Cakravala, Cakravāla, Cakra-vala: 14 definitions

Introduction:

Cakravala means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chakravala.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Cakravāla (चक्रवाल) refers to one of the ten kinds of yamaka, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 17. Yamaka is one of the four “figures of speech” (alaṃkāra), used when composing dramatic compositions (kāvya).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Cakravala in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Cakravāla (चक्रवाल) is the name of a Vidyādhara who fought on Śrutaśarman’s side but was slain by Nirghāta, who participated in the war against Sūryaprabha, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 47. Accordingly: “... when King Nirghāta saw that [the slaying of Harṣa, Pramātha, Kaṅkaṭa, and Viśāla, Pracaṇḍa and Aṅkurin], he was wroth, and attacked Cakravāla, and those two, Cakravāla and Nirghāta, fought for a long time, and at last they broke one another’s chariots to pieces and so became infantry soldiers, and the two, rushing furiously together, armed with sword and discus, cleft with sword-strokes one another’s heads and fell dead on the earth”.

The story of Cakravāla was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Cakravāla, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics

Cakravāla (चक्रवाल) refers to the “cyclic method”, according to the principles of Bījagaṇita (“algebra” or ‘science of calculation’), according to Gaṇita-śāstra, ancient Indian mathematics and astronomy.—Bhāskara II succeeded in evolving a very simple and elegant method by means of which one can derive an auxiliary equation having the required interpolator ± 1, ± 2 or ± 4, simultaneously with its two integral roots, from another auxiliary equation empirically formed with any simple integral value of the interpolator, positive or negative. This method is called by the technical name cakravāla or the “cyclic method”.—The Sanskrit word cakravāla means “circle”, especially “horizon”. The method is so called, observes Sūryadāsa, because it proceeds as in a circle, the same set of operations being applied again and again in a continuous round.

Bhāskara II in the Bījagaṇita: “By this method, there will appear two integral roots corresponding to an equation with ± 1, ± 2 or ± 4 interpolator.—[...] Considering the lesser root, greater root and interpolator (of a square-nature) as the dividend, addend and divisor (respectively of a pulveriser), the (indeterminate) multiplier of it should be so taken as will make the residue of the prakṛti diminished by the square of that multiplier or the latter minus the prakṛti (as the case may be) the least. That residue divided by the (original) interpolator is the interpolator (of a new square-nature) 4 it should be reversed in sign in case of sub- traction from the prakṛti. The quotient corresponding to that value of the multiplier is the (new) lesser root ; thence the greater root. The same process should be followed repeatedly putting aside (each time) the previous roots and the interpolator. This process is called cakravāla (or the ‘Cyclic Method’). By this method, there will appear two integral roots corresponding to an equation with ± 1, ± 2 or ± 4 as interpolator. In order to derive integral roots corresponding to an equation with the additive unity from those of the- equation with the interpolator ± 2 or ± 4 the Principle of Composition (should be applied)”.

Note: The original text is [cakravālamidaṃ jaguḥ]. The commentator Kṛṣṇa explains [ācāryā etadgaṇitaṃ cakravālamiti jaguḥ] or “The learned professors call this method of calculation the cakravāla”. So Bhāṣkara II appears to have taken the Cyclic Method from earlier writers. But it is not found in any work anterior to him so far known.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Cakravala in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

cakravāla (चक्रवाल).—m S The sensible horizon. 2 A range of mountains supposed to encircle the earth.

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cakrāvaḷa (चक्रावळ).—f sometimes cakrāvāḷa f (cakra & vāḍha) Compound interest. 2 (cakra Wheel, āvali Line or row.) A series of rings of hair. An inauspicious mark of the horse.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

cakravāla (चक्रवाल).—m The sensible horizon.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Cakravala in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Cakravāla (चक्रवाल).—

1) a ring, circle.

2) a collection, group, multitude, mass; कैरव- चक्रवालम् (kairava- cakravālam) Bhartṛhari 2.74; प्रकटयसि कुमुच्चैरर्चिषां चक्रवालं (prakaṭayasi kumuccairarciṣāṃ cakravālaṃ) Rati.4.16; Mv.6.4; Mu.3.21.; K.126,178.

3) horizon. (-laḥ) 1 a mythical range of mountains supposed to encircle the orb of the earth like a wall and to be the limit of light and darkness.

2) the ruddy goose.

Derivable forms: cakravālaḥ (चक्रवालः), cakravālam (चक्रवालम्).

Cakravāla is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms cakra and vāla (वाल). See also (synonyms): cakrabāla, cakrabāḍa, cakravāḍa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cakravāla (चक्रवाल).—m.

(-laḥ) A range of mountains supposed to encircle the earth, and to be the limit of light and darkness. n.

(-laṃ) The sensible horizon. E. cakra a region, val to encompass, and aṇ affix; girding the world; or vāḍa to emerge, &c. affix ac what emerges (from darkness), in the shape of a wheel; ḍa changed to la also cakravāḍa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cakravāla (चक्रवाल).—see cakrabāla.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cakravāla (चक्रवाल).—[neuter] orb, circle, troop, multitude.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Cakravāla (चक्रवाल):—[=cakra-vāla] [from cakra] n. ([from] -vāḍa) a circle, [Mahābhārata i, 7021 ff; Sūryaprajñapti]

2) [v.s. ...] = la-yamaka, [Bhaṭṭi-kāvya x, 6 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

3) [v.s. ...] m. n. a mass, multitude, number, assemblage, [Mahābhārata i; Harivaṃśa 4098; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a mythical range of mountains (encircling the orb of the earth and being the limit of light and darkness), [Buddhist literature] : [Kāvyādarśa ii, 99] (lādri)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cakravāla (चक्रवाल):—[cakra-vāla] (laḥ) 1. m. A range of mountains supposed to encircle the earth. n. Sensible horizon.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Cakravāla (चक्रवाल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Cakkavāla.

[Sanskrit to German]

Cakravala in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Cakravala in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Cakravāla (ಚಕ್ರವಾಲ):—[noun] = ಚಕ್ರವಾಡ [cakravada].

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Cakravāḷa (ಚಕ್ರವಾಳ):—[noun] = ಚಕ್ರವಾಡ [cakravada].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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