Daruna, Dāruṇa: 12 definitions
Daruna means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Dāruṇa (दारुण).—A Gandharva.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 11.
Dāruṇa (दारुण) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.64) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Dāruṇa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Dāruṇa (दारुण) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Dāruṇa] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
dāruṇa : (adj.) severe; harsh; cruel.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Dāruṇa, (adj.) (Ved. dāruṇa, to dāru (“strong as a tree”), cp. Gr. droόn=i)sxurόn Hesych; Lat. dūrus; Oir. dron (firm), Mir. dūr (hard) Ags. trum) strong, firm, severe; harsh, cruel, pitiless S.I, 101; II, 226; Sn.244; Dh.139; J.III, 34; Pv IV.36 (=ghora PvA.251); Miln.117 (vāta); PvA.24, 52 (=ghora), 159 (sapatha a terrible oath= ghora), 181 (=kurūrin), 221 (°kāraṇa); Sdhp.5, 78, 286. (Page 320)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
dāruṇa (दारुण).—a (S) Ferocious, truculent, savage: horrible, fearful, dreadful: harsh, violent, furious;--used of men, battles, speech, diseases, measures, treatment. Ex. ālēṃ tujajavaḷi maraṇa || yama gāñjitila dā0 ॥.
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dāruṇā (दारुणा).—m Scaldhead.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
dāruṇa (दारुण).—n Ferocious, savage, horrible, harsh, furious-used of men, battles, diseases, measures.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Dāruṇa (दारुण).—a [dṝ-ṇic-unan Uṇ.3.53]
1) Hard, rough; शोकदारुणाः (śokadāruṇāḥ) (vācaḥ) U.3.34.
2) Harsh, cruel, ruthless, pitiless; मय्येव विस्मरणदारुणचित्तवृत्तौ (mayyeva vismaraṇadāruṇacittavṛttau) Ś.5.23; पशुमारणकर्मदारुणः (paśumāraṇakarmadāruṇaḥ) 6. 1; दारुणरसः (dāruṇarasaḥ) 'of cruel resolve or nature;' U.5.19; Ms. 8.27.
3) Fierce, terrible, frightful; प्रसादसौम्यानि सतां सुहृज्जने पतन्ति चक्षूंषि न दारुणाः शराः (prasādasaumyāni satāṃ suhṛjjane patanti cakṣūṃṣi na dāruṇāḥ śarāḥ) Ś.6.28.
4) Heavy, violent, intense, poignant, agonizing (grief, pain &c.); हृदयकुसुमशोषी दारुणो दीर्घशोकः (hṛdayakusumaśoṣī dāruṇo dīrghaśokaḥ) U.3.5.
5) Sharp, severe (as words).
6) Atrocious, shocking.
-ṇaḥ 1 The sentiment of horror (bhayānaka).
2) Name of Viṣṇu.
-ṇam 1 Severity, cruelty, horror, &c.
2) The harsh, unfavourable constellations मृग, पुष्य, ज्येष्ठा (mṛga, puṣya, jyeṣṭhā) and मूल (mūla); Mb.13.14. 28.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) Horrible, terrific, frightful. fearful. 2. Dreadful, shocking. mn.
(-ṇaḥ-ṇaṃ) Horror, horribleness. m.
(-ṇaḥ) Lead- wort, (Plumbago zeylanica.) E. dṝ to tear to pieces, Unadi affix unan .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Dāruṇa (दारुण).—i. e. dāru + na (or rather darvan + a), I. adj., f. ṇā. 1. Hard, [Suśruta] 1, 295, 10. 2. Sharp, 1, 130, 14. 3. Harsh, severe, [Pañcatantra] 58, 11. 4. Violent, Mahābhārata 14, 442. 5. Painful, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 78. 6. Terrible, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 56, 8. Ii. n. Severity, Mahābhārata 13, 2144.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Dāruṇa (दारुण).—(ī) hard, rough, harsh, cruel, severe; [neuter] & tā† [feminine] [abstract]
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Dāruṇa (दारुण).—, [feminine] (ī) hard, rough, harsh, cruel, severe; [neuter] & tā† [feminine] [abstract]
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Dāruṇā (दारुणा).—(ī) hard, rough, harsh, cruel, severe; [neuter] & tdāruṇā† [feminine] [abstract]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Dāruṇa (दारुण):—[from dāru] dāruṇa and ([Uṇādi-sūtra iii, 53]) dāruṇa, mf(ā, once ī)n. hard, harsh (opp. mṛdu), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Suśruta]
2) [v.s. ...] rough, sharp, severe, cruel, pitiless
3) [v.s. ...] dreadful, frightful
4) [v.s. ...] intense, violent, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Śakuntalā; Pañcatantra] etc.
5) [v.s. ...] (in [compound] or am before a [verb] to express excellence or superiority cf. [gana] kāṣṭhādi)
6) [v.s. ...] m. Plumbago Zeylanica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
7) [v.s. ...] n. harshness, severity, horror, [Mahābhārata]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Full-text (+13): Atidaruna, Darunata, Darunakarman, Darunadhyapaka, Vipakadaruna, Sudaruna, Darunavapus, Arutama, Paramadaruna, Darunakriti, Darunatman, Kakhorda, Ramyadaruna, Darunya, Bhrishadaruna, Darunaya, Darunaka, Vajrapatadaruna, Ludda, Sadviveka.
Search found 14 books and stories containing Daruna, Dāruṇa, Dāruṇā; (plurals include: Darunas, Dāruṇas, Dāruṇās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
The Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Section CI < [Bhagavat-Yana Parva]
Section IX < [Jambukhanda Nirmana Parva]
Section XLVIII < [Bhagavat-Gita Parva]
The Padma Purana (by N.A. Deshpande)
Chapter 47 - The Birth of Garuḍa < [Section 1 - Sṛṣṭi-khaṇḍa (section on creation)]
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter LXVI - Description of the specific marks of Salagrama < [Agastya Samhita]
Bhajana-Rahasya (by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura Mahasaya)