Pushkara, aka: Puṣkara; 21 Definition(s)
Pushkara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Puṣkara can be transliterated into English as Puskara or Pushkara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Ayurveda (science of life)
Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is a Sanskrit word referring to Inula racemosa, a species of plant from the Asteraceae (daisy) family of flowering plants. It is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. The plant is native to the western Himalayan mountain range, and various countries such as Afghanistan, Nepal and Pakistan. The roots are used for medicinal purposes.
The plant Puṣkara is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the plant is mentioned being part of the Bṛhatyādigaṇa group of medicinal drugs.(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
The Pushkara fruit is sweet, and is long retained in the stomach in undigested state. It produces the Kapham and is tonic, and heavy of digestion (hard to digest).(Source): archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Dharmashastra (religious law)
Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is a Sanskrit word for a specific tree, not further identified by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as having thorns, and should therefore be considered as wild. The King shoud place such trees in forests (not in or near villages). He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.
The following is an ancient Indian horticultural recipe for the nourishment of such trees:
According to Śukranīti 4.4.110-112: “The powder of the dungs of goats and sheep, the powder of Yava (barley), Tila (seeds), beef as well as water should be kept together (undisturbed) for seven nights. The application of this water leads very much to the growth in flowers and fruits of all trees (such as puṣkara).”(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Puṣkara (पुष्कर):—Son of Sunakṣatra (son of Marudeva). He will be born in the future and become a king. He will have a son called Antarikṣa. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.12.12)(Source): Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is the name of a mountain situated at lake Mahābhadra and mount Supārśva, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. The Supārśva mountain lies on the western side of mount Meru, which is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.(Source): Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
1) Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—Son of Varuṇa. Soma’s daughter was attracted by the beauty of Puskara and married him. (Śloka 12, Chapter 98, Udyoga Parva). (See full article at Story of Puṣkara from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—The younger brother of Nala. It was this Puṣkara who jointly with Kali defeated Nala in a game of dice and drove him away from his country. At last Puṣkara apologised to Nala and gave him back his country. (See under Damayantī).
3) Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—A sage. He was the Guru of Paraśurāma. (Chapter 151, Agni Purāṇa).
4) Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—General information. This is a holy place situated 36 Kilometres to the north of Ajmer. Brahmā once did penance there. There is a temple of Brahmā there. Padma Purāṇa gives a story about the origin of this tīrtha:—
Once Brahmā came to a place holding a lotus. Then Brahmā saw Vajranābha who was engaged in penance for the destruction of the devas. Suddenly the lotus in the hands of Brahmā fell down making a thundering noise. The sound was so loud that its vibrations killed Vajranābha. From that day onwards the place was known as Puṣkara. Other details.
(i) Arjuna spent the period after his pilgrimage in this tīrtha. (Śloka 14, Chapter 220, Ādi Parva).
(ii) Once sage Pulastya praised the greatness of Puṣkara. (Śloka 20, Chapter 82, Vana Parva).
(iii) Sage Dhaumya praised the greatness of Puṣkaratīrtha. (Śloka 16, Chapter 89, Vana Parva).
(iv) Once the god of death came and did penance at this place. (Śloka 26, Chapter 54, Droṇa Parva).
(v) Once Brahmā performed a Yāga at this place and then Sarasvatī rose up from the place in the name of Suprabhā. (Śloka 5, Chapter 38, Śalya Parva).
(vi) If one performs penance at this place peacefully one can attain mokṣa. (Chapter 297, Śānti Parva).
5) Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—A mountain in the island of Puṣkara. This mountain is full of precious stones. (Śloka 24, Chapter 12, Bhīṣma Parva).
6) Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—One of the seven islands. The other six are Jambūdvīpa, Plakṣadvīpa, Śālmalīdvīpa, Kuśadvīpa, Krauñcadvīpa, and Śākadvīpa. (8th Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—See Puṣkaradvīpa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 1. 32.
1b) The son of Sunakṣatra and father of Antarikṣa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 12. 12
1c) A son of Durvārkṣī and Vṛka.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 43.
1d) A son of Kṛṣṇa.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 90. 34.
1e) A son of Bharata founded Puṣkarāvatī as his capital in Gāndhāra.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 190; Vāyu-purāṇa 29. 8; 88. 189.
1f) Kṛṣṇa (black) Parāśara.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 201. 35.
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 45; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 14; 42. 69; 50. 119.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 13. 40.
1h) Clouds of the Pakṣaja variety.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 22. 40.
1i) The Brahmana caste of the Krauñcadvīpa.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 53.
1j) A place sacred to Hari. Sages of Puṣkara visited Dvārakā;1 sacred to Indra and Pitṛs in the Tretāyuga;2 a tīrtha; here was Adhisāmakṛṣṇa's sacrifice for three years;3 here Kaśyapa performed the Aśvamedha;4 fit for śrāddha.5
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VII. 14. 30; X. 90. 28; XII. 12. 60.
- 2) Matsya-purāṇa 13. 30; 22. 62; 106. 57; 109. 3; 110. 1; 180. 55; 184. 16; 192. 11.
- 3) Ib. 50. 67.
- 4) Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 53; Viṣṇu-purāṇa VI. 8. 29.
- 5) Vāyu-purāṇa 77. 40; 106. 69.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
1) Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Puṣkara) is named Ajogandha. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.
2) Puṣkara (पुष्कर) refers to one of the seven continents (saptadvīpa) situated within the world of the earth (pṛthivī), according to Parākhyatantra 5.61. It is also known as Puṣkaradvīpa. These continents are located above the seven pātālas and may contain even more sub-continents within them, are round in shape, and are encircled within seven concentric oceans.
According to the Parākhya-tantra, “outside that is the continent Puṣkara, where flows the river Puṣkariṇī, with sweet waters like those of the ocean of nectar, frequented by gods and Siddhas. Beyond that is the ocean of nectar, in which there is sweet-tasting nectar, and where the gods drink for the sake of the pleasure it gives their bodies”.
The Parākhyatantra is an old Śaiva-siddhānta tantra dating from before the 10th century.(Source): Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Puṣkara (पुष्कर) or Puṣkarāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Parameśvarāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (eg., Puṣkara Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (eg., Parameśvara-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.(Source): Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
1) Puṣkara (पुष्कर) refers to “playing drums” according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. These instruments are classified as avanaddha or “covered instruments”. Accordingly, “Among the drums, Mṛdaṅga, Dardura and Paṇava are the major limbs, while Jhallarī and Paṭaha etc., are the minor limbs”.
The rules of playing puṣkaras instruments with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura have the following aspects:
- sixteen syllabic sounds (akṣara),
- four mārgas,
- one vilepana,
- six karaṇas,
- three yatis,
- three layas,
- three gatis,
- three pracāras,
- three yogas or saṃyogas,
- three pāṇis,
- five pāṇiprahatas,
- three prahāras,
- three mārjanās,
- eighteen jātis,
- twenty prakāras.
Music of puṣkaras should possess all these aspects.
2) Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is the name of a cloud whose sound corresponds to the Dakṣiṇa note made by drums (puṣkara) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “after seeing that the Mṛdaṅgas, Paṇavas and Dardaras have been made, the great sage Svāti brought about a similarity of their notes with those of clouds... The cloud named Puṣkara gave note to Dakṣiṇa... Those who want Success of performances should make to these clouds, offerings which are dear to spirits (bhūta)”.(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Itihasa (narrative history)
Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.31.13, I.35) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Puṣkara) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
Puṣkara also refers to the name of a Tīrtha (pilgrim’s destination) or Pond/Lake mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.81.173, III.87.13).(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
Katha (narrative stories)
Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is the younger brother of Nala, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 56. Accordingly, “moreover, Dvāpara entered into his brother Puṣkara, having obtained an opportunity, and made him depart from the true path. And one day Nala saw, in the house of his younger brother Puṣkara, a fine white bull, named Dānta. And Puṣkara would not give the bull to his elder brother, though he wanted it and asked for it, because his respect for him had been taken away by Dvāpara”.
The story of Puṣkara was narrated by Sumanas to queen Bandhumatī in order to demonstrate that “reunions do take place, even of the long separated”, in other words, that “great ones, after enduring separation, enjoy prosperity, and following the example of the sun, after suffering a decline, they rise again”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Puṣkara, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.(Source): Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
General definition (in Hinduism)
1) Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is a Sanskrit word generally meaning “lotus” but has many other meanings.
2) Puṣkara (पुष्कर, “nourisher”):—One of the sons of Varuṇa, who is the presiding deity of the invisible world and represents the inner reality of things.(Source): Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is the name in the Rigveda and later of the ‘blue lotus flower’. The Atharvaveda mentions its sweet perfume. The lotus grew in lakes, which were thence called puṣkariṇī, ‘lotus-bearing’. That the flower was early used for personal adornment is shown by an epithet of the Aśvins, ‘lotus-crowned’ (puṣkara-sraj).
Presumably because of its likeness in shape to the flower of the lotus, the bowl of the ladle is called Puṣkara, perhaps already in the Rigveda, and certainly in the Aitareya-brāhmaṇa. Moreover, according to the Nirukta, Puṣkara means ‘water’, a sense actually found in the Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa.(Source): archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Pushkara : The brother of Nala to whom nala lost his kingdom and all that he possessed in gambling.(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism
Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—A lake in western India dear to Lord Brahmā. At this place of pilgrimage is the only authorized temple of Lord Brahmā the world.(Source): ISKCON Press: Glossary
General definition (in Jainism)
Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is the shorter name of Puṣkaradvīpa, one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) which is encircled by the ocean named Puṣkarodasamudra (or simply Puṣkaroda), according to Jain cosmology. The middle-world contains innumerable concentric dvīpas and, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.
Puṣkara is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is the name of a sacred spot mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Puṣkara is identified with the isolated spur called Poṣkar on the western edge of the valley of Kaśmīra, between Firozpur and Kag. A village Poṣkar is situated at the foot of the hill on its eastern side.(Source): archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
puṣkara (पुष्कर).—n S A place of pilgrimage, now called Pokur (pōkhara). 2 The tip of an elephant's trunk. 3 A drug, Costus speciosus. 4 A lotus. 5 One of the seven great dvīpa. See saptadvīpa. 6 A tank.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
puṣkara (पुष्कर).—n A place of pilgrimage. Pokur (pōkhara). The tip of an elephant's trunk. A lotus. A tank.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—[puṣkaṃ puṣṭiṃ rāti, rā-ka; cf. Uṇ.4.4]
1) A blue lotus; Nelumbium speciosum; ताः कान्तैः सह करपुष्करे- रिताम्बुव्यात्युक्षीमभिसरणग्लहामदीव्यन् (tāḥ kāntaiḥ saha karapuṣkare- ritāmbuvyātyukṣīmabhisaraṇaglahāmadīvyan) Śi.8.32.
2) The tip of an elephant's trunk; आलोकपुष्करमुखोल्लसितैरभीक्ष्णमुक्षां- बभूवुरभितो वपुरम्बुवर्षैः (ālokapuṣkaramukhollasitairabhīkṣṇamukṣāṃ- babhūvurabhito vapurambuvarṣaiḥ) Śi.5.3.
3) The skin of a drum, i. e. the place where it is struck; पुष्करेष्वाहतेषु (puṣkareṣvāhateṣu) Me.68; R.17.11.
4) The blade of a sword; क्रोधेनान्धाः प्राविशन् पुष्कराणि (krodhenāndhāḥ prāviśan puṣkarāṇi) Śi.18.17.
5) The sheath of a sword.
6) An arrow.
7) Air, sky, atmosphere; पुष्करं पूरयामासुः सिंह- नादेन भूयसा (puṣkaraṃ pūrayāmāsuḥ siṃha- nādena bhūyasā) Śiva B.18.5.
8) A cage.
11) The art of dancing.
12) War. battle.
14) Name of a celebrated place of pilgrimage in the district of Ajmere.
15) The bowl of a spoon.
16) A part, portion.
17) The tip of the elephant's trunk; Mātaṅga L.2.2;3.1;5.8;6.9.
-raḥ 1 A lake, pond; पुष्करे दुष्करं वारि (puṣkare duṣkaraṃ vāri) ... Jyotistattvam.
2) A kind of serpent.
3) A kind of drum, kettledrum; अवादयन् दुन्दुभींश्च शतशश्चैव पुष्करान् (avādayan dundubhīṃśca śataśaścaiva puṣkarān) Mb.6.43.13.
4) The sun.
5) An epithet of a class of clouds said to cause dearth or famine; Me.6. (v. l. puṣkala); तदीया- स्तोयदेष्वद्य पुष्करावर्तकादिषु । अभ्यस्यन्ति तटाघातम् (tadīyā- stoyadeṣvadya puṣkarāvartakādiṣu | abhyasyanti taṭāghātam) Ku.2.5.
6) An epithet of Kṛṣṇa.
7) An epithet of Śiva.
8) The Sārasa bird.
9) An inauspicious conjunction of planets.
-raḥ, -ram Name of one of the seven great divisions of the universe.
Derivable forms: puṣkaram (पुष्करम्).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 185 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
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Puṣkarākṣa (पुष्कराक्ष) is the son of king Bhadrākṣa from Takṣaśilā, according to the Kathāsari...
Puṣkarāvartaka (पुष्करावर्तक).—an epithet of a class of clouds said to cause dearth or famine; ...
Puṣkarāhva (पुष्कराह्व).—the (Indian) crane. Derivable forms: puṣkarāhvaḥ (पुष्कराह्वः).Puṣkarā...
Puṣkarapatra (पुष्करपत्र).—a lotus-leaf. Derivable forms: puṣkarapatram (पुष्करपत्रम्).Puṣkarap...
Puṣkaratīrtha (पुष्करतीर्थ).—Name of a sacred bathing-place; see पुष्कर (puṣkara) above. Deriva...
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Puṣkarabīja (पुष्करबीज).—lotus-seed. Derivable forms: puṣkarabījam (पुष्करबीजम्).Puṣkarabīja is...
Puṣkarākhya (पुष्कराख्य).—the (Indian) crane. Derivable forms: puṣkarākhyaḥ (पुष्कराख्यः).Puṣka...
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Search found 42 books and stories containing Pushkara or Puṣkara. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Yoga Vasistha [English], Volume 1-4 (by Vihari-Lala Mitra)
Chapter LXXVIII - Description of the universal ocean < [Book VII - Nirvana prakarana part 2 (nirvana prakarana)]
Chapter XXV - Sports of death < [Book I - Vairagya khanda (vairagya khanda)]
Chapter LXXXVII - Analecta of the celestial spheres < [Book III - Utpatti khanda (utpatti khanda)]
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
The Mahabharata - Third Book (by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa)
Section LXXVIII < [Nalopakhyana Parva]
Section LXXXII < [Tirtha-yatra Parva]
Section LIX < [Nalopakhyana Parva]
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Chapter 12 - The Dynasty of Kusa, the Son of Lord Ramacandra < [Canto IX - Liberation]
Chapter 14 - Ideal Family Life < [Canto VII - The Science of God]
Chapter 24 - Krishna the Supreme Personality of Godhead < [Canto IX - Liberation]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.2.121 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna: Knowledge]
Verse 2.2.123 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna: Knowledge]
Verse 2.7.106 < [Chapter 7 - Jagad-ānanda: The Bliss of the Worlds]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 4: Iatrochemistry (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Treatment for fever (139): Shlesma-shailendra rasa < [Chapter II - Fever (jvara)]