Chidra: 23 definitions
Chidra means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Chhidra.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Chidra (छिद्र):—Opening; Hole
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Chidra (छिद्र) refers to a “hole”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “The subtle condition arises progressively by following the gross path. The gross is said to be the Transmission (krama), while the subtle is within the End of the Twelve. It is where mount Śrīśaila is located, that is, above the Cavity of Brahmā. O far-famed one, this is called the Division (bheda), Cavity (randhra) or Hole (chidra)”.
According to the later Kubjikā Tantras, the Liṅga from which the goddess comes forth is located in the centre of the triangular Yoni in the End of the Twelve. In this perspective, the ‘cavity’ (randhra) or ‘hole’ (chidra) to which these lines refer is that of the triangle, which is identified here with Śrīśaila. In other words, in terms of these symbolic associations, when Bhairava tells the goddess to go to mount Kaumāra / Śrīśaila, he is telling her to descend from the plane in which the god and the goddess are together to the one from which creation unfolds at the uppermost extreme of the subtle body.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Chidra (छिद्र) refers to a “hole” (i.e., a hole appearing in the sun)”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 3), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If in Varṣā the colour of the sun be that of the flower Śirīṣa (Mimosa flexuosa) there will be immediate rain; if the colour be that of the peacock’s plume there will be no rain for twelve years to come. If, then the sun be black there will be fear from worms and reptiles; if it be ashy pale there will be fear from foreign princes; if the sun should appear with a hole [i.e., sa-chidra] that prince will perish in the star of whose nativity the sun then happens to be”.Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)
Chidra (छिद्र) refers to a “hole”, according to Bhāskara’s Siddhāntaśiromaṇi (Golādhyāya, Yantrādhyāya, 8, pp. 366-367).—Accordingly, “A copper bowl, formed like a hemisphere, having a small hole [i.e., apṛthu-chidra] at the bottom. The duration of a day and night divided by the number of immersions [of this bowl] gives the measure of the water clock”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Chidra (छिद्र) refers to a “loop-hole” (by which love can enter), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.18 (“Description of the perturbation caused by Kāma”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “[...] Enchanting all people, he spread his influence. Who was not enchanted on seeing Kāma in the company of Rati? Thus they initiated their dalliance. The sentiment of love too accompanied by coquettish gestures and emotions reached the vicinity of Śiva along with his attendants. Kāma, usually stationed within the mind manifested himself outside. But he could not find any vulnerable loop-hole [i.e., chidra] in Śiva whereby he could enter Him. [...]”.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)
Chidra (छिद्र) represents the number 9 (nine) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 9—chidra] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.
Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
Chidra (छिद्र) refers to the “hole” (through which demons and female deities enter) according to Flood (2003, p. 215).—Accordingly, “Although the [Netra Tantra] has connections with royalty, it also bears witness to popular possession and exorcism rites which were probably pervasive among lower social levels. Indeed, one of the main tasks of the orthopraxy of Brāhmaṇ was to prevent possession. These ‘demons’ (bhūta) and powerful female deities or ‘mothers’ (mātṛ) enter through the ‘hole’ (chidra) of the shad of impure men and women whose behavior is bad (durācāra) and who have neglected their ritual obligations, so causing the evil eye (dṛṣṭipāta) to fall upon them”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
Chidra (छिद्र) refers to a “chink” (in thought), according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Then the Bodhisattva Gaganagañja said this to the congregation of Bodhisattvas: ‘Sons of good family, may all of you elucidate the gates into the dharma of transcending the path of the works of Māra’ [...] The Bodhisattva Śailaśikharasaṃghaṭṭanarāja said: ‘Just as the wind enters through a chink (chidra), just so the māra can find a weak point where there is a chink (chidra) in thought. The Bodhisattva therefore should not have any chink in his thought. Here, the thought without chink is, that is to say, to fulfill the emptiness endowed with all sorts of excellencies ([...]). This is the gate into the light of the dharma that the Bodhisattva transcends the sphere of the Māra’”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)
Chidra (छिद्र) refers to “holes (in a boat)”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “It is declared, ‘Activity is the action of mind, body and speech’. It is said by those who are learned in the knowledge of reality, ‘Indeed, that is the cause of the influx of karma’. As a boat in the middle of the ocean takes in water through holes (chidra), so a living soul takes in karma through holes of activity (yoga-randhra) which are good and bad”.
Synonyms: Randhra, Vivara.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geography
Chidra.—(7-1-2), ‘nine’; cf. randhra. Note: chidra is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
chidra (छिद्र).—n (S) A hole, bore, vacuity. 2 fig. A flaw, defect, blemish. 3 fig. A way of entrance; a vulnerable point; a secret fault, foible, imperfection. Ex. āmacī dārū saralī hēṃ chidra śatrūsa kaḷalēṃ tara tō ātāñca ghālā ghālīla; tyācēṃ sabhēmadhyēṃ chidra kāḍhatāñca tō khālīṃ pāhūṃ lāgalā. 4 A subterfuge, shift, salvo, creephole. chidra pāḍaṇēṃ To seek out a way of entrance. chidra pāhaṇēṃ To pick a hole in one's coat. chidrānta nighaṇēṃ To stoop low; to become servile and mean.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
chidra (छिद्र).—n A hole. A flaw, defect, blemish. A way of entrance, vulnerable point; a secret fault, foible, imperfection. A subterfuge, salvo. chidra pāḍaṇēṃ See out a way of entrance. chidra pāhaṇēṃ Pick a hole in one's coat.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Chidra (छिद्र).—a. [chid-rak, chidra-ac vā] Pierced, containing holes.
-dram 1 A hole, slit, cleft, fissure, rent, pit, opening, crack; नव छिद्राणि तान्येव प्राणस्यायतनानि तु (nava chidrāṇi tānyeva prāṇasyāyatanāni tu) Y.3.99; Manusmṛti 8.239; अयं पटश्छिद्रशतैरलङ्कृतः (ayaṃ paṭaśchidraśatairalaṅkṛtaḥ) Mṛcchakaṭika 2.9; so काष्ठ°, भूमि° (kāṣṭha°, bhūmi°) &c.
2) A defect, flaw, blemish; त्वं हि सर्षपमात्राणि परच्छिद्राणि पश्यसि । आत्मनो बिल्वमात्राणि पश्यन्नपि न पश्यसि (tvaṃ hi sarṣapamātrāṇi paracchidrāṇi paśyasi | ātmano bilvamātrāṇi paśyannapi na paśyasi) || Mb; सुग्रीवेण समं त्वस्य अद्वैधं छिद्रवर्जितम् (sugrīveṇa samaṃ tvasya advaidhaṃ chidravarjitam) Rām.7.36.39.
3) A vulnerable or weak point, weak side, imperfection, foible; नास्य छिद्रं परो विद्याद्विद्याच्छिद्रं परस्य तु । गूहेत् कूर्म इवाङ्गानि रक्षेद्विवरमात्मनः (nāsya chidraṃ paro vidyādvidyācchidraṃ parasya tu | gūhet kūrma ivāṅgāni rakṣedvivaramātmanaḥ) || Manusmṛti 7.15,12; छिद्रं निरूप्य सहसा प्रविशत्यशङ्कः (chidraṃ nirūpya sahasā praviśatyaśaṅkaḥ) H.1.81. (where chidra means a hole also); Pañcatantra (Bombay) 3.39; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 2.38; Proverb: छिद्रेष्वनर्था बहुली- भवन्ति (chidreṣvanarthā bahulī- bhavanti) 'misfortunes never come single'.
4) (Astr.) Name of the eighth house.
5) Division; भूमिच्छिद्रविधानम् (bhūmicchidravidhānam) Kau. A.2.2;
6) Space; भूतानां छिद्रदातृत्वं बहिरन्तरमेव च (bhūtānāṃ chidradātṛtvaṃ bahirantarameva ca) Bhāgavata 3.26.34.
7) Sky; नानात्वं छिद्रयोर्यद्वज्ज्योतिषोर्वातयोरिव (nānātvaṃ chidrayoryadvajjyotiṣorvātayoriva) Bhāgavata 12.4.3.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-draṃ) 1. A hole, a vacuity, a perforation, &c. 2. Fault, defect, flaw (moral or physical.) 3. A weak side. 4. Infirmity. E. chid to pierce, Unadi affix rak, or chidra ac-vā .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Chidra (छिद्र).—[chid + ra], I. adj., f. rā, Perforated, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 73, 20. Ii. n. 1. A gap, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 239. 2. A defect, [Pañcatantra] 40, 12. 3. An opening, [Suśruta] 1, 54, 16; an entry, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 6, 4. 4. A weak point, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 366; a vulnerable part, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 105.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Chidra (छिद्र).—[adjective] torn, rent, pierced; [neuter] hole, fissure, opening, interruption, defect, weakness, flaw, fault, Abstr. tā† [feminine]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Chidra (छिद्र):—[from chid] mf(ā)n. torn asunder, [Ṛg-veda i, 162, 20]
2) [v.s. ...] containing holes, pierced, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra xv ff.; Rāmāyaṇa i, 73, 20; Suśruta v, 1, 43]
3) [v.s. ...] leaky, [Mahābhārata v, 1307;1047 (=xii, 8782) ]
4) [v.s. ...] n. a hole, slit, cleft, opening, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā i, vi; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Lāṭyāyana; Kauśika-sūtra; Manu-smṛti] etc. (daiva-kṛta, ‘opening or hole made by nature’, the cartilage of the ear, pupil of the eye, [Suśruta]; draṃ √dā, ‘to yield an opening or free access’ [Bhāgavata-purāṇa v, 6, 4])
5) [v.s. ...] defect, fault, blemish, imperfection, infirmity, weak point, foible, [Mahābhārata] etc.
6) [v.s. ...] (in [astrology]) the 8th lunar mansion, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhajjātaka; Laghujātaka, by Varāha-mihira i, 17]
7) [v.s. ...] the number ‘nine’ (there being 9 openings in the body), [Sūryasiddhānta ii, 18]
8) [v.s. ...] the lower regions, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes] (cf. a-, karṇa-, kṛta-, gṛha-, niś-, mahā-).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Chidra (छिद्र):—(ka, t) chidrayati 10. a. To pierce, to bore, to perforate.
2) (draṃ) 1. n. A hole; a fault or defect.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Chidra (छिद्र) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Chiḍḍa.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Chidra (छिद्र) [Also spelled chhidra]:—(nm) pore; bore; slot, aperture, opening; defect, flaw; ~[darśī] a fault-finder; fault-finding.
1) [noun] 'an opening through something; gap; an aperture: a hole.'2) [noun] lack of something necessary for completeness; a defect, deficiency, shortcoming.
3) [noun] an open break in a previously friendly relationship; a rift.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+18): Chidrachidra, Chidracitta, Chidracittata, Chidradanta, Chidradarshana, Chidradarshi, Chidradarshin, Chidradatritva, Chidragolisu, Chidraka, Chidrakadvara, Chidrakarna, Chidralambika, Chidramsha, Chidranivasa, Chidranta, Chidrantar, Chidranujivin, Chidranusamdhanin, Chidranusarin.
Ends with (+18): Acchicchidra, Acchidra, Achidra, Anumukhacchidra, Aprithucchidra, Bhumicchidra, Chidrachidra, Dinacchidra, Divasacchidra, Garbhacchidra, Ghatikachidra, Grahacchidra, Grihacchidra, Grihachidra, Jalanirgamanacchidra, Karnacchidra, Karnachidra, Kritacchidra, Mahachidra, Manicchidra.
Full-text (+73): Chidrantar, Chidda, Chidrakarna, Chidradarshin, Chidratman, Chidrata, Parachidra, Chidranveshin, Chidranusarin, Chidradarshana, Chidravaidehi, Acchidra, Chidrin, Chidradatritva, Karnacchidra, Vidra, Chidraphala, Karnachidra, Nishchidra, Grihachidra.
Search found 14 books and stories containing Chidra; (plurals include: Chidras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Expiatory Rites in Keralite Tantra (by T. S. Syamkumar)
1. Concept of Expiation and the Term Prāyaścitta < [Chapter 1 - Expiatory Rites: Concept and Evolution]
2. Mistakes in Ritual < [Chapter 1 - Expiatory Rites: Concept and Evolution]
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Fourth comparison or upamāna: Space (ākāśa) < [Bodhisattva quality 19: the ten upamānas]
IV.2. Qualities of the Moralities to be recollected < [IV. Recollection of the moralities (śīlānusmṛti)]
E.1: The Four Foundations of Mindfulness (smṛtyupasthāna) < [Abhidharma auxiliaries (E): Detailed study of the auxiliaries]
Bhajana-Rahasya (by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura Mahasaya)
Text 19 < [Chapter 8 - Aṣṭama-yāma-sādhana (Rātri-līlā–prema-bhajana sambhoga)]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 7.105 < [Section IX - Art of Government]
Verse 8.239 < [Section XXXIX - Disputes between Owner and Keeper]
The Agni Purana (by N. Gangadharan)