsh, rough, sharp, piercing; [neuter] [adverb]
— [masculine] ass, mule, [feminine] kharī.
--- OR ---
Khāra (खार).—[masculine] khārī [feminine] a cert. measure of grain.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Khara (खर):—mf(ā)n. hard, harsh, rough, sharp, pungent, acid (opposed to mṛdu and ślakṣṇa), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.
2) solid (opposed to drava, fluid), [Pāṇini 7-3, 69; Patañjali; Kāśikā-vṛtti on Pāṇini 2-1, 35 and iv, 2, 16]
3) dense (clouds), [Rāmāyaṇa vi, 87, 3]
4) sharp, hot (wind), [Suśruta i, 20, 22]
5) hurtful, injurious, cutting (as speech or word), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.
6) sharp-edged, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) cruel, [Horace H. Wilson]
8) m. a donkey (so called from his cry), [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
9) a mule, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) an osprey, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) a heron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) a crow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
13) a thorny plant (sort of prickly nightshade or perhaps Alhagi Maurorum), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) Name of a fragrant substance, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]
15) a quadrangular mound of earth for receiving the sacrificial vessels (cf. ἐσχάρα), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa v, 1, 2, 15]
16) [xiv; Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]
17) a place arranged for building a house upon, Name of the 25th year of the sixty years' Bṛhaspati cycle, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
18) a Daitya or demon, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) Name of the Asura Dhenuka, [Harivaṃśa 3114; Bhāgavata-purāṇa ii, 7, 34]
20) Name of a Rakṣas slain by Rāma (younger brother of Rāvaṇa), [Mahābhārata iii, 15896; Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Raghuvaṃśa]
21) Name of an attendant [of the Sun (= Dharma), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]; of Śiva, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]]
22) of a Rudra (?), [Harivaṃśa] ([varia lectio])
23) Kharā (खरा):—[from khara] f. Andropogon serratus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
24) Khāra (खार):—m. (ifc. [Pāṇini 5-4, 101]) a measure of grain (commonly Khāri, = 18 Droṇas or about 3 bushels; it is also reckoned at 1 1/2 Śūrpa or 3 Droṇas; also at 46 Gauṇīs or 4096 Palas, or at 4 Droṇas), [Pāṇini 2-3, 46 [Scholiast or Commentator]] (rī, [Kāśikā-vṛtti])Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Khara (खर):—[kha-ra] (raḥ-rā-raṃ) a. Hot; sharp; cruel. 1. m. n. Heat. m. An ass; imp; crow; heron; osprey. f. Kind of grass (Andropogon serratus).
2) Khāra (खार):—[(raḥ-riḥ)] 1. 2. m. Khāri, 16 dronas, about 3 bushels. (rī) f. A scar.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
1) adj. f. ā hart, rauh; stechend, scharf (eig. und übertr.; Gegens. mṛdu, ślakṣṇa): kharaviśadam hart (fest) und weich (von Speisen) im Gegens. zu drava flüssig [Patañjali] zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 7, 3, 69.] [Scholiast] zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 2, 1, 35 und 4, 2, 16.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 921, Scholiast] sa (snehapākaḥ) tu trividhastadyathā mṛdurmadhyamaḥ khara iti [Suśruta 2, 176, 12. fgg.] [1, 329, 2. 151, 5. 11. 14.] kharaślakṣṇamukhaṃ yantram [24, 4.] kharasparśā yoniḥ [2, 397, 12.] piḍakā [308, 13.] von dichten oder gezackten Wolkenmassen [Rāmāyaṇa 6, 87, 3.] von stechenden, heissen Winden [Suśruta 1, 76, 14.] ebenso kharasparśa [Mahābhārata 3, 11396.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 14, 16.] von den stechenden Strahlen der Sonne (im Gegens. zu den milden Strahlen des Mondes) [Gedicht vom Vogel Cātaka 7] : vgl. khararaśmi, kharāṃśu . Häufig von rauhen, stechenden Lauten und Reden: dīptakharasvara [Suśruta 1, 107, 19.] kharavāco mṛgadvijāḥ [Mahābhārata 3, 11399.] kharasvana [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 28, 42. 55, 31.] nisvana [6, 27, 28.] nirghopāḥ (ghanāḥ) [87, 3.] vācā nirbhartsayāmāsa kupitaḥ kharayā [3, 35, 72.] kharataraṃ vacaḥ [28, 1. 30, 39.] kṛtvāṭṭahāsaṃ kharamutsvanolvaṇam [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 7, 8, 28.] kharaṃ (adv.) cābhimukhā neduḥ khagāḥ khasthāḥ kharasvanāḥ [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 29, 9.] na kharo na ca bhūyasā mṛduḥ (von einem Regenten) [Raghuvaṃśa 8, 9.] kharaparākrama [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 30, 1.] Nach den Lexicographen: = tīkṣṇa, tigma, uṣṇa, gharma, duḥsparśa, kaṭhina heiss, Hitze, scharf, hart [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 2, 37. 3, 4, 13, 56.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 342.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1385. 1386.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 407.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 21.] —
2) m. a) Esel (nach seinem rauhen Geschrei so genannt) [Amarakoṣa 2, 9, 78.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 342.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1256.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 407.] [Medinīkoṣa Rāmāyaṇa 21.] [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 16, 3, 10. 11.] [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 2, 201. 4, 115. 120. 8, 370. 11, 68. 136. 154. 156. 199. 12, 55.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 69, 15. 3, 48, 5. 31. 6, 27, 26. 28.] [Suśruta 1, 13, 15. 193, 4. 203, 15.] [Pañcatantra II, 108.] kharoṣṭram [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 2, 160.] [Mahābhārata 2, 1833.] kharayāna [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 11, 201.] Maulthier [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 8, 44.] [BALA] beim Sch. zu [Naiṣadhacarita 10. 8.] — b) N. verschied. Vögel: Meeradler; Reiher; Krähe [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — c) ein best. dorniger Strauch [AJAYA im Śabdakalpadruma] Hierher gehört viell. die sprichwörtliche Redensart: kharakaṇḍūyitaṃ hi tat [Mahābhārata 3, 1329.] khara könnte hier aber auch überh. etwas Stechendes bedeuten. — d) parox. ein viereckiger Erdaufwurf um die Opfergefässe darauf zu setzen [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 5, 1, 2, 15. 14, 1, 2, 17. 2, 2, 30.] [Aśvalāyana’s Śrautasūtrāni 4. 6. 5. 3.] [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi] [Rāmāyaṇa 5, 28. 7, 13. 19, 2, 3.] Könnte in dieser Bed. auf khan (vgl. ākhara, nikhara) zurückgeführt werden. [WEBER] macht uns zugleich auf έσχἀρα aufmerksam. Unter gaja 4 werden wir sehen, dass khara, wie einige andere Thiernamen, auch einen zum Aufbau eines Hauses besonders zugerichteten Platz bezeichnet. — e) ein Daitya [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 1, 1, 7.] — f) Beiname des Asura Dhenuka [Harivaṃśa 3114.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 2, 7, 34.] — g) Nomen proprium eines von Rāma erschlagenen Rakhas. eines jüngern Bruders von Rāvaṇa. [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Mahābhārata 3, 15896.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 1, 45. 3, 19. 3, 1, 18. 23, 89. 6. 95, 10 u.s.w.] [Raghuvaṃśa.12, 42.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 9, 10, 9.] — h) Nomen proprium eines Dieners des Sonnengottes, mit dharma identif. [VYĀḌI] zu [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 103.] — i) Nomen proprium eines Wesens im Gefolge von Śiva [VYĀḌI] zu [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 210.] — k) Nomen proprium eines Rudra [Harivaṃśa] [LANGL. t. I, Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 310] (die Calc. Ausg. hat andere Namen). —
3) f. ā ein best. Gras, Andropogon serratus [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 2, 49.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 342.] [Medinīkoṣa] —
4) f. ī Eselin [Siddhāntakaumudī.179,b, ult.] — Nach [?Vārttika von Kātyāyana.1 zu Pāṇini’s acht Bücher.5,2,107] wird khara von kha(?) abgeleitet und der [Scholiast] fügt hinzu: khaṃ mahatkaṇṭhavivaramasyāsti kharaḥ; damit ist wohl der Esel gemeint. Vgl. atikhara .
--- OR ---
Khāra (खार):—m. = khārī [HAḌḌACANDRA] bei [Bharata] zu [Amarakoṣa] [Śabdakalpadruma] khāra am Ende eines comp. nach Zahlwörtern und ardha [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 5, 4, 101.] [Vopadeva’s Grammatik 6, 49. 56. 57.] am Anf. eines comp., s. khāraśatika, sahasrika .
--- OR ---
2) a) Maulthier [Spr. 3245.] — d) [Taittirīyasaṃhitā Comm. 1, 598, 4 v. u.] — g) [Sp. 600, Z. 1 v. u. lies 23, 39 Stenzler 23, 89.] — l) Bez. des 25ten Jahres im 60jährigen Jupitercyclus [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S.8,37.] [Oxforder Handschriften 331,b,2 v. u.] [WEBER, Jyotiṣa 99.] —
4) a) Eselin [Kathāsaritsāgara 63, 134.] — b) Nomen proprium einer der Mütter im Gefolge Skanda's [Mahābhārata 9, 2624.]
--- OR ---
4) kharīvātsalya sprichwörtlich [Mahābhārata 5, 4587.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) Adj. (f. ā) hart , rauh , stechend , scharf (eig. und übertr.). m Adv. —
2) m. — a) Esel. — b) Maulthier. — c) *Meeradler [Rājan 19,96.] — d) *Reiher [Rājan 19,87.] — e) *Krähe [Rājan 19,89.] — f) *Alhagi Maurorum [Rājan 4,44.] — g) *ein best. wohlriechender Stoff [Galano's Wörterbuch] — h) ein viereckiger Erdaufwurf um die Opfergefässe darauf zu setzen. — i) ein zum Aufbau eines Hauses besonders zugerichteter Platz. — k) das 25te Jahr in 60jährigen Jupitercyclus. — l) *ein Daitya. — m) Beiname des Asura Dhenuka. — n) Nomen proprium — α) ) eines von Rāma erschlagenen Rakṣas. — β) *eines Dieners des Sonnengottes. — γ) *eines Wesens im Gefolge Śiva's. — δ) eines Rudra (?) [Harivaṃśa .II,310.] —
3) *f. kharā Andropogon serratus. —
4) f. kharī — a) Eselin. — b) Mauleselin in vātsalya. — c) Nomen proprium einer der Mütter im Gefolge Skanda's.
--- OR ---
Khāra (खार):—m. ([234,32]) und khārī f. ein best. Hohlmaass.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Kharā (खरा):—(a) pure, genuine; straightforward; upright; honest; plain-speaking; overhot (e. g. [kharā tavā, kharī āṃca]); crisp; —[āsāmī] a good paymaster; a straightforward person; —[utaranā] to hold water, to bear examination; —[kahaiyā] a plain-speaking man; —[khela] genuine straightforward dealings; —[khela pharrūkhābādī] straightforward undaunted dealings/conduct, calling a spade a spade; —[khoṭā] good and bad, genuine and spurious; —[dāma acchā kāma] good wages good work; —[parakhanā] to distinguish good from bad, to discriminate between good and bad; —[sikkā] a good coin.
2) Khāra (खार) [Also spelled khar]:—(nm) a rainy rivulet.
3) Khāra (खार) [Also spelled khar]:—(nm) a thorn; animosity, rancour; —[khānā] to nurse a spirit of rancour (against), to have a sense of animosity; to be in readiness to take revenge.
4) Khārā (खारा):—(a) brackish; saline, salty; ~[pana] salinity; brakishness; hence [khārī].
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+247): Khara-Kana-Kara-Dishi, Kharaba, Kharabada, Kharabadanem, Kharabandhura, Kharabarita, Kharabdankuraka, Kharabi, Kharabuja, Kharabuji, Kharaca, Kharacanem, Kharacarma, Kharacatanem, Kharacaveca, Kharacavenca, Kharacchada, Kharacharma, Kharachchhada, Kharaci.
Ends with (+269): Abakhara, Abhisankhara, Acarendushekhara, Advaitamukhara, Agnishekhara, Aindushekhara, Akhara, Akharanakhara, Akkalakara-Kara-Kada-Kadha-Kala-Khara, Akkhara, Alamkarashekhara, Alamkarendushekhara, Alobukhara, Alubukhara, Ambasakkhara, Amukhara, Anakhara, Anangashekhara, Anvakkhara, Apakhara.
Full-text (+306): Kharadhvamsin, Kharamshu, Kharapriya, Kharadala, Kharapatra, Kharanas, Khari, Kharashatika, Kharya, Kharavallika, Kharasahasrika, Prakhara, Kharadushana, Kharashala, Kharamanjari, Kharika, Kharayana, Kharanada, Kharashva, Kharadanda.
Search found 43 books and stories containing Khara, Khāra, Kharā, Khārā, Kha-ra; (plurals include: Kharas, Khāras, Kharās, Khārās, ras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
The Ramayana of Valmiki (by Hari Prasad Shastri)
Chapter 22 - Khara and his fourteen thousand Demons march against Rama < [Book 3 - Aranya-kanda]
Chapter 28 - The Combat between Rama and Khara < [Book 3 - Aranya-kanda]
Chapter 30 - The Death of Khara < [Book 3 - Aranya-kanda]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 1: Restoration of Pātālalaṅkā to Virādha < [Chapter VI - Bringing news of Sītā]
Part 6: Rāvaṇa’s conquests < [Chapter II - Rāvaṇa’s expedition of Conquest]
Part 2: Break between Rāvaṇa and Bibhīṣaṇa < [Chapter VII - The killing of Rāvaṇa]
Vinaya (3): The Cullavagga (by T. W. Rhys Davids)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)