Daruna, Dāruṇa: 29 definitions


Daruna means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Darun.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Dāruṇa (दारुण) (Cf. Sudāruṇa) refers to “severe (penance)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.15 (“The penance and reign of Tārakāsura”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “[...] Then the demon Tāraka, of great strength and exploit, endowed with a lofty mind, requested permission of his mother for performing penance. The permission having been secured, that demon possessing great power of illusion and capable of deluding even experts in the magical art, thought of performing penance in order to conquer all the gods. Strictly adhering to the directions of his elders and preceptors he went to the forest of Madhu and performed a severe [i.e., sudāruṇa] penance duly, having Brahmā as his objective. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Dāruṇa (दारुण).—A Gandharva.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 11.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Dāruṇa (दारुण) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.64) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Dāruṇa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Dāruṇa (दारुण):—Hard

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Dāruṇa (दारुण) (lit. “one who is dreadful”) is a synonym (another name) for Garuḍa, according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Dāruṇa (दारुण) is another name for Citraka, a medicinal plant identified with (1) [white variety] Plumbago zeylanica Linn.; (2) [red variety] Plumbago rosea Linn. syn. or Plumbago indica Linn., both from the Plumbaginaceae or “leadwort” family of flowering plants, according to verse 6.43-45 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu.—The sixth chapter (pippalyādi-varga) of this book enumerates ninety-five varieties of plants obtained from the market (paṇyauṣadhi). Together with the names Dāruṇa and Citraka, there are a total of twenty Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Dāruṇa (दारुण) refers to “(places that are) terrifying”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “One should institute a great sacrifice at times of great fear, [...]. One should make a level canopy measuring sixteen (hand-spans) in a frightening forest, [...], or (places) that are tranquil, terrifying [i.e., dāruṇa], or romantic as one pleases. Beautiful with flags and garlands, (it is erected) to (win) victory in battle with the enemy and for other purposes as they arise, each separately”.

2) Dāruṇa (दारुण) refers to one of the eight Guardians (kṣetrapāla-aṣṭaka) associated with Oṃkārapīṭha (also called Oḍḍiyāna, Ādipīṭha or Uḍapīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight guardians (kṣetrapālāṣṭaka): Kāla, Ḍāmara, Laṃboṣṭa, Daṃṣṭrin, Dundhubhi, Dāruṇa, Durdhara, Raudra

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Dāruṇa (दारुण) refers to “cruel”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 9), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If Venus should enter the constellation of Āśleṣā there will be much suffering from serpents [i.e., bhujaṅgama-dāruṇa-pīḍā]; it Venus should pass through the constellation of Magha, elephant keepers or ministers will suffer and there will be abundance of rain. If Venus should pass through the constellation of Pūrvaphalgunī, hill men and the people of Pulinda will perish and there will be abundance of rain; if she should pass through the constellation of Uttaraphalgunī, the people of Kuru, of Jāṅgala and of Pāñcāla will perish, and there will also be rain”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Universität Wien: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Dāruṇa (दारुण) refers to “dreadful”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “An abnormal modification caused by a aggressive ritual against Kings, occurring at the improper time, dreadful (dāruṇa) and all-reaching, is characterized by the these signs: Suddenly horses, elephants and ministers perish, the king himself suffers from a serious illness which has seized [his] body; terrifying thunderbolts strike his dominion; [...] from such and other signs he should understand that the enemy is performing a aggressive ritual”.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Dāruṇa (दारुण) refers to “dreadful (sin)”, according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Whatever injuries to the three jewels, or to father and mother by me, Abuses to the gurus or other teachers, done by body, speech and mind, Corrupted by much wickedness, by me and by my sins, heroes, Whatever dreadful (dāruṇa) sin was done [e.g., yat kṛtaṃ dāruṇaṃ pāpaṃ], all of that I confess”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Dāruṇa (दारुण) refers to “severe (suffering)”, according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly, [after hostile Nāgas released winds, thunderbolts, etc.] “[...] Beings experience great and severe suffering (dāruṇa-duḥkha). Listen, O Nāgas, there is the evident empowerment of the Tathāgata’s miracles. Behold the deep knowledge of the Buddha, the power of the Tathāgata, the empowerment of special merit”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Dāruṇa (दारुण) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Dāruṇa] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Daruna in India is the name of a plant defined with Plumbago zeylanica in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Plumbago rosea L. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Species Plantarum (1753)
· Fieldiana, Botany (1966)
· Species Plantarum (1762)
· Prodr. Fl. SW. Afr. (1967)
· FBI (1882)
· Flora of Southern Africa (1963)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Daruna, for example pregnancy safety, extract dosage, side effects, chemical composition, diet and recipes, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

dāruṇa : (adj.) severe; harsh; cruel.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Dāruṇa, (adj.) (Ved. dāruṇa, to dāru (“strong as a tree”), cp. Gr. droόn=i)sxurόn Hesych; Lat. dūrus; Oir. dron (firm), Mir. dūr (hard) Ags. trum) strong, firm, severe; harsh, cruel, pitiless S.I, 101; II, 226; Sn.244; Dh.139; J.III, 34; Pv IV.36 (=ghora PvA.251); Miln.117 (vāta); PvA.24, 52 (=ghora), 159 (sapatha a terrible oath= ghora), 181 (=kurūrin), 221 (°kāraṇa); Sdhp.5, 78, 286. (Page 320)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dāruṇa (दारुण).—a (S) Ferocious, truculent, savage: horrible, fearful, dreadful: harsh, violent, furious;--used of men, battles, speech, diseases, measures, treatment. Ex. ālēṃ tujajavaḷi maraṇa || yama gāñjitila dā0 ॥.

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dāruṇā (दारुणा).—m Scaldhead.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dāruṇa (दारुण).—n Ferocious, savage, horrible, harsh, furious-used of men, battles, diseases, measures.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dāruṇa (दारुण).—a [dṝ-ṇic-unan Uṇādi-sūtra 3.53]

1) Hard, rough; शोकदारुणाः (śokadāruṇāḥ) (vācaḥ) Uttararāmacarita 3.34.

2) Harsh, cruel, ruthless, pitiless; मय्येव विस्मरणदारुणचित्तवृत्तौ (mayyeva vismaraṇadāruṇacittavṛttau) Ś.5.23; पशुमारणकर्मदारुणः (paśumāraṇakarmadāruṇaḥ) 6. 1; दारुणरसः (dāruṇarasaḥ) 'of cruel resolve or nature;' Uttararāmacarita 5.19; Ms. 8.27.

3) Fierce, terrible, frightful; प्रसादसौम्यानि सतां सुहृज्जने पतन्ति चक्षूंषि न दारुणाः शराः (prasādasaumyāni satāṃ suhṛjjane patanti cakṣūṃṣi na dāruṇāḥ śarāḥ) Ś.6.28.

4) Heavy, violent, intense, poignant, agonizing (grief, pain &c.); हृदयकुसुमशोषी दारुणो दीर्घशोकः (hṛdayakusumaśoṣī dāruṇo dīrghaśokaḥ) Uttararāmacarita 3.5.

5) Sharp, severe (as words).

6) Atrocious, shocking.

-ṇaḥ 1 The sentiment of horror (bhayānaka).

2) Name of Viṣṇu.

-ṇam 1 Severity, cruelty, horror, &c.

2) The harsh, unfavourable constellations मृग, पुष्य, ज्येष्ठा (mṛga, puṣya, jyeṣṭhā) and मूल (mūla); Mahābhārata (Bombay) 13.14. 28.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāruṇa (दारुण).—mfn.

(-ṇaḥ-ṇā-ṇaṃ) Horrible, terrific, frightful. fearful. 2. Dreadful, shocking. mn.

(-ṇaḥ-ṇaṃ) Horror, horribleness. m.

(-ṇaḥ) Lead- wort, (Plumbago zeylanica.) E. dṝ to tear to pieces, Unadi affix unan .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāruṇa (दारुण).—i. e. dāru + na (or rather darvan + a), I. adj., f. ṇā. 1. Hard, [Suśruta] 1, 295, 10. 2. Sharp, 1, 130, 14. 3. Harsh, severe, [Pañcatantra] 58, 11. 4. Violent, Mahābhārata 14, 442. 5. Painful, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 78. 6. Terrible, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 56, 8. Ii. n. Severity, Mahābhārata 13, 2144.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāruṇa (दारुण).—(ī) hard, rough, harsh, cruel, severe; [neuter] & † [feminine] [abstract]

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Dāruṇa (दारुण).—, [feminine] (ī) hard, rough, harsh, cruel, severe; [neuter] & † [feminine] [abstract]

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Dāruṇā (दारुणा).—(ī) hard, rough, harsh, cruel, severe; [neuter] & tdāruṇā† [feminine] [abstract]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dāruṇa (दारुण):—[from dāru] dāruṇa and ([Uṇādi-sūtra iii, 53]) dāruṇa, mf(ā, once ī)n. hard, harsh (opp. mṛdu), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Mahābhārata; Suśruta]

2) [v.s. ...] rough, sharp, severe, cruel, pitiless

3) [v.s. ...] dreadful, frightful

4) [v.s. ...] intense, violent, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Śakuntalā; Pañcatantra] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] (in [compound] or am before a [verb] to express excellence or superiority cf. [gana] kāṣṭhādi)

6) [v.s. ...] m. Plumbago Zeylanica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] n. harshness, severity, horror, [Mahābhārata]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dāruṇa (दारुण):—[(ṇaḥ-ṇaṃ)] 1. m. n. Horror. m. Lead-wort. a. Horrible.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Dāruṇa (दारुण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Dāruṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Daruna in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Dāruṇa (दारुण) [Also spelled darun]:—(a) awful; horrible; severe; heart-rending; hence ~[] (nf).

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Dāruṇa (दारुण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Dāruṇa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Dāruṇa (ದಾರುಣ):—[adjective] causing distress; dreadful; terrible; fierce.

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Dāruṇa (ದಾರುಣ):—

1) [noun] the quality or tendency of being fierce or the state of being distressed; fierceness; terribleness.

2) [noun] a dreadful man; a ruthless fellow.

3) [noun] that which causes dread (as a condition).

4) [noun] (myth.) name of a hell.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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