Daruna, Dāruṇa: 17 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Daruna means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Darun.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Dāruṇa (दारुण).—A Gandharva.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 11.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Dāruṇa (दारुण) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.64) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Dāruṇa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Dāruṇa (दारुण) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Dāruṇa] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

dāruṇa : (adj.) severe; harsh; cruel.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Dāruṇa, (adj.) (Ved. dāruṇa, to dāru (“strong as a tree”), cp. Gr. droόn=i)sxurόn Hesych; Lat. dūrus; Oir. dron (firm), Mir. dūr (hard) Ags. trum) strong, firm, severe; harsh, cruel, pitiless S.I, 101; II, 226; Sn.244; Dh.139; J.III, 34; Pv IV.36 (=ghora PvA.251); Miln.117 (vāta); PvA.24, 52 (=ghora), 159 (sapatha a terrible oath= ghora), 181 (=kurūrin), 221 (°kāraṇa); Sdhp.5, 78, 286. (Page 320)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dāruṇa (दारुण).—a (S) Ferocious, truculent, savage: horrible, fearful, dreadful: harsh, violent, furious;--used of men, battles, speech, diseases, measures, treatment. Ex. ālēṃ tujajavaḷi maraṇa || yama gāñjitila dā0 ॥.

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dāruṇā (दारुणा).—m Scaldhead.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dāruṇa (दारुण).—n Ferocious, savage, horrible, harsh, furious-used of men, battles, diseases, measures.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dāruṇa (दारुण).—a [dṝ-ṇic-unan Uṇ.3.53]

1) Hard, rough; शोकदारुणाः (śokadāruṇāḥ) (vācaḥ) U.3.34.

2) Harsh, cruel, ruthless, pitiless; मय्येव विस्मरणदारुणचित्तवृत्तौ (mayyeva vismaraṇadāruṇacittavṛttau) Ś.5.23; पशुमारणकर्मदारुणः (paśumāraṇakarmadāruṇaḥ) 6. 1; दारुणरसः (dāruṇarasaḥ) 'of cruel resolve or nature;' U.5.19; Ms. 8.27.

3) Fierce, terrible, frightful; प्रसादसौम्यानि सतां सुहृज्जने पतन्ति चक्षूंषि न दारुणाः शराः (prasādasaumyāni satāṃ suhṛjjane patanti cakṣūṃṣi na dāruṇāḥ śarāḥ) Ś.6.28.

4) Heavy, violent, intense, poignant, agonizing (grief, pain &c.); हृदयकुसुमशोषी दारुणो दीर्घशोकः (hṛdayakusumaśoṣī dāruṇo dīrghaśokaḥ) U.3.5.

5) Sharp, severe (as words).

6) Atrocious, shocking.

-ṇaḥ 1 The sentiment of horror (bhayānaka).

2) Name of Viṣṇu.

-ṇam 1 Severity, cruelty, horror, &c.

2) The harsh, unfavourable constellations मृग, पुष्य, ज्येष्ठा (mṛga, puṣya, jyeṣṭhā) and मूल (mūla); Mb.13.14. 28.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāruṇa (दारुण).—mfn.

(-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) Horrible, terrific, frightful. fearful. 2. Dreadful, shocking. mn.

(-ṇaḥ-ṇaṃ) Horror, horribleness. m.

(-ṇaḥ) Lead- wort, (Plumbago zeylanica.) E. dṝ to tear to pieces, Unadi affix unan .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāruṇa (दारुण).—i. e. dāru + na (or rather darvan + a), I. adj., f. ṇā. 1. Hard, [Suśruta] 1, 295, 10. 2. Sharp, 1, 130, 14. 3. Harsh, severe, [Pañcatantra] 58, 11. 4. Violent, Mahābhārata 14, 442. 5. Painful, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 78. 6. Terrible, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 56, 8. Ii. n. Severity, Mahābhārata 13, 2144.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāruṇa (दारुण).—(ī) hard, rough, harsh, cruel, severe; [neuter] & † [feminine] [abstract]

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Dāruṇa (दारुण).—, [feminine] (ī) hard, rough, harsh, cruel, severe; [neuter] & † [feminine] [abstract]

--- OR ---

Dāruṇā (दारुणा).—(ī) hard, rough, harsh, cruel, severe; [neuter] & tdāruṇā† [feminine] [abstract]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dāruṇa (दारुण):—[from dāru] dāruṇa and ([Uṇādi-sūtra iii, 53]) dāruṇa, mf(ā, once ī)n. hard, harsh (opp. mṛdu), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

2) [v.s. ...] rough, sharp, severe, cruel, pitiless

3) [v.s. ...] dreadful, frightful

4) [v.s. ...] intense, violent, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Śakuntalā; Pañcatantra] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] (in [compound] or am before a [verb] to express excellence or superiority cf. [gana] kāṣṭhādi)

6) [v.s. ...] m. Plumbago Zeylanica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] n. harshness, severity, horror, [Mahābhārata]

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Dāruṇa (दारुण):—[The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa] dāruṇa [Uṇādisūtra 3, 53.]

1) adj. f. ā (häufig) und ī (nur [Mahābhārata 3, 765]). a) hart (Gegens. mṛdu weich) [Mahābhārata 12, 6854. 14, 1416.] dāruṇamiva hyasthi [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 13, 4, 4, 9. 1, 2, 3, 8.] dāruṇā kaṇḍurā rūkṣā keśabhūmiḥ prajāyate [Suśruta 1, 295, 10.] atidāruṇa (akṣi) [2, 349, 2.] rauh von Winden: uṣṇadāruṇavāta [1, 130, 14.] — b) hart, rauh, unwirsch, streng von Reden, Befehlen: vajrasāraprahārasadṛśaṃ dāruṇaṃ vacaḥ [Pañcatantra 58, 11.] vacanaṃ vajrapātadāruṇam [66, 19.] vācā dāruṇayā kṣipan [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 8, 270.] [Mahābhārata 13, 1879.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 62, 16.] ājñā [3, 48, 15.] n. Härte, Strenge: gīrbhirdāruṇayuktābhiḥ [Mahābhārata 13, 2144.] — c) hart, rauh, unwirsch, streng, unbarmherzig von Personen: upendravajrādapi dāruṇo si [Gītagovinda 4, 20.] im Gegens. zu mṛdu [Mahābhārata 3, 1052.] [Śākuntala 84, 20, v. l.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 4, 22.] dāruṇe pi pitā putre naiva dāruṇatāṃ vrajet [Harivaṃśa 4248.] vom Gemüth: mayyeva vismaraṇadāruṇacittavṛttau [Śākuntala 119.] n. Härte, Hartherzigkeit, Strenge: brāhmaṇe dāruṇaṃ nāsti maitro brāhmaṇa ucyate [Mahābhārata 13, 1877.] mṛdave dāruṇāya [5, 938.] — d) hart, streng, heftig, intensiv, bedeutend von Schmerzen, Leiden, Erscheinungen aller Art: vedanā bhṛśadāruṇāḥ [Mahābhārata 14, 442.] koṣṭhaśūla [Suśruta 1, 117, 5.] gudapāka [67, 19.] śvayathurjāyate bhṛśadāruṇaḥ [2, 15, 4.] vyādhi [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 68, 54.] śoka [2, 24, 22.] [Sāhityadarpana 74, 8.] tapas [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 46, 8. 65, 1.] bhaya [3, 44, 24.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 24, 34.] vyasana [Rāmāyaṇa 5, 35, 3.] anāvṛṣṭi [1, 8, 12.] tejas [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 1, 7, 26.] yatna [Rāmāyaṇa 4, 44, 116.] raṇa [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 16, 93.] — e) hart so v. a. mit Leiden verknüpft, Leiden im Gefolge habend: daśā Lage [Rāmāyaṇa 5, 56, 95.] samā Jahr [Kauśika’s Sūtra zum Atuarvaveda 102.] janman eine schmerzhafte Geburt [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 12, 78.] dāruṇakarman (im Gegens. zu mṛdukarman) energisches, Schmerzen verursachendes Einschreiten (bei Kranken) [Suśruta 2, 3, 20.] kriyāviśeṣāḥ [1, 86, 10.] rājñāṃ vṛttiṃ karādānadaṇḍaśulkādidāruṇām [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 4, 24, 6.] — f) schrecklich, fürchterlich, grauenerregend [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 7, 20.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 303.] [Medinīkoṣa ṇ. 52.] vākyaṃ śrotradāruṇam [Rāmāyaṇa 6, 101, 6.] aṭavī, vana, deśa [Nalopākhyāna 12, 7. 39. 63. 80.] narmadātīre dāruṇopalasaṃkaṭe [Harivaṃśa 5218.] astra, śara [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 56, 8. 11.] [Mahābhārata 4, 399.] [Śākuntala 156.] naraka Hölle [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 3, 206.] [Viṣṇupurāṇa 207] (eine best. Hölle). dāruṇākṛti [Nalopākhyāna 12, 13.] [Hiḍimbavadha 2, 2.] vapus [Sūryasiddhānta 11, 5.] mṛgapakṣiṇaḥ [Hiḍimbavadha 1, 17.] pippīlikāḥ [Suśruta 2, 510, 4.] nāgāḥ [Indralokāgamana 1, 6.] daityendrau [Sundopasundopākhyāna 1, 3.] tāḍakā [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 28, 24.] grahāḥ Planeten [?2, 41,10 (Gorresio 40, 10).] von bestimmten Sternbildern (vgl. ugra 2, e) [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 32, 19.] ripu [Prabodhacandrodaja 31, 16.] āsurī māyā [Mahābhārata 3, 765.] bhrūkuṭī [Rāmāyaṇa 5, 89, 2.] karman [Vetālapañcaviṃśati 18, 2.] na taddāruṇaṃ (karma eingeschaltet in der v. l.) pāpīyasāmudāhriyate [Prabodhacandrodaja 10, 13.] adv.: śapsye haṃ suduḥkhamatidāruṇam [Daśaratha’s Tod 2, 51.] m. (sc. rasa) [Medinīkoṣa] — g) am Anfange eines comp. oder dāruṇam vor einem Verbum finitum (das nachstehende Glied im comp. und das Verbum fin. unbetont) als Ausdruck des Lobes gaṇa kāṣṭhādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 8, 1, 67. 68.] dāruṇādhyāpaka wohl so v. a. ein unverdrossener Lehrer [Scholiast] —

2) m. Plumbago zeylanica Lin. (citraka) [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — Wohl von dāru Holzstück; beachtenswerth ist auch der Umstand, dass kāṣṭha Holzstück auch in der u. g angegebenen Bedeutung gebraucht wird. Viell. stehen auch kaṭhina und kaṭhora in einem etym. Zusammenhange mit kāṣṭha .

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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