Pushkara, Puṣkara: 46 definitions


Pushkara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Puṣkara can be transliterated into English as Puskara or Pushkara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Pushkar.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is a Sanskrit word referring to Inula racemosa, a species of plant from the Asteraceae (daisy) family of flowering plants. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. The plant is native to the western Himalayan mountain range, and various countries such as Afghanistan, Nepal and Pakistan. The roots are used for medicinal purposes.

The plant Puṣkara is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the plant is mentioned being part of the Bṛhatyādigaṇa group of medicinal drugs.

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

The Pushkara fruit is sweet, and is long retained in the stomach in undigested state. It produces the Kapham and is tonic, and heavy of digestion (hard to digest).

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Evaluation of Cyavanaprāśa on Health and Immunity related Parameters in Healthy Children

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) refers to the medicinal plant known as Inula racemosa, Rt., and is used in the Ayurvedic formulation known as Cyavanaprāśa: an Ayurvedic health product that helps in boosting immunity.—Cyavanaprāśa has been found to be effective as an immunity booster, vitalizer and a preventer of day to day infections and allergies such as common cold and cough etc. It is a classical Ayurvedic formulation comprising ingredients such as Puṣkara. [...] Cyavanaprāśa can be consumed in all seasons as it contains weather friendly ingredients which nullify unpleasant effects due to extreme environmental and climatic conditions.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) refers to the medicinal plant Inula racemosa Hook. F., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Puṣkara] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Inula racemosa Hook. f.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning puṣkara] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

1) Puṣkara (पुष्कर) (lit. “the bead of the Sārasa [red]”) is a synonym (another name) for the Sārasa, according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

2) Puṣkara (पुष्कर) refers to the Eastern Common Crane (Grus grus).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is a Sanskrit word for a specific tree, not further identified by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as having thorns, and should therefore be considered as wild. The King shoud place such trees in forests (not in or near villages). He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.

The following is an ancient Indian horticultural recipe for the nourishment of such trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.110-112: “The powder of the dungs of goats and sheep, the powder of Yava (barley), Tila (seeds), beef as well as water should be kept together (undisturbed) for seven nights. The application of this water leads very much to the growth in flowers and fruits of all trees (such as puṣkara).”

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—A lake in western India dear to Lord Brahmā. At this place of pilgrimage is the only authorized temple of Lord Brahmā the world.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Pushkara in Purana glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is the name of a mountain situated at lake Mahābhadra and mount Supārśva, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. The Supārśva mountain lies on the western side of mount Meru, which is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Puṣkara (पुष्कर):—Son of Sunakṣatra (son of Marudeva). He will be born in the future and become a king. He will have a son called Antarikṣa. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.12.12)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—Son of Varuṇa. Soma’s daughter was attracted by the beauty of Puskara and married him. (Śloka 12, Chapter 98, Udyoga Parva). (See full article at Story of Puṣkara from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—The younger brother of Nala. It was this Puṣkara who jointly with Kali defeated Nala in a game of dice and drove him away from his country. At last Puṣkara apologised to Nala and gave him back his country. (See under Damayantī).

3) Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—A sage. He was the Guru of Paraśurāma. (Chapter 151, Agni Purāṇa).

4) Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—General information. This is a holy place situated 36 Kilometres to the north of Ajmer. Brahmā once did penance there. There is a temple of Brahmā there. Padma Purāṇa gives a story about the origin of this tīrtha:—

Once Brahmā came to a place holding a lotus. Then Brahmā saw Vajranābha who was engaged in penance for the destruction of the devas. Suddenly the lotus in the hands of Brahmā fell down making a thundering noise. The sound was so loud that its vibrations killed Vajranābha. From that day onwards the place was known as Puṣkara. Other details.

(i) Arjuna spent the period after his pilgrimage in this tīrtha. (Śloka 14, Chapter 220, Ādi Parva).

(ii) Once sage Pulastya praised the greatness of Puṣkara. (Śloka 20, Chapter 82, Vana Parva).

(iii) Sage Dhaumya praised the greatness of Puṣkaratīrtha. (Śloka 16, Chapter 89, Vana Parva).

(iv) Once the god of death came and did penance at this place. (Śloka 26, Chapter 54, Droṇa Parva).

(v) Once Brahmā performed a Yāga at this place and then Sarasvatī rose up from the place in the name of Suprabhā. (Śloka 5, Chapter 38, Śalya Parva).

(vi) If one performs penance at this place peacefully one can attain mokṣa. (Chapter 297, Śānti Parva).

5) Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—A mountain in the island of Puṣkara. This mountain is full of precious stones. (Śloka 24, Chapter 12, Bhīṣma Parva).

6) Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—One of the seven islands. The other six are Jambūdvīpa, Plakṣadvīpa, Śālmalīdvīpa, Kuśadvīpa, Krauñcadvīpa, and Śākadvīpa. (8th Skandha, Devī Bhāgavata).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) refers to one of the four “terrible clouds (toyada) causing dissolution (pralaya)” that arose after Brahmā spilled four drops of semen unto the ground, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.19. Accordingly as Śiva said to Brahmā:—“[...] the semen drops that fell in the middle of the altar-ground from you when you were excited by lust and seen by me will not be retained by any one. Four drops of your semen (caturbindu) fell on the ground. Hence so many terrible clouds (toyada) causing dissolution (pralaya) shall rise up in the sky (vyoman). In the meantime, (when Śiva said so) in front of the Devas and the sages, so many clouds emanated from the semen drops. O dear one, four types of great clouds that caused destruction are the Saṃvartaka, the Āvarta, the Puṣkara and the Droṇa. O excellent sage, those clouds rumbling and roaring with hideous sounds dropping showers at the slightest wish of Śiva burst asunder in the sky”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—See Puṣkaradvīpa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 1. 32.

1b) The son of Sunakṣatra and father of Antarikṣa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 12. 12

1c) A son of Durvārkṣī and Vṛka.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 43.

1d) A son of Kṛṣṇa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 90. 34.

1e) A son of Bharata founded Puṣkarāvatī as his capital in Gāndhāra.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 190; Vāyu-purāṇa 29. 8; 88. 189.

1f) Kṛṣṇa (black) Parāśara.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 201. 35.

1g) A Kingdom watered by the Sītā;1 fit for śrāddha.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 45; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 14; 42. 69; 50. 119.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 13. 40.

1h) Clouds of the Pakṣaja variety.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 22. 40.

1i) The Brahmana caste of the Krauñcadvīpa.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 53.

1j) A place sacred to Hari. Sages of Puṣkara visited Dvārakā;1 sacred to Indra and Pitṛs in the Tretāyuga;2 a tīrtha; here was Adhisāmakṛṣṇa's sacrifice for three years;3 here Kaśyapa performed the Aśvamedha;4 fit for śrāddha.5

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VII. 14. 30; X. 90. 28[3]; XII. 12. 60.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 13. 30; 22. 62; 106. 57; 109. 3; 110. 1; 180. 55; 184. 16; 192. 11.
  • 3) Ib. 50. 67.
  • 4) Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 53; Viṣṇu-purāṇa VI. 8. 29.
  • 5) Vāyu-purāṇa 77. 40; 106. 69.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.31.13, I.35) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Puṣkara) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Puṣkara also refers to the name of a Tīrtha (pilgrim’s destination) or Pond/Lake mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.81.173, III.87.13).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

1) Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Puṣkara) is named Ajogandha. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

2) Puṣkara (पुष्कर) refers to one of the seven continents (saptadvīpa) situated within the world of the earth (pṛthivī), according to Parākhyatantra 5.61. It is also known as Puṣkaradvīpa. These continents are located above the seven pātālas and may contain even more sub-continents within them, are round in shape, and are encircled within seven concentric oceans.

According to the Parākhya-tantra, “outside that is the continent Puṣkara, where flows the river Puṣkariṇī, with sweet waters like those of the ocean of nectar, frequented by gods and Siddhas. Beyond that is the ocean of nectar, in which there is sweet-tasting nectar, and where the gods drink for the sake of the pleasure it gives their bodies”.

The Parākhyatantra is an old Śaiva-siddhānta tantra dating from before the 10th century.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) or Puṣkarāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Parameśvarāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Puṣkara Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Parameśvara-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Puṣkara (पुष्कर) refers to “playing drums” according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. These instruments are classified as avanaddha or “covered instruments”. Accordingly, “Among the drums, Mṛdaṅga, Dardura and Paṇava are the major limbs, while Jhallarī and Paṭaha etc., are the minor limbs”.

The rules of playing puṣkaras instruments with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura have the following aspects:

  1. sixteen syllabic sounds (akṣara),
  2. four mārgas,
  3. one vilepana,
  4. six karaṇas,
  5. three yatis,
  6. three layas,
  7. three gatis,
  8. three pracāras,
  9. three yogas or saṃyogas,
  10. three pāṇis,
  11. five pāṇiprahatas,
  12. three prahāras,
  13. three mārjanās,
  14. eighteen jātis,
  15. twenty prakāras.

Music of puṣkaras should possess all these aspects.

2) Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is the name of a cloud whose sound corresponds to the Dakṣiṇa note made by drums (puṣkara) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “after seeing that the Mṛdaṅgas, Paṇavas and Dardaras have been made, the great sage Svāti brought about a similarity of their notes with those of clouds... The cloud named Puṣkara gave note to Dakṣiṇa... Those who want Success of performances should make to these clouds, offerings which are dear to spirits (bhūta)”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Pushkara in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is the younger brother of Nala, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 56. Accordingly, “moreover, Dvāpara entered into his brother Puṣkara, having obtained an opportunity, and made him depart from the true path. And one day Nala saw, in the house of his younger brother Puṣkara, a fine white bull, named Dānta. And Puṣkara would not give the bull to his elder brother, though he wanted it and asked for it, because his respect for him had been taken away by Dvāpara”.

The story of Puṣkara was narrated by Sumanas to queen Bandhumatī in order to demonstrate that “reunions do take place, even of the long separated”, in other words, that “great ones, after enduring separation, enjoy prosperity, and following the example of the sun, after suffering a decline, they rise again”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Puṣkara, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: archive.org: Bharatiya vastu-sastra

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) (Cf. Pauṣkaratantra) is the name of an ancient teacher (ācārya) of Vāstuśāsta (science of architecture) according to the Agnipurāṇa.—All these great teachers cannot be said to be legendary. Some used to be propagated in ancient India. No nation can flourish without its care for its material prosperity. All this technique and training and their systematic and successful teaching and transmission were of equal importance. Most of the treatises of Vāstuśāstra carry many of these names [i.e., Puṣkara], yet a good many of them are quoted as authorities, yet still others are honoured with actual passages being quoted from their works.

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Puṣkara (पुष्कर) refers to an ancient kingdom or tribe of people, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If Mars should be eclipsed by Rāhu [—the eclipsed or eclipsing lunar or solar disc as the case may be], the people of Āvanti, those living on the banks of the Kāverī and the Narmada and haughty princes will be afflicted with miseries. [...] If Saturn should be so eclipsed, the people of Marubhava, of Puṣkara and of Saurāṣṭra, the minerals, the low classes inhabiting the Arbuda hills, and the hillmen of Gomanta and Pāriyātrā will perish immediately”.

2) Puṣkara (पुष्कर) refers to a celebrated place of pilgrimage 5 miles from the city of Ajmer.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

1) Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is a Sanskrit word generally meaning “lotus” but has many other meanings.

2) Puṣkara (पुष्कर, “nourisher”):—One of the sons of Varuṇa, who is the presiding deity of the invisible world and represents the inner reality of things.

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is the name in the Rigveda and later of the ‘blue lotus flower’. The Atharvaveda mentions its sweet perfume. The lotus grew in lakes, which were thence called puṣkariṇī, ‘lotus-bearing’. That the flower was early used for personal adornment is shown by an epithet of the Aśvins, ‘lotus-crowned’ (puṣkara-sraj).

Presumably because of its likeness in shape to the flower of the lotus, the bowl of the ladle is called Puṣkara, perhaps already in the Rigveda, and certainly in the Aitareya-brāhmaṇa. Moreover, according to the Nirukta, Puṣkara means ‘water’, a sense actually found in the Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Pushkara : The brother of Nala to whom nala lost his kingdom and all that he possessed in gambling.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: archive.org: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) (in Chinese: Fou-chö-kia-lo) is the name of an ancient kingdom associated with Anurādhā or Anurādhānakṣatra, as mentioned in chapter 18 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—Chapter 18 deals with geographical astrology and, in conversation with Brahmarāja and others, Buddha explains how he entrusts the Nakṣatras [e.g., Anurādhā] with a group of kingdoms [e.g., Puṣkara] for the sake of protection and prosperity.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is the shorter name of Puṣkaradvīpa, one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) which is encircled by the ocean named Puṣkarodasamudra (or simply Puṣkaroda), according to Jain cosmology. The middle-world contains innumerable concentric dvīpas and, as opposed to the upper-world (adhaloka) and the lower-world (ūrdhvaloka), is the only world where humans can be born.

Puṣkara is recorded in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Puṣkara] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) (or Puṣkaradvīpa) is the name of the continent surrounding the Kāloda ocean which is situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“The definition of names and objects—Iṣvākāra, Meru, etc.—which was given for Dhātakī is true also for half of Puṣkara. But in this half of Puṣkara the divisions of the country, etc., are known to be twice as large as the divisions of the country, etc., of Dhātakīkhaṇḍa. There are 4 small Merus in Dhātakī and half of Puṣkara, smaller than Meru by 15,000 yojanas. At the ground their diameter is less than Meru’s by 600 yojanas. [...]”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) is the name of a sacred spot mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Puṣkara is identified with the isolated spur called Poṣkar on the western edge of the valley of Kaśmīra, between Firozpur and Kag. A village Poṣkar is situated at the foot of the hill on its eastern side.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Puṣkara.—(ML), a tank. Note: puṣkara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Pushkara [ಪುಷ್ಕರ] in the Kannada language is the name of a plant identified with Hellenia speciosa (J.Koenig) S.R.Dutta from the Costaceae (Spiral Ginger) family having the following synonyms: Costus speciosus, Cheilocostus speciosus, Amomum arboreum. For the possible medicinal usage of pushkara, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Pushkara in India is the name of a plant defined with Cheilocostus speciosus in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Kaempferia speciosa Thunb. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie (1899)
· Queensland Agricultural Journal (1898)
· Nova Genera et Species Plantarum seu Prodromus (1788)
· Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae (1981)
· Flora of the British West Indian Islands (1864)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Pushkara, for example pregnancy safety, extract dosage, health benefits, diet and recipes, side effects, chemical composition, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

puṣkara (पुष्कर).—n S A place of pilgrimage, now called Pokur (pōkhara). 2 The tip of an elephant's trunk. 3 A drug, Costus speciosus. 4 A lotus. 5 One of the seven great dvīpa. See saptadvīpa. 6 A tank.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

puṣkara (पुष्कर).—n A place of pilgrimage. Pokur (pōkhara). The tip of an elephant's trunk. A lotus. A tank.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—[puṣkaṃ puṣṭiṃ rāti, rā-ka; cf. Uṇādi-sūtra 4.4]

1) A blue lotus; Nelumbium speciosum; ताः कान्तैः सह करपुष्करे- रिताम्बुव्यात्युक्षीमभिसरणग्लहामदीव्यन् (tāḥ kāntaiḥ saha karapuṣkare- ritāmbuvyātyukṣīmabhisaraṇaglahāmadīvyan) Śiśupālavadha 8.32.

2) The tip of an elephant's trunk; आलोकपुष्करमुखोल्लसितैरभीक्ष्णमुक्षां- बभूवुरभितो वपुरम्बुवर्षैः (ālokapuṣkaramukhollasitairabhīkṣṇamukṣāṃ- babhūvurabhito vapurambuvarṣaiḥ) Śiśupālavadha 5.3.

3) The skin of a drum, i. e. the place where it is struck; पुष्करेष्वाहतेषु (puṣkareṣvāhateṣu) Meghadūta 68; R.17.11.

4) The blade of a sword; क्रोधेनान्धाः प्राविशन् पुष्कराणि (krodhenāndhāḥ prāviśan puṣkarāṇi) Śiśupālavadha 18.17.

5) The sheath of a sword.

6) An arrow.

7) Air, sky, atmosphere; पुष्करं पूरयामासुः सिंह- नादेन भूयसा (puṣkaraṃ pūrayāmāsuḥ siṃha- nādena bhūyasā) Śiva B.18.5.

8) A cage.

9) Water.

1) Intoxication.

11) The art of dancing.

12) War. battle.

13) Union.

14) Name of a celebrated place of pilgrimage in the district of Ajmere.

15) The bowl of a spoon.

16) A part, portion.

17) The tip of the elephant's trunk; Mātaṅga L.2.2;3.1;5.8;6.9.

-raḥ 1 A lake, pond; पुष्करे दुष्करं वारि (puṣkare duṣkaraṃ vāri) ... Jyotistattvam.

2) A kind of serpent.

3) A kind of drum, kettledrum; अवादयन् दुन्दुभींश्च शतशश्चैव पुष्करान् (avādayan dundubhīṃśca śataśaścaiva puṣkarān) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 6.43.13.

4) The sun.

5) An epithet of a class of clouds said to cause dearth or famine; Meghadūta 6. (v. l. puṣkala); तदीया- स्तोयदेष्वद्य पुष्करावर्तकादिषु । अभ्यस्यन्ति तटाघातम् (tadīyā- stoyadeṣvadya puṣkarāvartakādiṣu | abhyasyanti taṭāghātam) Kumārasambhava 2.5.

6) An epithet of Kṛṣṇa.

7) An epithet of Śiva.

8) The Sārasa bird.

9) An inauspicious conjunction of planets.

-raḥ, -ram Name of one of the seven great divisions of the universe.

Derivable forms: puṣkaram (पुष्करम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—name of a former Buddha: Lalitavistara 5.8 = Tibetan śin tu rgyas, very extensive.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—n.

(-raṃ) 1. The sky, heaven, atmosphere. 2. Water. 3. A lotus, (Nelumbium speciosum, or Nymphæa nelumbo.) 4. The tip of an elephant’s trunk. 5. The head of a drum, or place where any musical instrument is struck. 6. A drug, (Costus speciosus.) 7. The name of a celebrated place of pilgrimage, called Pushkara, about four miles from the city of Ajmere, consisting of a small town on the bank of a lake, whence its name. 8. The blade of a sword. 9. The sheath of a sword. 10. One of the seven great Dwipas or divisions of the universe. 11. An arrow. 12. The art or science of dancing. 13. War, battle. 14. Intoxication. 15. A cage. 16. A part. 17. Union. 18. Water. m.

(-raḥ) 1. A pond or lake. 2. A disease. 3. The Indian crane. 4. A sort of snake. 5. The name of a king, the brother of Nala. 6. The son of Varuna. 7. The Sun. 8. A kind or drum. 9. One of the principal clouds, that which occasions dearth or famine. 10. An inauspicious astrological combination or a lunation with an lucky day, and three-fourths of a lunar mansion. 11. An epithet of Krishna. 12. An epithet of Siva. 13. Name of a mountain which is situated on the Pushkara Dwipa. E. puṣ to nourish, Unadi aff. karan.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puṣkara (पुष्कर).— (probably puṣ-kṛ + a). I. n. 1. Water. 2. The sky, heaven, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 1770. 3. The blue lotus flower, Mahābhārata 1, 4704. 4. The tip of an elephant’s trunk, [Pañcatantra] 80, 8. 5. The skin of a drum, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 17, 11. 6. A drug, Costus speciosus. 7. The name of a celebrated place of pilgrimage. 8. The blade of a sword. 9. The sheath of a sword. 10. (also m.), One of the seven great Dvīpas, or divisions of the world. 11. An arrow. 12. The art or science of dancing. 13. War, battle. 14. Intoxication. 15. A cage. 16. A part. Ii. m. 1. A pond or lake. 2. A drum, a kettle-drum, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 67. 3. One of the principal clouds, that which occasions dearth. 4. The Indian crane. 5. A sort of snake. 6. A proper name.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puṣkara (पुष्कर).—[neuter] a blue lotus-flower ([figuratively] of the heart); head of the ladle ([ritual or religion]); the skin of a drum; the tip of an elephant’s trunk; water, air, the sky; [Name] of [several] places of pilgrimage. —[masculine] a species of crane, [Epithet] of Kṛṣṇa, Śiva, etc.; a man’s name.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—Bhagavannāmasmaraṇastuti. Rice. 274.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Puṣkara (पुष्कर):—[from puṣ] a n. (rather [from] puṣka + ra than [from] puṣ + kara; but cf. [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 4]) a blue lotus-flower, a lotus, Nelumbium Speciosum or Nymphaea Nelumbo (ifc. f(ā). ), [Atharva-veda] etc. etc. (met. ‘the heart’ [Mahābhārata v, 1790])

2) [v.s. ...] the bowl of a spoon (ifc. f(ā). ), [Ṛg-veda; Brāhmaṇa; Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra]

3) [v.s. ...] the skin of a drum, [Kālidāsa]

4) [v.s. ...] the tip of an elephant’s trunk, [Varāha-mihira]

5) [v.s. ...] water, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] the sky, heaven, [Prabodha-candrodaya] (of, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 3])

7) [v.s. ...] a night of new moon falling on a Monday or Tuesday or Saturday, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]

8) [v.s. ...] an arrow, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] the blade or the sheath of a sword, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] a cage, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] Costus Speciosus or Arabicus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] a part, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] the art of dancing, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] union, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

15) [v.s. ...] war, battle, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] intoxication, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] Name of a celebrated place of pilgrimage (now called Pokhar in the district of Ajmere cf. [Religious Thought and Life in India 558]), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa] etc. (also [plural]; according to, [Viṣṇu-smṛti, viṣṇu-sūtra, vaiṣṇava-dharma-śāstra [Scholiast or Commentator]] there are three, viz. jyeṣṭha, madhyama and kaniṣṭha)

18) [v.s. ...] mn. = -dvīpa, [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa]

19) [v.s. ...] m. = brahmāṇḍa, [Nīlakaṇṭha]

20) [v.s. ...] (with Jainas) one of the 5 Bhārata, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) [v.s. ...] Ardea Sibirica, [Pañcatantra]

22) [v.s. ...] (in [astrology]) an inauspicious Yoga, an ill-omened combination of a lucky lunation with an unlucky day, 3/4 of a lunar mansion, [Horace H. Wilson]

23) [v.s. ...] a kind of drum, [Mahābhārata]

24) [v.s. ...] a kind of serpent, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

25) [v.s. ...] the sun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

26) [v.s. ...] a pond, lake, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

27) [v.s. ...] a kind of disease, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

28) [v.s. ...] the regent of P° (below), [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

29) [v.s. ...] Name of Kṛṣṇa, [Mahābhārata]

30) [v.s. ...] of Śiva, [Śivagītā, ascribed to the padma-purāṇa]

31) [v.s. ...] of a son of Varuṇa, [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa]

32) [v.s. ...] of a general of the sons and grandsons of Varuṇa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

33) [v.s. ...] of an Asura, [Harivaṃśa]

34) [v.s. ...] of a son of Kṛṣṇa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

35) [v.s. ...] of a Buddha, [Lalita-vistara]

36) [v.s. ...] of a prince (the brother of Nala), [Nalopākhyāna]

37) [v.s. ...] of a son of Bharata, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

38) [v.s. ...] of Su-nakṣatra, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

39) [v.s. ...] of a son of Vṛka and Dūrvākṣī, [ib.]

40) [v.s. ...] of an author, [Catalogue(s)]

41) [v.s. ...] of a mountain in P°, [Mahābhārata]

42) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] Name of a class of clouds said to occasion dearth and famine, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. puṣkarāvartaka)

43) [v.s. ...] m. of the inhabitants of Kuśa-dvīpa corresponding to Brāhmans, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

44) [v.s. ...] of the lunar mansions Punar-vasu, Uttarāṣāḍhā, Kṛttikā, Uttara-phalgunī, Pūrva-bhādrapadā and Viśākhā collectively, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

45) b kala See pp. 638, 639.

46) Pūṣkara (पूष्कर):—[from pūṣ] n. a word formed for the explanation of puṣkara, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Puṣkara (पुष्कर):—(raṃ) 1. n. The sky; water; a lotus; tip or top; a drug; Pokur near Ajmere; a blade; sheath; arrow; island; dancing; war; intoxication; a cage; a part; union. m. A disease; a pond; crane; snake; brother of Nala; son of Varuna; name of a mountain; a cloud; an omen; a drum.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Pukkhala, Pokkhara.

[Sanskrit to German]

Pushkara in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Pushkara in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Puṣkara (पुष्कर) [Also spelled pushkar]:—(nm) a lake, pond, tank; lotus.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Puṣkara (ಪುಷ್ಕರ):—

1) [noun] a blue-lotus flower.

2) [noun] the plant itself.

3) [noun] (gen.) any of the lotus plants.

4) [noun] (gen.) any of various kinds of lotus flowers.

5) [noun] the plant Costus speciosus of Zingiberaceae family; sweet costus; elephant arrow root.

6) [noun] the tip or extremity of an elephant’s trunk.

7) [noun] the skin of a drum.

8) [noun] a kind of big drum; a kettle-drum.

9) [noun] a small drum having membranes on both sides, held by one hand and twisted or shaken rhythmically as to produce short, but repeated sounds.

10) [noun] a vessel or container.

11) [noun] the Indian crane Ardea Sibirica of Ardeidae family.

12) [noun] an arrow.

13) [noun] a sword.

14) [noun] the blade of a sword.

15) [noun] a case for the blade of a sword.

16) [noun] a large scale fight between two military forces.

17) [noun] the sky.

18) [noun] water.

19) [noun] a pond or lake.

20) [noun] a kind of serpent.

21) [noun] a feeling of frenziness as from arrogance.

22) [noun] the red colour.

23) [noun] Śiva.

24) [noun] Křṣṇa.

25) [noun] the sun.

26) [noun] a cave, cavern.

27) [noun] a division; a portion (of a whole).

28) [noun] any river or lake that is considered holy.

29) [noun] (astrol.) am inauspicious conjunction of astrological planets.

30) [noun] (jain.) an island or mythological division of the earth.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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