Raudra: 31 definitions


Raudra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1) Raudra (रौद्र) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Raudra) various roles suitable to them.

2) Raudra (रौद्र) refers to the “furious” sentiment (rasa). It is one of the eight rasas mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 6.15. The color associated with the raudra is red (rakta), and the presiding deity of of the furious (śṛṅgāra) sentiment is Rudra.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “The Furious (raudra) Sentiment has as its basis the Durable Psychological State of anger. It owes its origin to to Rākṣasas, Dānavas and haughty men, and is caused by fights. This is created by Determinants, such as anger, rape, abuse, insult, untrue allegation, exorcizing, threatening, revengefulness, jealousy and the like.”.

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

A type of glance (or facial expression): Raudra (cruel): unfriendly, red, cruel, the pupils fixed and the lids not moved, the brows contracted and raised. Usage: the cruel.

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Raudra (रौद्र) or the “sentiment (rasa) of furiousness”.—Raudrarasa has anger as its sthāyibhāva. The mythologists are of the opinion that it is of red-colour, Rudra is its presiding deity. Here ālambanavibhāva is an enemy and his behaviour or activities are regarded as uddīpanavibhāvas. Its liveliness may be enchanted by striking with fist, fallings, rudeness, cuttings and tearing, fights and confusions. The contractions of the eye-brows, biting of the lips, swelling of the arms, threatening gestures, boosting, brandishing of weapons, reviling and angry looks etc. are supposed to be its anubhāvas, while sternness, flurry, horripilation, perspiration, trembling, intoxication, delirium, impatience etc. are treated to be the vyabhicāribhāvas.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Raudrā (रौद्रा) is another name for Sandhyā, one of the seven major rivers situated in Krauñcadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 88. Krauñcadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Jyotiṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Raudra (रौद्र).—A class of giants who lived on Kailāsa and Mandara mountains. The hermit Lomaśa gave warning to the Pāṇḍavas, when they went to the north during their forest life, to be careful of the Raudras, (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 139, Stanza 10).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Raudra (रौद्र).—A muhūrta of the afternoon.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 39; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 40.

1b) A Vānara chief.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 233.

1c) A mantra of the Ṛg Vedins, to be recited in tank ritual;1 a Sūkta of the Yajur Vedins to be recited in tank ritual.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 58. 34.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 58. 35; 93. 102 and 131.

1d) The Gaṇeśvaras who sprang from the hair roots of the angry Vīrabhadra.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 142.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Raudra (रौद्र) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Raudranṛsiṃha or Raudranarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

1) Raudra (रौद्र) refers to the fifty-fourth of the sixty-year cycle of Jupiter, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 8).—Accordingly, “The five years of the eleventh yuga are—1. Piṅgala, 2. Kālayukta, 3. Siddhārtha, 4. Raudra, 5. Durmati. In the first year there will be much rain and fear from thieves and mankind will suffer from consumption of the lungs and the like asthmatic complaints. In the year Kālayukta mankind will suffer from various evils; but in Siddhārtha they will be happy in more ways than one. In the year Raudra mankind will suffer much and there will be loss and ruin in the land. In Durmati there will be moderate rain”.

2) Raudra (रौद्र) or Raudraketu refers to a particular type of Ketus (i.e., luminous bodies such as comets and meteors), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 11).—Accordingly, “Kapāla Ketu is visible on new-moon days; its tail is of the colour of smoke; its course lies through the eastern half of the visible hemisphere; when it appears mankind will suffer from hunger, death, drought and disease. Raudra Ketu is a comet resembling the dagger’s end and is of a dull red colour; it appears in the south-east and travels through a third of the sky and produces the same effects as the Kapāla Ketu”.

3) Raudra (रौद्र) is another name for Ārdrā, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 15) (“On the nakṣatras—‘asterisms’”).—Accordingly, “Those who are born on the lunar day of Ārdrā [i.e., raudra] will delight in killing, torturing, lying, in adultery, thieving, cheating and tale-bearing; will deal in pod-grains, black magic, sorcery and exorcism. [...]”.

Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas

Raudra (रौद्र) or Raudri refers to the fifty-fourth saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—The native born in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘raudra’ is of horrible appearance, rears cattle, speaks ill of others, is excessively deceitful, gets a bad name, is of vicious heart and is very fierce.

According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year raudra (2040-2041 AD) will be a rake, perverse, proud and wicked.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra

Raudra (रौद्र) is the name of an Āgama or Tantra mentioned in the Kakṣapuṭatantra  verse 1.5-7.—“At a previous time, when Pārvatī asked him, Śaṅkara told of the attainments of vidyā in the wide worldly life, in various ways. I observed each teaching taught also by the troops of Gods, Siddhas (those who have attained supernatural power), Munis (saints), Deśikas (spiritual teachers), and Sādhakas (tantric practicioners). They are [, for example]: Raudra... I shall carefully extract all the above-mentioned āgamas, which are transmitted from mouth to mouth, like butter extracted from coagulated milk”.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Raudra (रौद्र) or Raudrāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Vimalāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Raudra Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Vimala-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Raudra (रौद्र) (lit. “frightening”) refers to one of the eight Guardians (kṣetrapāla-aṣṭaka) associated with Oṃkārapīṭha (also called Oḍḍiyāna, Ādipīṭha or Uḍapīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—[...] The eight guardians (kṣetrapālāṣṭaka): Kāla, Ḍāmara, Laṃboṣṭa, Daṃṣṭrin, Dundhubhi, Dāruṇa, Durdhara, Raudra

2) Raudra (रौद्र) also refers to one of the eight Guardians (kṣetrapāla-aṣṭaka) associated with Tisrapīṭha (located in the ‘end of sound’—nādānta).—[...] The eight Guardians (kṣetrapālāṣṭaka): Śrīdhara, Bhāsura, Raudra, Durācāra, Śāntika, Kṛttika, Kālavṛṣṭi, Vasiṣṭha

3) Raudra (रौद्र) or Raudramantra refers to one of the Mantras associated with both Oḍḍiyāna and Jālandhara, two of the eight Sacred Seats (pīṭha), according to the Yogakhaṇḍa (chapter 14) of the Manthānabhairavatantra.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (architecture)

Raudra (रौद्र) (Cf. Raudratā) refers to “savage”, according to the Devyāmata (chapter 105).—Accordingly, [while describing the consequences of a doorway]—“[...] At Bhṛśa is awfulness. And at Ambara there is theft. At Agni there is a lack of sons. At Pūṣan is servitude. At Vitatha the householder comes to a lack of decorum, at Gṛhakṣata he gains wisdom. At Yama he attains savagery (raudratā). At Gāndharva he acquires glory. [...]

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Raudra (रौद्र) refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Raudra).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Raudra (रौद्र) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Raudra] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Raudra (रौद्र) refers to a class of evil spirits, according to chapter 2.2 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly: “The Lord, naturally resolute, practiced kāyotsarga with ease, sometimes, motionless as another peak on a mountain-top, resembling a conquered person gazing at the ground only; sometimes on the bank of a great river like a tree with joints broken by troops of leaping monkeys; sometimes in a cemetery filled with formidable Vetālas, Piśācas, and ghosts at play, with pollen of flowers blown about by the wind; and in other places more terrifying than the Raudras”.

Source: JAINpedia: Jainism

Raudra (रौद्र, “fury”) refers to the “nine sentiments” (navarasa) in poetics and dramaturgy and represents one of the topics dealt with in the Anuyogadvārasūtra : a technical treatise on analytical methods, a kind of guide to applying knowledge.—In Muni Puṇyavijaya’s words, “the Nandi which is of the form of five Jñānas serves as a mangala in the beginning of the study of the Āgamas; and the Anuyogadvāra-sūtra serves as a key to the understanding of the Āgamas”.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Raudra (रौद्र) (Prakrit: Rodda) refers to “angry” and represents one of the “four kinds of meditation” (Dhyāna), according to the Sthānāṅga Sūtra chapter 4.1.—The classification of meditation in the Sthānāṅga Sūtra comprises four kinds [e.g. “angry” (rodda/raudra)]. [...]—Cf Aupapātika Sūtra and Bhagavatī (Bhagavaī), also known as the Vyākhyāprajñapti (Viyāhapannatti).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

raudra (रौद्र).—m S Wrath or rage; the sentiment of rage as an object of poetical description.

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raudra (रौद्र).—a S Relating to Rudra or Shiva. 2 Formidable, fearful, terrible. 3 Wrathful.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

raudra (रौद्र).—m Rage. a Terrible. Wrathful.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Raudra (रौद्र).—a. (-drā-drī f.) [रुद्र-अण् (rudra-aṇ)]

1) 'Rudra-like', violent, irascible, wrathful.

2) Fierce, savage, terrible, wild.

3) Addressed to Rudra (as a hymn).

4) Bringing misfortune; calamitous.

5) Relating to Rudra; रौद्रं व्रतं समास्थाय नियतो नियतेन्द्रियः (raudraṃ vrataṃ samāsthāya niyato niyatendriyaḥ) Rām.7.13.21.

-draḥ 1 A worshipper of Rudra.

2) Heat, ardour, warmth, passion, wrath.

3) The sentiment of wrath or furiousness; रौद्रः क्रोधस्थायिभावो रक्तो रुद्राधिदैवतः (raudraḥ krodhasthāyibhāvo rakto rudrādhidaivataḥ) S. D.232 or K. P.4.

4) Name of Yama.

5) Winter.

6) Name of a संवत्सर (saṃvatsara).

-dram 1 Wrath, rage

2) Formidableness, fierceness, savageness.

3) Heat, warmth; solar heat.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Raudrā (रौद्रा).—name of a rākṣasī: Mahā-Māyūrī 241.31.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Raudra (रौद्र).—mfn.

(-draḥ-drā or drī-draṃ) 1. Formidable, fearful, terrific 2. Sharp, acute. 3. Relating or belonging to Rudra or Siva. 4. Violent, wrathful, irascible. mn.

(-draḥ-draṃ) Wrath rage, (the sentiment as an object of poetical description.) n.

(-draṃ) 1. Heat, warmth. 2. Wrath. 3. Yama. f. (-drī) Gauri, the wife of Siva. E. rudra Siva, aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Raudra (रौद्र).—i. e. rudra + a, I. adj., f. drī. 1. Relating to Rudra-Śiva, [Arjunasamāgama] 3, 50; cf. 10, 42; descended from Rudra, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 22, 117. 2. Formidable, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 116. 3. Irascible. 4. Acute. Ii. m. Heat. Iii. f. , The wife of Śiva.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Raudra (रौद्र).—relating to Rudra or the Rudras; Rudra-like i.e. fierce, violent, formidable, inauspicious, [neuter] [adverb]

— [masculine] a descendant or worshipper of Rudra, [plural] a class of evil demons, [Name] of a people. [neuter] fierceness, formidableness, horror (also † [feminine]), [Name] of a lunar mansion.

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Raudra (रौद्र).—, [feminine] relating to Rudra or the Rudras; Rudra-like i.e. fierce, violent, formidable, inauspicious, [neuter] [adverb]

— [masculine] a descendant or worshipper of Rudra, [plural] a class of evil demons, [Name] of a people. [neuter] fierceness, formidableness, horror (also † [feminine]), [Name] of a lunar mansion.

--- OR ---

Raudrā (रौद्रा).—[feminine] ā and ī relating to Rudra or the Rudras; Rudra-like i.e. fierce, violent, formidable, inauspicious, [neuter] [adverb]

— [masculine] a descendant or worshipper of Rudra, [plural] a class of evil demons, [Name] of a people. [neuter] fierceness, formidableness, horror (also † [feminine]), [Name] of a lunar mansion.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Raudra (रौद्र):—mf(ā or ī)n. or raudra ([from] rudra) relating or belonging to or coming from Rudra or the Rudras, Rudra-like, violent, impetuous, fierce, wild (am ind.), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) bringing or betokening misfortune, inauspicious, [Rāmāyaṇa; Varāha-mihira]

3) m. a descendant of Rudra, [Mahābhārata]

4) a worshipper of Rudra, [Horace H. Wilson]

5) ([plural], or sg. with gaṇa) a class of evil spirits, [Harivaṃśa]

6) ([scilicet] rasa) the sentiment of wrath or fury, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa; Pratāparudrīya]

7) Name of Yama, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) the cold season of the year, winter, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) a [particular] Ketu, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

10) Name of the 54th year of the Jupiter cycle of 60 years, [ib.]

11) ([plural]) Name of a people, [Mahābhārata]

12) mn. heat, warmth, sunshine, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) mf(ī)n. Name of the Nakṣatra Ārdrā when under Rudra, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

14) n. savageness, fierceness, formidableness, [Kathāsaritsāgara; Suśruta]

15) Name of a Liṅga, [Catalogue(s)]

16) of various Sāmans, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Raudra (रौद्र):—[(draḥ-draṃ) a.] Fearful; sharp; violent. m. n. Wrath. m. Heat; cold season; Yama. f. Gaurī.

[Sanskrit to German]

Raudra in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Raudra (रौद्र):—(a) terrible, fearful, furious; —[rasa] the sentiment of wrath or furiousness in Indian poetics; —[rūpa dhāraṇa karanā] to show one’s furious form, to be in a fierce rage.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Raudra (ರೌದ್ರ):—

1) [adjective] relating or belonging to or coming from Rudra, the formidable form of Śiva.

2) [adjective] causing intense fear; terrifying; frightful; terrible.

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Raudra (ರೌದ್ರ):—

1) [noun] the quality or fact of being terrifying, terrible.

2) [noun] anger; wrath; ire.

3) [noun] the hot sunlight.

4) [noun] a terrible goddess, a form of Pārvati.

5) [noun] the fifty fourth year in the Hindu cycle of sixty years.

6) [noun] (rhet.) the sentiment of wrath or fury.

7) [noun] (jain.) a particular kind of meditation.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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