Cetas, Ceto: 18 definitions

Introduction:

Cetas means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chetas.

In Hinduism

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Cetas (चेतस्) refers to the “undisturbed mind”, according to the Kaṅkālamālinītantra (Quoted by Woodroffe 1981: 435 fn. 5.).—Accordingly, “Having meditated on the Triangle placed below (the Cavity of Brahmā), he thinks that Kailāśa... is there. O Mahādevī, by placing the undisturbed mind (cetas) here one lives in bliss to the full term of one's life... free from all ills. For such a one there is no rebirth. Here constantly shines Amākalā, which knows neither increase nor decay, and within it, again, is the seventeenth digit, known as Nirvāṇakalā. Within Nirvāṇakalā is the fiery Nibodhikā. Above it is unmanifested Nāda [Sound], effulgent as ten million suns. It is the excellent Nirvāṇa Śakti, the cause of all. In this Śakti it should be known that Śiva who is changeless and free from illusion abides”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Cetas (चेतस्) refers to the “mind”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.15 (“The penance and reign of Tārakāsura”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated: “Thus with ardour, the king of the demons [i.e., Tāraka] performed the severe penance duly unbearable even to those who heard about it. [...] Then all those gods and sages consulted one another and in their great fright they came to my world and approached me in a piteous plight. Bowing to and eulogising me with palms joined in reverence, all of them explained everything to me distressed in mind [i.e., kliṣṭa-cetas] that they were. [...]”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

1) Cetas (चेतस्) (Cf. Citta) refers to the “consciousness”, according to the Mālinīvijayottaratantra, chapter 18 (“appropriate conduct of the accomplished Yogin”) verses 18.74-81 (as quoted in the Tantrāloka verse 4.213-221ab).—Accordingly, “[...] Absolutely everything is performed here [according to the rules of the Mālinīvijayottara], and, contrariwise, omitted. Yet, this (alone) is necessarily enjoined here [in the Mālinīvijayottara], O Goddess, that the wholly pleased Yogin must fix his consciousness [cetas] on reality; and he should therefore act only in accordance with that [reality (tattva)], whatever that may be for him. Moreover, the one whose consciousness [citta] is fixed on reality, partaking even in the pleasures of the senses [viṣaya], is not touched by bad consequences, just as the petal of a lotus (is not affected) by water. [...]”.

2) Cetas (चेतस्) [=Cetaska?] refers to “one’s mind”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[Visualisation of Parameśvara]:—[...] He is adorned with nice anklets, armlets, rings and bracelets, and he shines with small toe rings, channahīras, etc., and diadems and a crown. His face is gracious, beautiful, his lips are smeared with betel leaves. His mind (cetaska) is filled with the joy of wine, and his body is supreme bliss [itself]. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Cetas (चेतस्) refers to the “mind”, according to the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] By astonishing, [magical] feats such as [creating] enmity [among friends], driving off and killing [adversaries] and by [tantric] mantras [of all kinds], [deluded] multiplicity multiplies. By all [yogic] practices, the various Bandhas and Mudrās, nothing but union with ignorance [is achieved]. Meditation on points in the body, the channels [of vitality] and the six Cakras is an error of mind (cetas-bhrama). Therefore, having abandoned all that, [because it has been] constructed by the mind, resort to the no-mind [state]. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Cetas (चेतस्) refers to the “mind”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 4).—Accordingly, “[Question: Why is the Buddha called Bhagavat?]—[Answer]: [...] Furthermore, bhāga means glory (yaśas-) and vat indicates its possession. [...] The noble Cakravartin kings often reign over the four continents (caturdvīpaka); the Buddha reigns over countless universes (apramāṇalokadhātu).—The Cakravartin kings have mastery over wealth (pariṣkāravaśitā); the Buddha has mastery over mind (cetas-vāśita).—The noble Cakravartin kings covet heavenly bliss (devasukha); the Buddha covets nothing, having reached the well-being of the summit of existence (bhavāgrasukha). [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: MDPI Books: The Ocean of Heroes

Cetas (चेतस्) refers to “consciousness”, according to chapter 50 of the 10th-century Ḍākārṇava-tantra: one of the last Tibetan Tantric scriptures belonging to the Buddhist Saṃvara tradition consisting of 51 chapters.—Accordingly, “Now, I will explain the characteristic of Mahākaṅkāla. [...] [The currents] rest in the middle of the skull by means of the mirror-like consciousness (darpaṇa-ākāra-cetas). Assuming the appearance of streams of immortal nectar [poured out] from a pot, they flow in the middle of a hollow [viz, channel in his head]. He should meditate that [this awakening] mind undergoes states such as absorption and enjoyment. [If he performs] the yoga of a donkey in that hollow, he sees the seven-time born. The appearances of mother-borns are three; likewise, the father-borns are three. [...]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Cetas (चेतस्) refers to the “heart”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “The thirty gods, whose heads are bowed, bow down to the line of lotus feet of those whose hearts have become a refuge (śaraṇībhūta-cetas) only for the doctrine. That very same doctrine, which is devoted to the helpless, is a preceptor and a friend, and the doctrine is a master and a brother. It is a protector without a motive”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

ceto : is the form that ceta takes in cpds.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Ceto, (nt.) (Sk. cetas)=citta, q. v. for detail concerning derivation, inflexion & meaning. Cp. also cinteti. ‹-› Only the Gen. cetaso & the Instr. cetasā are in use; besides these there is an adj. cetaso, der. from Nom. base cetas. Another adj.-form is the inflected Nom. ceto, occurring only in viceto S.V, 447 (+ummatto, out of mind).

I. Ceto in its relation to similar terms: (a) with kāya & vācā: kāyena vācāya cetasā (with hand, speech & heart) Sn.232; Kh IX. kāya (vācā°, ceto°) —muni a saint in action, speech & thought A.I, 273= Nd2 514. In this phrase the Nd has mano° for ceto°, which is also a v. l. at A-passage.—(b) with paññā (see citta IV. b) in ceto-vimutti, paññā-vimutti (see below IV.).—(c) with samādhi, pīti, sukha, etc.: see °pharaṇatā below.

II. Cetaso (Gen.) (a) heart. c° upakkilesa (stain of h.) D.III, 49, 101; S.V, 93. līnatta (attachment) S.V, 64. appasāda (unfaith) S.I, 179; ekodibhāva (singleness) D.III, 78; S.IV, 236 (see 2nd jhāna); āvaraṇāni (hindrances) S 66.—vimokkha (redemption) S.I, 159. santi (tranquillity) Sn.584, 593. vūpasama (id.) A.I, 4; S.V, 65. vinibandha (freedom) D.III, 238= A.III, 249; IV, 461 sq.—(b) mind. c° vikkhepa (disturbance) A.III, 448; V, 149: uttrāsa (fear) Vbh.367. abhiniropanā (application) Dhs.7.-(c) thought. in c° parivitakko udapādi “there arose a reflection in me (Gen.)” S.I, 139; II, 273; III, 96, 103.

III, Cetasā (Instr.) — (a) heart. mettā-sahagatena c. (with a h. full of love) frequent in phrase ekaṃ disaṃ pharitvā, etc. e.g. D.I, 186, III, 78, 223; S.IV, 296; A.I, 183; II, 129; IV, 390; V, 299, 344; Vbh.272. ujubhūtena (upright) S.II, 279; A.I, 63; vivaṭena (open) D.III, 223= S.V, 263; A.IV, 86. macchera-maḷa-pariyuṭṭhitena (in which has arisen the dirt of selfishness) S.IV, 240; A.II, 58. santim pappuyya c. S.I, 212. taṇhādhipateyyena (standing under the sway of thirst) S.III, 103.—vippasannena (devout) S.I, 32=57, 100; Dh.79; Pv.I, 1010. muttena A.IV, 244. vimariyādi-katena S.III, 31. vigatâbhijjhena D.III, 49. pathavī-āpo etc.-samena A.IV, 375 sq. ākāsasamena A.III, 315 sq. sabba° S.II, 220. abhijjhā-sahagatena A.I, 206. satārakkhena D.III, 269; A.V, 30.—migabhūtena cetasā, with the heart of a wild creature M.I, 450.—acetasā without feeling, heartlessly J.IV, 52, 57.—(b) mind: in two phrases, viz. (a) c. anuvitakketi anuvicāreti “to ponder & think over in one’s mind” D.III, 242; A.I, 264; III, 178; ‹-› (b) c. pajānāti (or manasikaroti) “to know in one’s mind, ” in the foll. expressions: para-sattānaṃ parapuggalānaṃ cetasā ceto-paricca pajānāti “he knows in his mind the ways of thought (the state of heart) of other beings” (see ceto-paricca & °pariyāya) M.II, 19; S.II, 121, 213; V, 265; A.I, 255=III, 17=280. puggalaṃ paduṭṭha-cittaṃ evaṃ c° ceto-paricca p. It.12, cp. 13. Arahanto ... Bhagavanto c° cetoparicca viditā D.III, 100. para-cittapariyāya kusalo evaṃ c° ceto‹-› paricca manasikaroti A.V, 160. Bhagavā (brāhmaṇassa) c° ceto-parivitakkaṃ aññāya “perceiving in his mind the thought of (the b.)” S.I, 178; D.III, 6; A.III, 374; Miln.10.

IV. Cpds. —khila fallowness, waste of heart or mind, usually as pañca c-khilā, viz. arising from doubt in the Master, the Norm, the Community, or the Teaching, or from anger against one’s fellow-disciples, D.III, 237, 278; M.I, 101; A.III, 248=IV.460=V.17; J.III, 291; Vbh.377; Vism.211. —paṇidhi resolution, intention, aspiration Vv 4712 (=cittassa samma-d-eva ṭhapanaṃ VvA.203); Miln.129; —padosa corruption of the h., wickedness, A.I, 8; It.12, 13 (opp. pasāda): —paricca “as regards the heart, ” i.e. state of heart, ways of thought, character, mind (=pariyāya) in °ñāṇa Th.2, 71=227 (explained at ThA.76, 197 by cetopariyañāṇa) see phrase cetasā c-p. above (III, b.); —pariyāya the ways of the heart (=paricca), in para-ceto-pariyāya-kusalo “an expert in the ways of others’hearts” A.V, 160; c.-p-kovido encompassing the heart of others S.I, 146, 194=Th.1, 1248; I, 196=Th.1, 1262. Also with syncope: °pariyañāṇa D.I, 79; III, 100; Vism.431; DA.I, 223. —parivitakka reflecting, reasoning S.I, 103, 178; —pharaṇatā the breaking forth or the effulgence of heart, as one of five ideals to be pursued, viz. samādhi, pīti-pharaṇatā, sukha°, ceto°, āloka° D.III, 278; —vasippatta mastery over one’s h. A.II, 6, 36, 185; IV, 312; M.I, 377; Vism.382; Miln.82, 85; —vimutti emancipation of h. (always w. paññā-vimutti), which follows out of the destruction of the intoxications of the heart (āsavānaṃ khayā anāsavā c.-v.) Vin.I, 11 (akuppā); D.I, 156, 167, 251; III, 78, 108, 248 (muditā); S.II, 265 (mettā); M.I, 197 (akuppā), 205, 296; III, 145 (appamāṇā, mahaggatā); A.I, 124; II, 6, 36; III, 84; Sn.725, 727=It.106; It.20 (mettā), 75, 97; Pug.27, 62; Vbh.86 (mettā) Nett 81 (virāgā); DA.I, 313 (=cittavimutti); —vivaraṇa setting the h. free A.IV, 352; V, 67. See also arahant II D. —samatha calm of h. Th.2, 118; —samādhi concentration of mind (=cittasamādhi DA.I, 104) D.I, 15; III, 30; S.IV, 297; A.II, 54; III, 51; —samphassa contact with thought Dhs.3. (Page 272)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Cetas (चेतस्).—n. [cit karaṇe asun]

1) Consciousness, sense.

2) Thinking soul; वरं वरय राजर्षे क्व ते चेतो निरूप्यताम् (varaṃ varaya rājarṣe kva te ceto nirūpyatām) Rām.7.57.13; reasoning faculty; संप्रमथ्येन्द्रियग्रामं प्रनष्टा सह चेतसा (saṃpramathyendriyagrāmaṃ pranaṣṭā saha cetasā) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 1.125.11; चेतोभिराकूतिभिरातनोति (cetobhirākūtibhirātanoti) Bhāgavata 5.11.4.

3) The mind, heart, soul; चेतः प्रसादयति (cetaḥ prasādayati) Bhartṛhari 2.23; गच्छति पुरः शरीरं धावति पश्चादसंस्तुतं चेतः (gacchati puraḥ śarīraṃ dhāvati paścādasaṃstutaṃ cetaḥ) Ś.1.34.

4) Will.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cetas (चेतस्).—n.

(-taḥ) Mind, intellect, the faculty of reasoning or understanding. E. cit to consider, Unadi affix asun.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cetas (चेतस्).—i. e. 1. cit + as, n. 1. Intellect, [Nala] 11, 24. 2. Consciousness, Mahābhārata 7, 6935.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cetas (चेतस्).—[neuter] appearance, aspect, intelligence, consciousness, mind, heart, desire, fancy.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Cetas (चेतस्):—[from cit] a n. splendour, [Ṛg-veda]

2) [v.s. ...] ([Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska iii, 9]) consciousness, intelligence, thinking soul, heart, mind, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xxxiv, 3; Atharva-veda; Manu-smṛti ix, xii; Mahābhārata] etc. (ifc. [Kaṭha-upaniṣad; Manu-smṛti] etc.)

3) [v.s. ...] will, [Atharva-veda vi, 116, 3; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa iii, 1, 1, 7]

4) [v.s. ...] cf. a-cetas, dabhra-, pra-, laghu-, vi-, sa-, su-cetas.

5) b etc., tāya etc. See √cit.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Ceto (चेतो):—[from cit] in [compound] for tas.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cetas (चेतस्):—(taḥ) 5. n. Mind, intellect.

[Sanskrit to German]

Cetas in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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