Karaka, Kāraka, Karakā: 24 definitions



Karaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Karaka (करक) is another name (synonym) for Karbudāra, which is the Sanskrit word for Bauhinia variegata (orchid tree), a plant from the Cleomaceae family. This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verse 13.99), which is an Ayurvedic medicinal thesaurus.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Karakā (करका) refers to “hailstone”, the water from which is classified as celestial type of water (jala) according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Different types of water (jala) and their properties are mentioned here [viz., in jala-prakaraṇa]. The water is classified into two as celestial and terrestrial ones. Celestial waters are again subdivided into four types, [viz., hailstone water (karakā-bhava)].

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Karaka (करक) refers to “hailstones”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Sitā said to Śiva:—“[...] the most unbearable season of the advent of clouds (ghanāgama or jaladāgama) has arrived with clusters of clouds of diverse hues, and their music reverberating in the sky and the various quarters. [...] See the wickedness perpetrated by the clouds on my body. They are pelting it with hailstones (karaka). But they cover and protect the peacocks and Cātakas who are their followers”.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Karaka (करक).—A place of habitation in ancient India. Chapter 9, Bhīṣma Parva).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Karaka (करक).—A small water vessel. In it Manu let the fish.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 1. 18.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: archive.org: Uṇādi-Sūtras In The Sanskrit Grammatical Tradition

Kāraka (कारक).—One of the technical terms which have been used in the uṇādi-sūtras;—“The word ‘kāraka’, in short, means the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action.” In the Aṣṭādhyāyī, by the paribhāṣā-sūtrayena vidhistadantasyakāraka means a pada that ends in one of the kārakavibhaktis. Exactly in the same sense it is noticed in the uṇādi-sūtras.

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Kāraka (कारक).—Literally means the doer of an action. Actually the word kāraka means the capacity, instrumental in bringing about an action. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the caseendings. There are six kārakas: kartṛ (nominative), karman (accusative), karaṇa (instrumental), sampradāna (dative), apādāna (ablative), adhikaraṇa (locative). Saṃbandha (genitive) is not accepted as a kāraka by the Sanskrit Grammarians.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Kāraka (कारक).—lit. doer of an action. The word is used in the technical sense ; 1 of ’instrument of action'; cf कारक-शब्दश्च निमित्तपर्यायः । कारकं हेतुरिति नार्था-न्तरम् । कस्य हेतुः । क्रियायाः (kāraka-śabdaśca nimittaparyāyaḥ | kārakaṃ heturiti nārthā-ntaram | kasya hetuḥ | kriyāyāḥ) Kāś. on P.I. 4.23: cf. also कारक इति संज्ञानिर्देशः । साधकं निर्वर्तकं कारकसंज्ञं भवति । (kāraka iti saṃjñānirdeśaḥ | sādhakaṃ nirvartakaṃ kārakasaṃjñaṃ bhavati |) M.Bh. on P. I. 4.28. The word 'kāraka' in short, means 'the capacity in which a thing becomes instrumental in bringing about an action'. This capacity is looked upon as the sense of the case-affixes which express it. There are six kārakas given in all grammar treatises अपादान, संप्रदान, अधिकरण, करण, कर्मन् (apādāna, saṃpradāna, adhikaraṇa, karaṇa, karman) and कर्तृ (kartṛ) to express which the case affixes or Vibhaktis पञ्चमी, चतुर्थी, सप्तमी, तृतीया, द्वितीया (pañcamī, caturthī, saptamī, tṛtīyā, dvitīyā) and प्रथमा (prathamā) are respectively used which, hence, are called Kārakavibhaktis as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktis, which show a relation between two substantives and hence are looked upon as weaker than the Kārakavibhaktis; cf. उपपदविभक्तेः कारकविभक्तिर्बलीयसी (upapadavibhakteḥ kārakavibhaktirbalīyasī) Pari. Śek. Pari.94. The topic explaining Kārakavibhaktis is looked upon as a very important and difficult chapter in treatises of grammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealing with kārakas only. For the topic of Kārakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat, II. 4.8-42, Vyākaraṇa Mahābhāṣya Vol. VII. pp.262-264 published by the D. E. Society, Poona.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A village in Ceylon, near Serisara. Ras.ii.183.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Karaka (करक, “ice”) refers to an article of food classified as abhakṣya (forbidden to eat) according to Nemicandra (in his Pravacana-sāroddhāra v245-246). Snow and ice (karaka) are forbidden because their consumption necessitates the destruction of ap-kāyas whilst they are not essential to life like water itself.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kāraka (कारक, “restraint”) refers to one of the three types of Saṃyagdarśana (“right-belief”), as mentioned in chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as mentioned in Ṛṣabha’s sermon:—

“[...] mokṣa is attained by those who practice unceasingly the brilliant triad of knowledge, faith, and conduct. Attachment to the principles told by the scriptures is called ‘right-belief’ (saṃyakśraddhāna or saṃyagdarśana), and is produced by intuition or instruction of a Guru. [...] Right-belief is three-fold from the stand-point of qualities (guṇas), namely rocaka, dīpaka, and kāraka. In the case of a firm uprising of confidence in the principles described in the scriptures, without reason and illustration, that is rocaka. It is called dīpaka, when it is a light for right-belief for others; kāraka, when it is the cause of restraint, penance, etc.”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kāraka.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘six’. Cf. Prakrit Karavaka (EI 12), same as Prakrit Kārāpaka; superintendent of the construction of a building. Note: kāraka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

karaka : (nt.) a drinking vessel. (m.), pomegranate tree. || karakā (nt.), hail. kāraka (m.), the doer. (nt.), syntax (in gram).

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kāraka, (usually —°) the doer (of): Vin. II, 221 (capu-capu°); sāsana° he who does according to (my) advice Sn. 445; Bdhd 85 sq.;— f. kārikā: veyyāvacca° a servant PvA. 65 (text reads °tā); as n. the performance of (-°), service: dukkara-kārikā the performance of evil deeds S. I, 103; Th. 2, 413 (=ThA. 267). —agga-kārikā first test, sample Vin. III, 80. (Page 210)

— or —

Karaka, 1 (Etymology unknown. The Sanskrit is also karaka, and the medieval koṣas give as meaning, besides drinking vessel, also a coco-nut shell used as such (with which may be compared Lat. carīna, nutshell, keel of a boat; and Gr. kaρua, nut.) It is scarcely possible that this could have been the original meaning. The coconut was not cultivated, perhaps not even known, in Kosala at the date of the rise of Pali and Buddhism) 1. Water-pot, drinking-vessel (=: pānīya-bhājana PvA. 251). It is one of the seven requisites of a samaṇa Vin. II, 302. It is called dhammakaraka there, and at II. 118, 177. This means “regulation waterpot” as it was provided with a strainer (parissavana) to prevent injury to living things. See also Miln. 68; Pv III, 224; PvA. 185.—2. hail (also karakā) J. IV, 167; Miln. 308; Mhvs XII. 9.

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context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

karaka (करक).—m (karīra S) Shoots of the plant diṇḍā when boiled. 2 f A lancinating pain (in the neck, loins, back) from strains or rheumatism. See dhamaka.

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karaka (करक).—m n S The water-pot of the student or ascetic; or the shell of a cocoanut hollowed to form a vessel.

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kāraka (कारक).—a (S) That does, causes, effects, actuates, produces. In comp. as śāntikāraka, puṣṭikāraka. Of this class there are many hundreds, and hundreds more may be constructed. They are classical and serviceable words, but, being constructible at option, are all omitted.

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kāraka (कारक).—n (S) In grammar. A case. Six are reckoned, viz. karttā, karma, karaṇa, sampradāna, apādāna, adhidhikaraṇa. 2 In Sanskrit grammar. That portion comprising all nouns which imply the agent, object, instrument &c. or any thing except the simple and radical idea: including also the application of the cases.

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kāraka (कारक).—a R (kāra) Prepared with compost or manure.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kāraka (कारक).—a That does, causes, effects, &c. . nimitta Causative agency.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Karaka (करक).—[kirati karoti vā jalamatra, kṝ-kṛ-vun Tv.]

1) The water-pot (of an ascetic); K.41. एष पार्श्वतः करकः तमानय (eṣa pārśvataḥ karakaḥ tamānaya) Mahābhārata on P.VIII.2.84. अजिनानि विधुन्वन्तः करकांश्च द्विजर्षभाः (ajināni vidhunvantaḥ karakāṃśca dvijarṣabhāḥ) Mb.1.19.1. त्रिपदैः करकैः स्थाललैश्चषकैश्च पतद्ग्रहैः (tripadaiḥ karakaiḥ sthālalaiścaṣakaiśca patadgrahaiḥ) Śiva. B.22.62.

2) The shell of the cocoanut (used as a pot).

-kaḥ 1 The pomegranate tree.

2) Hand.

3) Tax.

4) A kind of bird.

5) A loud cry.

-kaḥ, -kā, -kam Hail; तान्कुर्वीथास्तुमुलकरकावृष्टिपातावकीर्णान् (tānkurvīthāstumulakarakāvṛṣṭipātāvakīrṇān) Me. 56; Bv.1.35; U.3.4;

Derivable forms: karakaḥ (करकः), karakam (करकम्).

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Kāraka (कारक).—a. (-rikā f.) [कृ-ण्वुल् (kṛ-ṇvul)] (Usually at the end of comp.)

1) Making, acting, doing, performing, creating, doer &c. स्वप्नस्य कारकः (svapnasya kārakaḥ) Y.3.15;2.156; वर्णसंकर- कारकैः (varṇasaṃkara- kārakaiḥ) Bg.1.42; Ms.7.24; Pt.5.36. कारका मित्रकार्याणि सीतालाभाय सोऽब्रवीत् (kārakā mitrakāryāṇi sītālābhāya so'bravīt) Bk.7.29.

2) An agent.

3) Intending to act or do.

-kam 1 (In Gram.) The relation subsisting between a noun and a verb in a sentence, (or between a noun and other words governing it); there are six such Kārakas, belonging to the first seven cases, except the genitive: (1) कर्त (karta); (2) कर्मन् (karman); (3) करण (karaṇa); (4) संप्रदान (saṃpradāna); (5) अपादान (apādāna); (6) अधिकरण (adhikaraṇa).

2) That part of grammar which treats of these relations; i. e. syntax.

3) Water produced from hail.

4) An organ (indriya); जगाद जीमूतगभीरया गिरा बद्धाञ्जलीन्संवृतसर्व- कारकान् (jagāda jīmūtagabhīrayā girā baddhāñjalīnsaṃvṛtasarva- kārakān) Bhāg.8.6.16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Karaka (करक).—(1) = prec., in same [compound]: Divyāvadāna 37.1—2; 341.29; Avadāna-śataka i.3.5; Speyer, Index, takes kara(ka) in this [compound] as = Sanskrit and Pali karaka, water-pot, but see s.v. kāṭaka, which may be related (in [compound] pātra-k°), and even if not related, seems to disprove Speyer; (2) (= AMg. karaga; in Sanskrit kāraka, not karaka, is used in this sense, as also in Pali) doer, one who does: Lalitavistara 340.4 (verse) karaka- vedaka-vītivṛttāḥ (most mss. kāraka, unmetrical(ly)); Daśabhūmikasūtra.g. 27(53).11 karak'apeta, without a doer; in view of Daśabhūmikasūtra 49.6 (prose) kāraka-vedaka-virahita, the short a is probably m.c. despite the following, all from prose, where to be sure the word is adjectival, making, producing: bodhi-karakair dharmaiḥ Avadāna-śataka i.69.12; 75.4 etc.; bodhisattva-karakair dharmaiḥ Avadāna-śataka i.86.15.

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Kāraka (कारक).—(-kāraka), see puruṣa-k°.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karaka (करक).—mf.

(-kaḥ-kā) Hail. mn.

(-kaḥ-kaṃ) 1. The water-pot of the student or ascetic. 2. The shell of the cocoanut hollowed to form a vessel. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. The pomegranate tree. 2. Toll, tax. 3. A particular sort of bird. 4. A plant, (Galedupa arborea, &c.) See karañja. 5. A tree, (Butea frondosa.) E. kan added to the preceding, or kṛ to injure, &c. and vun aff.

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Kāraka (कारक).—mfn.

(-rakaḥ-rikā-rakaṃ) An agent, acting, doing, who or what does, acts, makes, &c. m.

(-kaḥ) A noun of action. n.

(-kaṃ) 1. Action, especially in grammar. 2. That part of grammar comprising all nouns which imply the agent, object, instrument, &c. or anything except the simple and radical idea; it also includes the use and government of the cases or syntax. E. kṛñ to do, and ṇvul affix of agency.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karaka (करक).—m., i. e. A. kṛ + aka, The waterpot of the student or ascetic, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 66. B. kṛ10 + aka, Hail, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 55.

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Kāraka (कारक).—i. e. kṛ + aka, I. adj., f. rikā, Making. Latter part of nominal comps., e. g. kṣema-, adj. Causing security, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 89. gṛka-, m. A carpenter, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 146. priya-, adj. Causing love, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 204; guru-vacana-, adj. Performing the order of one’s teacher; maṅgala-, adj. Giving joy, Mahābhārata 2, 1925; śilpa-, adj. Versed in an art, [Mālavikāgnimitra, (ed. Tullberg.)] 65, 15. Ii. m. An agent; doing, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 233; causing, 3, 150; an author, Mahābhārata 13, 247. siṃha-, m. A maker of lions, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 31. Iii. f. rikā, A metrical explanation, a memorial verse, Mahābhārata 2, 453.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Karaka (करक).—[masculine] a water-pot.

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Kāraka (कारक).—([feminine] kārikā) [adjective] = 1 kāra (—°), *also = facturus ([accusative], [abstract] tva [neuter]); [absolutely] who effects anything, successful. [masculine] maker, doer, author of ([genetive] or —°). [feminine] metrical explanation of a difficult rule ([grammar]). [neuter] the relation of the noun to the verb, the notion of a case ([grammar]).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Karaka (करक):—[from kara] 1. karaka m. (for 2. See [column]3) a water-vessel ([especially] one used by students or ascetics), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

2) [v.s. ...] a species of bird, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] hand (?), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of several plants (the pomegranate tree, Pongamia Glabra, Butea Frondosa, Bauhinia Variegata, Mimusops Elengi, Capparis Aphylla), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] a cocoa-nut shell, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] mn. a cocoa-nut shell hollowed to form a vessel

7) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] Name of a people, [Mahābhārata; Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] n. fungus, mushroom, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [from kara] 2. karaka m. (for 1. See [column]1) hail

10) [v.s. ...] toll, tax, tribute.

11) Kāraka (कारक):—[from kāra] 1. kāraka mf(ikā)n. (generally ifc.) making, doing, acting, who or what does or produces or creates, [Mahābhārata] etc. (cf. siṃha-k, kṛtsna-k, śilpa-k)

12) [v.s. ...] intending to act or do, [Pāṇini 2-3, 70 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

13) [v.s. ...] n. ‘instrumental in bringing about the action denoted by a verb (= kriyā-hetu or -nimitta)’, the notion of a case (but not co-extensive with the term case; there are six such relations [according to] to [Pāṇini, viz.] karman, karaṇa, kartṛ, sampradāna, apādāna, adhikaraṇa, qq.vv. The idea of the genitive case is not considered a kāraka, because it ordinarily expresses the relation of two nouns to each other, but not the relation of a noun and verb).

14) [from kāra] 2. kāraka n. hail-water, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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