Raudra; 14 Definition(s)


Raudra means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Raudra (रौद्र) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Raudra) various roles suitable to them.

2) Raudra (रौद्र) refers to the “furious” sentiment (rasa). It is one of the eight rasas mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 6.15. The color associated with the raudra is red (rakta), and the presiding deity of of the furious (śṛṅgāra) sentiment is Rudra.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “The Furious (raudra) Sentiment has as its basis the Durable Psychological State of anger. It owes its origin to to Rākṣasas, Dānavas and haughty men, and is caused by fights. This is created by Determinants, such as anger, rape, abuse, insult, untrue allegation, exorcizing, threatening, revengefulness, jealousy and the like.”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

A type of glance (or facial expression): Raudra (cruel): unfriendly, red, cruel, the pupils fixed and the lids not moved, the brows contracted and raised. Usage: the cruel.

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

Raudra (रौद्र) or the “sentiment (rasa) of furiousness”.—Raudrarasa has anger as its sthāyibhāva. The mythologists are of the opinion that it is of red-colour, Rudra is its presiding deity. Here ālambanavibhāva is an enemy and his behaviour or activities are regarded as uddīpanavibhāvas. Its liveliness may be enchanted by striking with fist, fallings, rudeness, cuttings and tearing, fights and confusions. The contractions of the eye-brows, biting of the lips, swelling of the arms, threatening gestures, boosting, brandishing of weapons, reviling and angry looks etc. are supposed to be its anubhāvas, while sternness, flurry, horripilation, perspiration, trembling, intoxication, delirium, impatience etc. are treated to be the vyabhicāribhāvas.

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Raudra in Purana glossary... « previous · [R] · next »

Raudrā (रौद्रा) is another name for Sandhyā, one of the seven major rivers situated in Krauñcadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 88. Krauñcadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Jyotiṣmān, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Raudra (रौद्र).—A class of giants who lived on Kailāsa and Mandara mountains. The hermit Lomaśa gave warning to the Pāṇḍavas, when they went to the north during their forest life, to be careful of the Raudras, (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 139, Stanza 10).

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Raudra (रौद्र).—A muhūrta of the afternoon.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 39; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 40.

1b) A Vānara chief.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 233.

1c) A mantra of the Ṛg Vedins, to be recited in tank ritual;1 a Sūkta of the Yajur Vedins to be recited in tank ritual.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 58. 34.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 58. 35; 93. 102 and 131.

1d) The Gaṇeśvaras who sprang from the hair roots of the angry Vīrabhadra.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 142.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Raudra (रौद्र) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Raudranṛsiṃha or Raudranarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

Source: Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Raudra (रौद्र) or Raudri refers to the fifty-fourth saṃvatsara (“jovian year)” in Vedic astrology.—The native born in the ‘samvatsara’ of ‘raudra’ is of horrible appearance, rears cattle, speaks ill of others, is excessively deceitful, gets a bad name, is of vicious heart and is very fierce.

According with Jataka Parijata, the person born in the year raudra (2040-2041 AD) will be a rake, perverse, proud and wicked.

Source: The effect of Samvatsaras: Satvargas
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Raudra (रौद्र) is the name of an Āgama or Tantra mentioned in the Kakṣapuṭatantra  verse 1.5-7.—“At a previous time, when Pārvatī asked him, Śaṅkara told of the attainments of vidyā in the wide worldly life, in various ways. I observed each teaching taught also by the troops of Gods, Siddhas (those who have attained supernatural power), Munis (saints), Deśikas (spiritual teachers), and Sādhakas (tantric practicioners). They are [, for example]: Raudra... I shall carefully extract all the above-mentioned āgamas, which are transmitted from mouth to mouth, like butter extracted from coagulated milk”.

Source: Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra

Raudra (रौद्र) or Raudrāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Vimalāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (eg., Raudra Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (eg., Vimala-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Raudra (रौद्र) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Raudra] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

raudra (रौद्र).—m S Wrath or rage; the sentiment of rage as an object of poetical description.

--- OR ---

raudra (रौद्र).—a S Relating to Rudra or Shiva. 2 Formidable, fearful, terrible. 3 Wrathful.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

raudra (रौद्र).—m Rage. a Terrible. Wrathful.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Raudra (रौद्र).—a. (-drā-drī f.) [रुद्र-अण् (rudra-aṇ)]

1) 'Rudra-like', violent, irascible, wrathful.

2) Fierce, savage, terrible, wild.

3) Addressed to Rudra (as a hymn).

4) Bringing misfortune; calamitous.

5) Relating to Rudra; रौद्रं व्रतं समास्थाय नियतो नियतेन्द्रियः (raudraṃ vrataṃ samāsthāya niyato niyatendriyaḥ) Rām.7.13.21.

-draḥ 1 A worshipper of Rudra.

2) Heat, ardour, warmth, passion, wrath.

3) The sentiment of wrath or furiousness; रौद्रः क्रोधस्थायिभावो रक्तो रुद्राधिदैवतः (raudraḥ krodhasthāyibhāvo rakto rudrādhidaivataḥ) S. D.232 or K. P.4.

4) Name of Yama.

5) Winter.

6) Name of a संवत्सर (saṃvatsara).

-dram 1 Wrath, rage

2) Formidableness, fierceness, savageness.

3) Heat, warmth; solar heat.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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