Shubha, aka: Śubhā, Śubha, Subha, Subhā; 17 Definition(s)

Introduction

Shubha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śubhā and Śubha can be transliterated into English as Subha or Shubha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Śubhā (शुभा):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Randhra, the first seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (eg. Śubhā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

Source: Wisdom Library: Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā

Śubha (शुभ, “fortunate”) is accomplished by performing mantrasādhana (preparatory procedures) according to the Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.53. Accordingly, “the śubha- (fortunate) mantra-sādhana can be done at any time; the vaśya and puṣṭya (syn. pauṣṭika, increasing welfare), should be performed in the morning; the prītināśana (syn. vidveṣa, provoking enmity) at the noon; the uccāṭa in the afternoon; likewise, the māraṇa at the saṃdhyā”.

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Purana

Shubha in Purana glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

Śubhā (शुभा).—Name of a river originating from Vindhya, a holy mountain (kulaparvata) in Bhārata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. There are settlements (janapada) where Āryas and Mlecchas dwell who drink water from these rivers.

Bhārata is a region south of Hemādri, once ruled over by Bharata (son of Ṛṣabha), whose ancestral lineage can be traced back to Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Śubhā (शुभा) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (eg., Śubhā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”

The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.

Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa

1) Śubhā (शुभा).—Dhruva’s mother. According to Harivaṃśa, Chapter 2, she was born from Aśvamedha.

2) Subhā (सुभा).—Wife of Aṅgiras and mother of seven sons like Bṛhatkīrti. (Vana Parva, Chapter 218, Verse 1).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Śubha (शुभ).—Born of Śraddhā.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 50.

1b) A god of Sutāra group.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 90.

1c) A son of Tāmasa Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 49.

1d) A son of Havirdhāna.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 45.

1e) One of the ten branches of the Supāra group of devas.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 94.

1f) A class of Apsaras from the sacrificial altar.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 56.

2a) Śubhā (शुभा).—A wife of Pulaha; mother of Haṃsa and others.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 178.

2b) A mother goddess.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 29.

2c) One of the ten daughters of Raudrāśva.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 125.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Katha (narrative stories)

Shubha in Katha glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

Śubha (शुभ) and Bhadrā were both cursed by Kaṇva, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 123. Accordingly, as Śubha and Bhadra said to king Vikramāditya“... we two, King, are two sons of gods; this one’s name is Bhadra, and I am Śubha. As we were roaming about we observed the hermit Kaṇva engaged in meditation. We assumed in sport the forms of an elephant and a boar, and having done so, we terrified the great sage in our reckless folly, and he pronounced on us this curse: ‘Become in this forest an elephant and boar such as you are now; but when you shall be killed by King Vikramāditya, you shall be released from the curse’”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Śubha, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
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Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

1. Subha. A Pacceka Buddha. M.iii.70; ApA.i.106.

2. Subha. A young man (manava) called Todeyyaputta. He once visited the Buddha in Savatthi, asking him various questions. The interview is described in the Subha Sutta (q.v.). At the end of the discourse he declared himself the Buddhas follower. While on his way back from the city, he met Janussoni, and, on being asked what he thought of the Buddha, spoke of him in terms of the highest praise, saying that none but Gotamas own peer could utter sufficient praise of him (M.i.196f., 208f.; Janussoni addresses him as Bharadvaja). Subha is described (MA.ii.802; cf. M.i.202) as the son of the brahmin Todeyya (q.v.) of Tudigama.

Elsewhere however, a different account is given of his conversion. (DA.ii.384f.; cf. MA.ii.963f., which adds that the Buddha proved the identity of the dog by getting it to indicate the place where Todeyyas treasure lay buried). Subbas father was a very rich merchant, chaplain to Pasenadi, but a great miser. After death he was born as a dog in the same home. One day, when the Buddha was going his alms round in Tudigama near Savatthi, he arrived at Subhas house. The dog saw the Buddha and barked, and the Buddha addressed it as Todeyya. The dog thereupon ran into the house and lay on a bed, from which no one could drive it away. When Subha asked the cause of the uproar, he was told the story. Thereupon he was very angry, saying that his father had been born in the Brahmaloka, and, in order to refute the Buddha, he visited the monastery. This was the occasion for the preaching of the Subha Sutta. Soon after the Buddhas death, when Ananda, was staying in Savatthi, Subha sent a young man to Ananda, with his respects and an invitation to his house. Ananda, having taken medicine, did not go that day. But he went the next day, accompanied by a monk of Cetiya (Cetaka). Their conversation is recorded in the Subha Sutta (2) (D.i.204f). See also Culakammavibhahga Sutta, which too was preached to Subha.

3. Subha. A palace guard, son of Datta. He closely resembled King Yasalalaka Tissa in appearance, and the king used to place him on the throne, decked in royal ornaments, and watch the ministers doing obeisance to him, while he himself took the guards place. One day, while Subha was on the throne, he reprimanded the king, disguised as a guard, for smiling disrespectfully, and had him led away and executed before the truth was discovered. Subha then became king and ruled for six years (120-6 A.C.). He built the Subharaja parivena, the Valli vihara, the Ekadvara vihara and the Nandigamaka vihara. He was deposed by Vasabha (Mhv.xxxv.51ff.; Dpv.xxi.45). His daughter married Vankanasika Tissa. She had been adopted by a bricklayer, but Vasabha discovered her identity and married her to his son.

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1. Subha. A group of Brahmas; the group includes the Parittasubha,Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

N Pleasant, rejoicing.

Source: Dhamma Dana: Pali English Glossary

Beauty (subha):—deliverance through the perception of: cf. vimokkha (II. 3) To hold for beautiful or pure (subha) what is impure (asubha), is one of the 4 perversions (s. vipallāsa).

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Śubha (शुभ, “auspicious”).—What is meant by auspicious (śubha)? Auspicious is some event/activity/entity which results in merit (pūnya).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1

Śubha (शुभ, “auspicious”) refers to one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is meant by auspicious (śubha) body-making karma? The rise of which causes a living being to have charming and beautiful form liked by others is called auspicious body-making karmas.

The opposite-pair of śubha (auspicious) is aśubha (inauspicious).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Shubha in Pali glossary... « previous · [S] · next »

subha : (adj.) lucky; auspicious; pleasant. (nt.), welfare; beauty. || suṇhā (f.), a daughter-in-law.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Subha, (adj.) (Vedic śubhas fr. subh; cp. sobhati) shining, bright, beautiful D. I, 76=II. 13=M. III, 102; Dhs. 250; DA. I, 221; auspicious, lucky, pleasant Sn. 341; It. 80; good Sn. 824, 910; subhato maññati to consider as a good thing Sn. 199; J. I, 146; cp. S. IV, 111; (nt.) welfare, good, pleasantness, cleanliness, beauty, pleasure; —vasena for pleasure’s sake J. I, 303, 304; asubha anything repulsive, disgusting or unpleasant S. I, 188; V, 320; subhâsubha pleasant and unpleasant Miln. 136; J. III, 243 (niraya=subhānaṃ asubhaṃ unpleasant for the good, C.); cp. below subhāsubha.

—aṅgana with beautiful courts J. VI, 272.—âsubha good and bad, pleasant & unpleasant Dh. 409=Sn. 633.—kiṇṇa the lustrous devas, a class of devas D II 69; M I 2. 329, 390; III, 102; A. I, 122; J. III, 358; Kvu 207; also written °kiṇha A. II, 231, 233; IV, 40, 401; Vism. 414, 420 sq.; VbhA. 520; KhA 86.—gati going to bliss, to heaven Mhvs 25, 115.—ṭṭhāyin existing or remaining, continuing, in glory D. I, 17; DA. I, 110; A. V, 60.—dhātu the element of splendour S. II, 150.—nimitta auspicious sign, auspiciousness as an object of one’s thought M I 26; A. I, 3, 87, 200; S. V, 64, 103; Vism. 20.—saññā perception or notion of what is pleasant or beautiful Nett 27. Opp. asubhasaññā concept of repulsiveness A. I, 42; II, 17; III, 79; IV, 46; V, 106. See asubha.—saññin considering as beautiful A. II, 52. (Page 719)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

śubha (शुभ).—n (S) Good fortune, well-being, weal, prosperity. 2 Goodness, propitiousness, favorableness (as of conjunctions, lunar days &c.) 3 Auspiciousness; favorableness of indication or promise. 4 m The twenty-third of the astronomical Yogas.

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śubha (शुभ).—a (S) Good, propitious, favorable, fortunate, auspicious, happy, that confers or promises good;--used of acts, rites, omens, signs, aspects. 2 Happy, joyous, of a light and festal nature; as opp. to funereal, lugubrious, dolorous;--used of ceremonies, rites, observances. Pr. śubha bōla rē nāṛyā māṇḍavāsa āga lāgalī. 3 Good in the popular sense. Ex. aśubhasya kālaharaṇaṃ śubhasya śīghraṃ Do bad things dilatorily or with postponement; do good things promptly.

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śubhā (शुभा).—f (S The good female.) An auspicious name of Parwati. 2 (The good sickness.) An auspicious name for the measles. 3 (Esp. in the cant of certain devotees.) A cake of cowdung.

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subhā (सुभा).—m ( A) A province, a subha. 2 (For subhēdāra) The governor of a subha. Ex. kōṇa dēśīñcā subhā muśāphara pānavathyāvara ubhā. 3 (Because she is, whilst in this state, permitted to sit idle and lordlike, and issue her orders to the household.) Applied jocosely to the state of a woman under menstruation.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śubha (शुभ).—n Good fortune. Goodness, auspici- ousness. a Good, auspicious, propi- tious. Happy, joyous.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śubha (शुभ).—a. [śubh-ka]

1) Shining, bright.

2) Beautiful, handsome; जङ्घे शुभे सृष्टवतस्तदीये (jaṅghe śubhe sṛṣṭavatastadīye) Ku.1.35.

3) Auspicious, lucky, happy, fortunate.

4) Eminent, good, virtuous; येन केनाप्युपायेन शुभेनाप्यशुभेन वा उद्धरेद्दीनमात्मानम् (yena kenāpyupāyena śubhenāpyaśubhena vā uddhareddīnamātmānam) Pt.1.358.

5) Learned, versed in the Vedas.

-bhaḥ 1 Name of a yoga; L. D. B.

2) The Almighty (aja); L. D. B.

3) Water.

4) A he-goat.

-bham 1 Auspiciousness, welfare, good fortune, happiness, good prosperity; प्रायः शुभं च विदधात्यशुभं च जन्तोः सर्वंकषा भगवती भवितव्यतैव (prāyaḥ śubhaṃ ca vidadhātyaśubhaṃ ca jantoḥ sarvaṃkaṣā bhagavatī bhavitavyataiva) Māl.1.23.

2) An ornament.

3) Water.

4) A kind of fragrant wood.

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Śubhā (शुभा).—

1) Lustre, light.

2) Beauty.

3) Desire.

4) Yellow pigment.

5) The Śamī tree.

6) An assembly of gods.

7) Dūrvā grass.

8) Bamboo-manna.

9) The Priyaṅgu creeper.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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