Timira, Timirā: 28 definitions

Introduction:

Timira means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Timir.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Timira (तिमिर).—The God of night.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 108. 32.
Source: valmikiramayan.net: Srimad Valmiki Ramayana

Timira (तिमिर) refers to the “darkness in the forest”, according to the Rāmāyaṇa chapter 2.28. Accordingly:—“[...] soothening with kind words to Sītā, when eyes were blemished with tears, the virtuous Rāma spoke again as follows, for the purpose of waking her turn back: ‘[...] In the forest, air (vāta) and darkness (timira) are too much. There are always hunger and great fears too. Hence, dwelling in a forest is very much a misery’”.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Timira (तिमिर) is the name of one of the seven sages (saptarṣi) in the Svārociṣa-Manvantara: the second of the fourteen Manvantaras, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, “In this second [Svārociṣa] Manvantara the deities are the Tuṣitas, Vipaścit is the name of the Indra, and Ūrja, Stambha, Prāṇa, Dānta, Ṛṣabha, Timira and Sārvarivān (Arvarīvān?) are the seven sages”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Timirā (तिमिरा) is the name of a city, described as “the dwelling of the Goddess of Prosperity”, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 17. In this city lives king Vihitasena with his wife Tejovatī whose story was told by Yaugandharāyaṇa to king Udayana in order to settle the mind of queen Vāsavadattā.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Timirā, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Timira (तिमिर) refers to “cataract” and is one of the various diseases mentioned in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning timira] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Timira (तिमिर) refers to the “darkness” (of Māyā), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] Above, in the reality without defects, (she is) the will (icchā) which is the Gander (haṃsa i.e. Unstruck Sound). She knows the mantra, which is mad with the passion for expansion. She is the power of consciousness (cicchakti) and her nature is consciousness. Established in the End of the Sixteen, she pervades the Void and discerns (cinoti) (reality) in the Darkness [i.e., timira] (of Māyā). [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Timira (तिमिर) refers to “darkness”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the solar or lunar disc should be just dimmed by darkness [i.e., timira] all round which disappears immediately, the eclipse is technically known as Leha (licking): all creatures will be happy and the earth will be flooded with water. If a third, or a fourth, or one half of the disc should be eclipsed, it is technically known as Grasana (seizing with the mouth) grasa—partial eclipse: the wealth of prosperous princes will suffer diminution and prosperous countries will be afflicted with calamities”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Timira is a Sanskrit medical term used in Ayurveda meaning "darkness of vision".

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Timira (तिमिर) refers to “shadows” and represents one of the various types of upamāna (comparisons). Cf. Nirmāṇa, and the Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XI).—Accordingly to the Vajracchedikā, p. 46, “The conditioned should be thought to be like a star in space, shadows [i.e., timira], a lamp, hoarfrost, a water bubble, a dream, a flash of lightning a cloud” (Cf. the Khotanese commentary in Hoernle, Remains, p. 287.)

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Timira (तिमिर) refers to “blindness”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “[...] That which can never be grasped is ‘profound’. The self has never been grasped by any Buddha. Why is that? The self is originally pure, and just as the self is pure, so all dharmas are pure. Why do we say ‘pure’? Since any dharma is unoriginated and beyond origination, not ceased, and beyond cessation, it is called ‘pure’. In what is beyond darkness, beyond manifestation, without basis and blindness (timira), in what is the deep and highest truth, there is no sight or cessation of sight, up to and including no mind or cessation of mind, that is the space of objects where there is no calculation.. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Researches On Ptolemys Geography Of Eastern Asia

Timira and Tamala, it must he premised, are Sanskrit words of almost identical meaning. In the Bengal recension of the Rāmāyaṇa, after a reference to the Aṃgas (people of Campā, now Bhāgalpur); the Lauhitya River (Brahmaputra); the Kirātas (people of Tipperah and Silhet, Ptolemy’s Kirrhadia); lands rich with silver-mines (Argyra), and mount Mandara (Maiandros = Arakan Roma), there isa mention of the city of Timira abounding with gold and where silkworms are reared. These two peculiarities help us admirably in fixing the position of Timira in the region between the Arakan and Pegu Romas; that is, in the lower valley of the Irāvatī, celebrated both by eastern andwestern classics as the Golden Region, and known as the seat of a people, the Zabaings or Zamengs, noted for silkworm breeding. And as the name Timira conveys the same meaning as Ptolemy’s Temala or Tamala (Tamāla), there should be no doubt left as to both designations belonging to tte one and the same city occupying a position close to, or on the very site of, the present Bassein, as set forth above.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

timira : (nt.) darkness. (adj.), dark.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Timira, (adj.) (Sk. timira fr. tim=tam (as in tamas), to which also belong tibba 2 & tintiṇāti. This is to be distinguished from tim in temeti to (be or) make wet. See tama) dark; nt. darkness Vv 323 (t. -tamba); J. III, 189 (t. -rukkha); vanatimira a flower J. IV, 285; V, 182. (Page 303)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

timira (तिमिर).—n S Darkness. 2 Blindness from affection of the optic nerve.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

timira (तिमिर).—n Darkness.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Timira (तिमिर).—n. [tim-kirac] Dark; विन्यस्यन्तीं दृशौ तिमिरे पथि (vinyasyantīṃ dṛśau timire pathi) Gītagovinda 5; बभूवुस्तिमिरा दिशः (babhūvustimirā diśaḥ) Mb.

-raḥ, -ram 1 Darkness; तन्नैशं तिमिरमपाकरोति चन्द्रः (tannaiśaṃ timiramapākaroti candraḥ) Ś.6.3; Kumārasambhava 4.II; Śiśupālavadha 4.57.

3) Blindness; तेजोमयं तिमिरदोषहतं हि चक्षुः (tejomayaṃ timiradoṣahataṃ hi cakṣuḥ) Rāj. T.4.314.

3) Iron-rust.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Timira (तिमिर).—m. (compare Sanskrit °ra, nt., darkness; obscuration of vision, an eye-disease), veiling illusion: °ro mṛgatṛṣṇā vā svapno vandhyāprasūyatam Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 9.2 (verse); in prec. line māyā etc.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Timira (तिमिर).—n.

(-raṃ) 1. Darkness. 2. Gutta serena, total blindness from affection of the optic nerve. E. tim to be damp, or tam to give pain, kirac Unadi affix, in the latter case, it is inserted.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Timira (तिमिर).— (akin to tamas, perhaps for original tam + ira), I. adj., f. , Dark, [Rāmāyaṇa] 6, 16, 104. Ii. m. and n. 1. Darkness, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 28, 18. 2. A class of diseases of the eye, [Suśruta] 1, 32, 4. 3. A certain plant, [Varāhamihira's Bṛhajjātaka.] S. 54, 11. Iii. n. The name of a town, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 40, 26.

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Timīra (तिमीर).—m. A certain tree, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 21, 19.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Timira (तिमिर).—[adjective] dark, gloomy; [neuter] darkness, dimness of the eyes.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Timira (तिमिर):—mf(ā)n. ([from] tamar [Old [German] demar] = tamas) dark, gloomy, [Mahābhārata vi, 2379; Rāmāyaṇa vi, 16, 104]

2) = -nayana, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhajjātaka xx, 1 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

3) m. a sort of aquatic plant (cf. -vana), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā lv, 11]

4) n. darkness (also [plural]), [Yājñavalkya iii, 172; Mahābhārata] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Rāmāyaṇa v, 10, 2; Kathāsaritsāgara xviii])

5) n. darkness of the eyes, partial blindness (a class of morbid affections of the coats [paṭala] of the eye), [Suśruta i, iii, v f.; Aṣṭāṅga-hṛdaya vi, 13; Rājataraṅgiṇī iv, 314]

6) iron-rust, [Nighaṇṭuprakāśa]

7) Name of a town, [Rāmāyaṇa iv, 40, 26]

8) Timirā (तिमिरा):—[from timira] f. another town, [Kathāsaritsāgara xvii, 33]

9) Timira (तिमिर):—cf. vi-, sa-.

10) Timīra (तिमीर):—m. Name of a tree (cf. mira), [Rāmāyaṇa iii, 21, 19; v, 74, 3.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Timira (तिमिर):—(raṃ) 1. n. Darkness; blindness, gutta serena, total blindness.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Timira (तिमिर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Timira.

[Sanskrit to German]

Timira in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Timira (तिमिर) [Also spelled timir]:—(nm) darkness; ~[maya] dark, full of darkness.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Timira (तिमिर) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Timira.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Timira (ತಿಮಿರ):—

1) [noun] an uneasy or restless desire or longing.

2) [noun] offensive display of superiority or self-importance; overbearing pride; arrogance; haughtiness; insolence.

3) [noun] a strong man.

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Timira (ತಿಮಿರ):—

1) [noun] absence of light; darkness.

2) [noun] a morbid affection of the eye.

3) [noun] a class of qualities as offensiveness, aggressiveness, meanness, greed, lust, moral impurity, etc., as one of the three main types of qualities.

4) [noun] keen mental suffering or distress over affliction or loss; sharp sorrow.

5) [noun] (astrol.) Rāhu, the mythological demon and one of the nine planets, which is believed to cause eclipse.

6) [noun] the condition or quality of being ignorant; lack of knowledge; ignorance.

7) [noun] the tendency of cheating.

8) [noun] a mistake; an error; a defect.

9) [noun] inability to see; blindness; sightlessness.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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