Kratu: 23 definitions
Kratu means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam
Kratu (क्रतु):—One of the mind-born sons of Brahmā, according to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa (chapter on the Devī-yajña). They were created by the sheer power of mind.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Kratu (क्रतु).—One of the seven great sages who were born directly from Lord Brahmā.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Kratu (क्रतु).—General information. One of the six mental sons of Brahmā. Marīci, Aṅgiras, Atri, Pulastya, Pulaha and Kratu were the mental sons of Brahmā. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 65). Kratu is described as one of the 21 Prajāpatis (lords of emanation). Some details. (1) It is stated in Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Stanza 9, that the hermits called Bālakhilyas were the sons of Kratu.
Kratu was present at the birth-celebration of Arjuna. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 122, Stanza 52).
Kratu came to save the Rākṣasas from the Rākṣasa sattra, (A great sacrificial fire meant for the Rākṣasas (giants) to jump into and die by themselves) performed by the hermit Parāśara. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 189, Stanza 9).
Kratu was a luminary in the councils of Brahmā and Indra. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 7, Stanza 17).
Kratu was present at the Birth celebration of Skandadeva. (Mahābhārata Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Stanza 10).
There is a group of hermits called 'Citraśikhaṇḍins, of which Kratu is a member. (Mahābhārata Śānti Parva, Chapter 335, Stanza 27).
By the blessings of Śiva, Kratu got a thousand sons. (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 14, Stanza 87).
Kratu went to visit Bhīṣma who was lying on the bed of arrows awaiting death in the beginning of Uttarāyaṇa of the year. (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 26, Stanza 4). (See full article at Story of Kratu from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
1) Kratu (क्रतु) was created as a Sādhaka (aspirant) by Brahmā out of his vital breath named Apāna, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.16:—“[...] I [viz., Brahmā] created many other things as well, but O sage, I was not satisfied. Then O sage, I meditated on Śiva and his consort Ambā and created aspirants (sādhakas). [...] I created the great sage Vasiṣṭha from the vital breath Apāna, [...] O foremost among sages, creating thus, thanks to the favour of Mahādeva, these excellent Sādhakas (e.g., Kratu) I became contented. Then, O dear one, Dharma, born out of my conception assumed the form of Manu at my bidding and was engaged in activity by the aspirants”.
2) Kratu (क्रतु) refers to a “sacrifice”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.4.—Accordingly, as Umā (Durgā/Satī) spoke to the Gods:—“[...] Ever since I cast off my body born of Dakṣa on seeing my lord’s disrespect at the hands of my father at the altar of sacrifice, my lord Rudra is tormented by thoughts about me. He saw my anger at the altar of my father’s sacrifice [i.e., kratu]. Thinking that the virtuous lady had cast-off her body out of love for him he became a Yogin and abandoned home-life. He assumed an unearthly form and features. But he could not bear my separation. [...]”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Kratu (क्रतु).—A son of Brahmā born of his hand; Married Kriyā, daughter of Kardama. His sons were the Vālakhilyas. Had not realised the Supreme Being.1 Father of Tuṣita group of Devas: Born in Vāruṇikratu and hence the name.2 A prajāpati.3
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 12. 22-23; 24. 23; IV. 1. 39; 29. 43; Matsya-purāṇa 3. 7; 102. 19; Vāyu-purāṇa 3. 3; 25. 82.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 32. 76; 35. 92; 36. 8; III. 1. 21 and 44; Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 44.
- 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 35, 49.
1b) A son of Ulmuka and Puṣkariṇī.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 13. 17.
1c) The husband of Hayaśiras.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 34.
1d) A son of Kṛṣṇa and Jāmbavatī.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 61. 12.
1e) A Brāhmaṇa invited for the rājasuya of Yudhiṣṭhira.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 74. 8.
1f) (Ṛṭu, Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa) the Yakṣa presiding over the month of tapasya (Phālguṇa).*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 40.
1h) A Yāma deva.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 92; Vāyu-purāṇa 31. 6.
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 23. 16; 27. 104.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 72; 23. 4; Vāyu-purāṇa 61. 84; 62. 92; 70. 66.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 133. 67; 145. 90; 171. 27; 202. 8.
1j) A Pratardana god.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 31.
1k) A son of Bhṛgu and a deva. Lives in Bhuvarlokam.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 1. 89; 36. 5; IV. 2. 48; Matsya-purāṇa 195. 13; Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 87.
1l) A Viśvedeva.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 30; Matsya-purāṇa 203. 13; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 31.
1m) A son of Vijaya, and father of Sunaya.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 64. 22.
1n) A Sutapa god.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 14.
1o) A son of Āgneyī and Uru (Kuru, Viṣṇu-purāṇa).*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 4. 43; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 13. 6.
1p) A sage of the Svāyambhuva epoch.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 31. 16.
1q) An Ajitadeva.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 67. 34.
1s) A R. of the Plakṣadvīpa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 17.
1t) A name for river Ikṣu.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 93.
1u) A R. from the Rikṣa hill.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 31.
1v) The name of the seventh kalpa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 21. 30.
Kratu (क्रतु) is mentioned as one of the seven mind-born sons of Brahmā, also known as the seven prajāpatis, or the seven brahmās, according to the first chapter of the Brahma-purāṇa (on the origin of Devas and Asuras). Accordingly, “Desirous of evolving creation befitting these, he created Prajāpatis (Lords of subjects) viz. Marīci, Atri, Aṅgiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu and Vasiṣṭha. Thus the lord of great refulgence created seven mental sons. In the Purāṇas these are known as the seven Brahmās”.
The Brahmapurāṇa (mentioning Atri) is one the eighteen mahāpurāṇas originally composed of over 10,000 verses. The first three books of the extant edition contains a diverse amount of topics such as creation theory, cosmology, mythology, philosophy and genealogy. The fourth and last part represents pilgrimage’s travel guide (māhātmya) and narrates the legends surrounding numerous holy spots (tīrtha) around the Godāvarī region in India.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Kratu (क्रतु) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.10, I.65, I.60.4) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kratu) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study
Kratu (क्रतु) married Saṃtati: one of the daughters of Dakṣa and Prasūti: one of the two daughters of Manu-svāyaṃbhuva and Śatarūpā, according to the Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Ākūti was married to Ruci and Prasūti to Dakṣa. Dakṣa produced in Prasūti twenty-four daughters. [...] [Saṃtati (Santati) was given to Kratu.]. Kratu and Saṃtati gave birth to sixty-thousand Vālakhilyas.
Note: Kratu (another Kratu?) was devoid of progeny, according to another account of Vaṃśa in the Saurapurāṇa.Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (itihasa)
Kratu (क्रतु) refers to “sacrifices”, according to the Mahābhārata verse 1.164.9-11.—Accordingly, “The Ikṣvāku kings conquered this world. Having obtained Vasiṣṭha, the best of sages, as their excellent purohita, those kings performed sacrifices (kratu), O descendant of the Kurus. For that Brahmin sage officiated for all those great kings at their sacrifices, O best of the Pāṇḍavas, as Bṛhaspati did for the gods”.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Kratu (क्रतु) is the name of a sage who was in the company of Bharata when he recited the Nāṭyaveda them, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 35. Accordingly, they asked the following questions, “O the best Brahmin (lit. the bull of the twice-born), tell us about the character of the god who appears in the Preliminaries (pūrvaraṅga). Why is the sound [of musical instruments] applied there? What purpose does it serve when applied? What god is pleased with this, and what does he do on being pleased? Why does the Director being himself clean, perform ablution again on the stage? How, O sir, the drama has come (lit. dropped) down to the earth from heaven? Why have your descendants come to be known as Śūdras?”.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
1) Kratu (क्रतु) refers to one of the Seven Ṛṣis (saptarṣi), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 13), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “During the reign of Yudhisthira, 2526 years before the commencement of Vikrama Śaka, the Seven Ṛṣis (saptarṣi) were at the constellation of Maghā (Regulus). The Ṛṣis take a period of 100 years to go over each of the 27 asterisms. They rise in the north-east and are accompanied by the chaste Arundhatī—the consort of Vasiṣṭha. The eastern-most of the group is Bhagavān Marīci; the next to him is Vasiṣṭha; the next is Aṅgiras and the next two are—Atri and Pulastya. The next in order are the Ṛṣis—Pulaha and Kratu. The chaste Arundhatī closely attends her husband the sage Vasiṣṭha”.
2) Kratu (क्रतु) refers to “sacrificial rights”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 15) (“On the nakṣatras—‘asterisms’”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Those who are born on the lunar day of Uttarabhādrapada will be Brāhmins, performers of sacrificial rights (kratu); will be generous, devout, rich and observant of the rules of the holy orders; will be heretics, rulers, dealers in rice”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Kratu (क्रतु) is the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Kratu).
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kratu (क्रतु).—m S Sacrifice. 2 The name of one of the seven principal ṛṣi. 3 By eminence. An aśvamēdha.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
kratu (क्रतु).—m Sacrifice.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Kratu (क्रतु).—[kṛ-katu Uṇādi-sūtra 1.77]
1) A sacrifice; क्रतोरशेषेण फलेन युज्यताम् (kratoraśeṣeṇa phalena yujyatām) R.3.65; शतं क्रतूनामपविघ्नमाप सः (śataṃ kratūnāmapavighnamāpa saḥ) 3.38; M.1.4; Manusmṛti 7.79.
2) An epithet of Viṣṇu.
3) One of the ten Prajāpatis; क्रतुं प्रजापतिमब्रुवन् (kratuṃ prajāpatimabruvan) Maitrī. Up.2.3; Ms. 1.35.
4) Intelligence, talent.
5) Power, ability.
6) Plan, design, purpose; क्रतो स्मर कृतं स्मर (krato smara kṛtaṃ smara) Iśop.17; Bṛ. Up.5.15.1.
7) Resolution, determination; यत्क्रतुर्भवति तत्कर्म कुरुते (yatkraturbhavati tatkarma kurute) Bṛ. Up.4.4.5.
8) Desire, will.
9) Fitness, adequacy, efficiency.
1) Deliberation, consultation.
13) Offering, worship; कामस्याप्तिं जगतः प्रतिष्ठां क्रतोरानन्त्यम- भयस्य पारम् (kāmasyāptiṃ jagataḥ pratiṣṭhāṃ kratorānantyama- bhayasya pāram) Kaṭh.1.2.11; Personified, as married to क्रिया (kriyā) and father of 6 वालखिल्य (vālakhilya)s; क्रतोरपि क्रिया भार्या वालखिल्यानसूयत (kratorapi kriyā bhāryā vālakhilyānasūyata) Bhāgavata 4.1.39.
14) An Aśvamedha sacrifice (these senses are mostly Vedic).
15) The month Āṣāḍha.
16) Excess of fondness or liking.
17) An organ [cf. Gr. kratos; Zend khratu].
Derivable forms: kratuḥ (क्रतुः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-tuḥ) 1. Sacrifice, offering, worship. 2. An Aswamedha, the sacrifice. 3. The name of a Muni, one of the seven principal Rishis or saints, the offspring of Brahma, married to Kriya and the father of the 60,000 Balikhilyas. 4. One of the ten Viswadevas. E. kṛñ to do ktu Unadi aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kratu (क्रतु).—i. e. kram + tu, m. 1. Power (ved.),
Kratu (क्रतु).—[masculine] power, might, strength (of body or mind); deliberation, insight, wisdom; inspiration, enthusiasm; plan, design, purpose, will; act, deed, work, [especially] sacred work, sacrifice, feast; festival (cākṣuṣa of the eye); [Name] of an old sage who appears as a star in the Great Bear.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kratu (क्रतु):—m. (√1. kṛ, or 2. kṛ), plan, design, intention, resolution, determination, purpose, [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Bṛhad-āraṇyaka-upaniṣad]
2) desire, will ([instrumental case] kratvā, willingly, readily, [Ṛg-veda]; ekena kratunā, through the mere will, [Ṛg-veda ii, 13, 11])
3) power, ability, [Ṛg-veda]
4) deliberation, consultation, [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā]
5) intelligence, understanding (e.g. bhadra kratu, right judgement, good understanding; also in conjunction or in [compound] or ifc. with dakṣa See kratu-dakṣau and dakṣakratū), [Ṛg-veda; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]
6) inspiration, enlightenment, [Ṛg-veda]
7) a sacrificial rite or ceremony, sacrifice (as the Aśva-medha sacrifice), offering, worship (also personified, [Rāmāyaṇa vii, 90, 9]), [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xi; Āśvalāyana-śrauta-sūtra] etc.
8) Kratu as intelligence personified (as a son of Brahmā and one of the Prajā-patis or the seven or ten principal Ṛṣis, [Manu-smṛti i, 35; Mahābhārata i, 2518 & 2568; Harivaṃśa] etc.; [N. of a star] [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]; married to Kriyā and father of 60,000 Vālikhilyas, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iv, 1, 39]; husband of Haya-śirā, [vi, 6, 33])
9) Name of one of the Viśve-devās, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
10) of a son of Kṛṣṇa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa x, 61, 12]
11) of a son of Ūru and Āgneyī, [Harivaṃśa 73]
12) of the author of a Dharma-śāstra, [Parāśara-smṛti; Śūdra-dharma-tattva]
13) m. or f. (?), Name of a river in Plakṣa-dvīpa ([varia lectio] kramu), [Viṣṇu-purāṇa] cf. a-, adbhuta-, abhi-, etc.; cf. also κράτος.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kratu (क्रतु):—(tuḥ) 1. m. A sacrifice; name of one of the seven sages.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] the act of offering the life of a person or animal or some object, (sometimes, symbolically) in propitiation of or homage to a deity; a sacrifice.
2) [noun] determination a) a resolving or determining; deciding b) the thing determined upon; decision as to future action; resolve.
3) [noun] something one intends to get or do; intention; an aim; a purpose.
4) [noun] name of a hell.
5) [noun] the thorny creeper Caesalpinia bonduc of Caesalpinieae family.
6) [noun] its silver coloured nut.
7) [noun] (myth.) name of one of the fourteen divine progenitors.
8) [noun] one of the lower deities or communal gods (Viśvedēvas) of village folks.
9) [noun] (math.) a number withthirty four zeros following the number 1.
10) [noun] Viṣṇu.
11) [noun] intelligence; talent.
12) [noun] power; ability; capacity.
13) [noun] a strong wish or craving; a desire.
14) [noun] the fourth month in the Hindu calendar.
15) [noun] in animals and plants, a part composed of specialised tissues and adapted to the performance of a specific function or functions; an organ.
16) [noun] fitness; aptness; appropriateness.
17) [noun] a deliberating or considering carefully; deliberation; consideration.
18) [noun] divine inspiration.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+47): Kratubhuga, Kratubhuj, Kratubhuja, Kratubhushana, Kratubuddhi, Kratucchada, Kratuchchhada, Kratudakshau, Kratudakshina, Kratudeva, Kratudhvaja, Kratudhvamsi, Kratudhvamsin, Kratudruh, Kratudvish, Kratuhara, Kratuhaya, Kratujit, Kratujivana, Kratukarana.
Ends with (+26): Abhikratu, Adbhutakratu, Adhvaryukratu, Adriptakratu, Ahritayajnakratu, Akratu, Amitakratu, Antahkratu, Asarvakratu, Avaryakratu, Aviharyatakratu, Bahitkratu, Dakshakratu, Evamkratu, Gurukratu, Heshakratu, Hinakratu, Ihakratu, Kavikratu, Kshitishatakratu.
Full-text (+221): Kratupurusha, Varakratu, Kratudhvamsin, Kratudvish, Kratudruh, Kratupashu, Kraturaja, Kratukarman, Citrashikhandin, Kratuphala, Kratusiddhi, Kratubhuj, Kratuvikrayin, Amitakratu, Putakratu, Kraturaj, Shatakratu, Kratupravan, Kratupati, Kratupra.
Search found 52 books and stories containing Kratu; (plurals include: Kratus). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Mundaka Upanishad with Shankara’s Commentary (by S. Sitarama Sastri)
Chandogya Upanishad (Madhva commentary) (by Srisa Chandra Vasu)
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 356 - Greatness of Bahusuvarṇakeśvara (Bahusuvarṇaka-īśvara) < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Chapter 14 - Brahmā’s Redemption from Śiva’s Curse < [Section 1 - Setu-māhātmya]
Chapter 235 - Greatness of Liṅgatraya < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)
Verse 6.21.11 < [Chapter 21 - In the Description of the Third Fort, the Glories of Piṇḍāraka-tīrtha]
Verse 6.21.12 < [Chapter 21 - In the Description of the Third Fort, the Glories of Piṇḍāraka-tīrtha]
Verse 8.13.109 < [Chapter 13 - A Thousand Names of Lord Balarāma]
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)