Ghana, Ghanā, Ghāṇa, Ghāna: 31 definitions
Ghana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ghana (घन):—Another name for Mustā (Cyperus rotundus), a species of medicinal plant and used in the treatment of fever (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which is part of the 7th-century Mādhavacikitsā, a Sanskrit classical work on Āyurveda. The literal translation of Ghana is “killer” or “destroyer”, but in the Ayurvedic context, it refers to “compact”, “solid”, “thick” or “dense”.Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Ghana (घन) refers to the “thick” (e.g., water), as mentioned in verse 5.6-8 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] Not shall one drink (water that is) turbid [viz., āvila] and covered with mud, tape-grass, grass, and leaves, unseen by sun, moon, and wind, rained upon, thick [viz., ghana], heavy, [...]: (such water) one shall not drink”.Source: Academia.edu: Ayurveda and Pharmaceutics
Ghana (Condense): Juice and other liquid medicinal substances are heated on slow fire to make into semisolid substance known as ghana. This form concentrates the medicinal ingredients and so the dosage is reduced. Sugar or jaggery is added to prepare a medicated confectionary, known as lehya. This form is very palatable and has longer shelf life.Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
1) Ghanā (घना) is another name for Māṣaparṇī, a medicinal plant identified with Teramnus labialis from the Fabaceae, or “pea family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.30-33 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Ghanā and Māṣaparṇī, there are a total of twenty-one Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
2) Ghanā (घना) is also mentioned as a synonym for Rudrajaṭā, a medicinal plant identified with Aristolochia indica (Indian birthwort or duck flower) from the Aristolochiaceae or “birthwort family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.79-81.Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha
Ghana (घन) is another name for “Mustā” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning ghana] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Ghana (घन):—[ghanaṃ] Thick
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Ghana (घन) or Jalada refers to “clouds”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.22. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] Once at the advent of clouds (jalada-āgama), Dakṣa’s daughter said to Śiva who was halting on the ridge of Kailāsa mountain. Satī said:—‘O lord of devas, O Śiva my dear husband, please hear my words and do accordingly, O bestower of honour. The most unbearable season of the advent of clouds (ghana-āgama) has arrived with clusters of clouds of diverse hues, and their music reverberating in the sky and the various quarters. The speedy gusts of wind scattering sprays of water mingled with nectarine drops from the Kadamba flowers captivate the heart as they blow’”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Ghana (घन).—Three kinds described.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 51. 28-33.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
2) Ghana (घन) refers to one of the four jātis, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. A jāti refers to a combination of the dhātus (roots). The four dhātus relate to different aspects of strokes in playing stringed instruments (tata). According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “the ghana relates to the karaṇa-dhātus and depends on their quantity (lit. aggregate of long and short notes)”.
3) Ghana (घन) or Anugata refers to one of the three gatas: rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “the anugata playing of drums, should begin with the sama-pāṇi or the avara-pāṇi, and it should have karaṇas produced by distinct strokes, and it should follow the song”.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Ghana (घन).—A variety of the क्रमपाठ (kramapāṭha) or recital of the Vedic hymns to show the serial order of words there; one of the eight vikrtis of the padapātha.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra
Ghana (घन) refers to “one who is irascible”, representing an undesirable characteristic of an Ācārya, according to the 9th-century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra Ādikāṇḍa chapter 3.—The Lord said:—“I will tell you about the Sthāpakas endowed with perverse qualities. He should not construct a temple with those who are avoided in this Tantra. [...] He should not despise Tantra or be devoted to plotting against others. He should not be born of adultery nor have the voice of a crow, be impotent, timid or irascible (ghana). [...] A god enshrined by any of these named above (viz., ghana), is in no manner a giver of fruit. If a building for Viṣṇu is made anywhere by these excluded types (viz., ghana) then that temple will not give rise to enjoyment and liberation and will yield no reward, of this there is no doubt”.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Kavya (poetry)Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa
Ghana (घन) refers to a musical instrument (like bells and cymbals), and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 15.16.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
ghana means related to nose,
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
Ghana (घन) is the name of a cloud (megha) associated with Aṭṭaṭṭahāsa: the north-eastern cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Vajravārāhī-sādhana by Umāpatideva as found in te 12th century Guhyasamayasādhanamālā. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.
These clouds (e.g., Ghana) are known as cloud-kings (megharāja) and have names that are associated with the loud noises of thunderclouds and the noise of rain, according to the Guhyasamayasādhanamālā 11.77. Their presence in the cremation grounds may be connected with the nāgas, for they are known to be responsible for the rain.Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Ghana (घन) refers to one of the eight cloud king (meghendra) of the Guṇacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the guṇacakra refers to one of the four divisions of the sahaja-puṭa (‘innate layer’), situated within the padma (lotus) in the middle of the Herukamaṇḍala. Ghana is associated with the charnel grounds (śmaśāna) named Aṭṭahāsa; with the tree (vṛkṣa) named Vaṭa; with the direction-guardians (dikpāla) named Īśāna and with the serpent king (nāgendra) named Mahāpadma.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Ghana (घन) refers to one of the embryonic stages according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter VII).—“According to some, at the moment of reincarnation (pratisaṃdhi), all beings have a disturbed mind; but since the Bodhisattva has no loss of mindfulness, it is said that he enters his mother’s womb with an undisturbed mind. When he is in the stage of the K’ie na (ghana), he knows that he is in the ghana stage, i.e., three weeks after conception, he resembles frozen cream”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds
Ghana (घन) means “thick” or “humid” and refers to a type of strata or cushion supporting the lands (bhumī) of the underworld, according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.1. There are seven lands existing in the downward order (one below the other) with Ratnaprabhā being the topmost supported by the cushions of humid atmosphere (ghana), dense air /water (ambu), which rests in a ring of thin /rarified air (vāta) resting in space (ākāśa).Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living
Ghana (घन) refers to one of the four types of contrived sound (prāyogika) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.24.—What is ghana sound? Sound produced by metallic musical instruments e.g. bell in the temples, cymbals etc.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
ghana : (adj.) thick; solid; dense; compact. (nt.), a club; a hammer; a musical instrument played by striking. (m.), a cloud.
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ghāṇa : (nt.) the nose.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
1) Ghana, 2 (Vedic ghana to hanti (ghanti, cp. ghātayati), *gǔhen “strike, ” cp. Gr. qei/nw, fόnos, Lat. of-fendo, Ags. gud, Ohg. gundea) a club, a stick, a hammer; in ayo° an iron club VvA.20. Also coll. term for a musical instrument played by striking, as cymbal, tambourine, etc. VvA.37. (Page 257)
2) Ghana, 1 (Vedic ghana, cp. Gr. eu)qhnήs?) (a) (adj.) solid, compact, massive; dense, thick; in eka° of one solid mass (of sela, rock) Vin.I, 185=Dh.81=Th.1, 643= Miln.386; A.III, 378, cp. ghanasela-pabbata DhA.I, 74.—gh. paṃsu J.I, 264, paṭhavī (solid ground) J.I, 74; PvA.75; palāsa (foliage) PvA.113; buddharasmiyo J.I, 12; °maṃsa solid, pure flesh DhA.I, 80; °sāṭaka (thick cloth) J.I, 292; °sañchanna (thickly covered) PvA.258; °suvaṇṇakoṭṭima DhA.IV, 135; abbha° a thick cloud Sn.348 (cp. SnA 348).—(b) (m.) the fœtus at a certain stage (the last before birth & the 4th in the enum. of the foll. stages: kalala, abbuda, pesī, gh.) S.I, 206; J.IV, 496; Miln.40; Vism.236. The latter meaning is semantically to be explained as “swelling” & to be compared with Gr. bru/w to swell and e(/mbruon=embryo (the gravid uterus). (Page 257)
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Ghāna, (nt.) (Sk. ghrāṇa to ghrā, see ghāyati. On n for ṇ cp. Trenckner, Notes, p. 81) the nose; usually in its function as organ of smell=sense of smell (either in phrase ghānena gandhaṃ ghāyati: to smell an odour by means of the nose; or in ghana-viññeyyā gandhā: odours which are sensed by the nose). In the enum. of the senses gh. is always mentioned in the 3rd place (after cakkhu & sota, eye & ear); see under rūpa. In this connection: Vin.I, 34; D.I, 21, 245; III, 102, 244 sq.; S.I, 115; M.I, 112, 191; II, 42; Dh.360; Pug.20; Miln.270; Vism.444 sq. (with definition).—In other connections: Pv.II, 24 (ghāna-chinna, one whose nose is cut off).
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
ghaṇa (घण).—m (S or ghana) A sledge-hammer. Pr. hiṛyā- cī parīkṣā ghaṇāvāñcūna hōta nāhīṃ. Pr. ghaṇācē ghāva sōsīla tō hirā.
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ghaṇa (घण).—a (ghana S) Thick--liquid substances: copious and heavy--rain: of close texture--cloth: dense, close, impervious--a wood: thick or deep--a plank: crowded--an assemblage. 2 Doggedly silent.
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ghaṇā (घणा).—m (ghaṇa) An extraordinarily large ghaṇa or sledge-hammer. ghaṇyāghāyīṃ Under the animated sounding of the ghaṇā. Used with nāndaṇēṃ-asaṇēṃ &c. (To have trinkets always under the hammer.) To be very rich.
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ghana (घन).—m (S) A cloud. 2 The cube of a number. 3 In geometry. A cube or a solid. 4 A sledgehammer. 5 n A general name for Musical instruments of brass or other composite metal which are to be beaten or struck; as karatāla, ṭāḷa, jhāñja, jhēṅgaṭa &c.: also a bell or gong.
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ghana (घन).—a (S) Coarse, close, dense, solid, compact, firm. See the derived and commoner word ghaṇa.
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ghāṇa (घाण).—f An offensive smell; stench, fœtor. 2 Any thing nauseous and disgusting, offending the smell or sight; any nastiness, mess, slop, litter, rubbish. Ex. āṅgaṇānta ghāṇa paḍalī tī kāḍhūna ṭāka. 3 A term of reviling;--used to persons and things. Ex. hā dhōtarajōḍā āṭha hāta hī ghāṇa malā nakō. (Agreeing with stinking stuff, stinking fellow.) 4 Confusion, disorder, derangement (of an account, of affairs): plight, pickle, mess (of persons or things). 5 The wheelrut of a lime-grinding mill. 6 Smell, scent, odor gen. Ex. javādīcī ghāṇa lasaṇāsavēṃ gēlī || svādā nāhīṃ ālī kusaṅgatī ||. 7 Used as an interjection, expressing vexation, irritation, impatience. ghāṇa yēṇēṃ g. of o. To stink in one's nostrils. ghāṇī- cā (Having the stench or the flavor of.) Pertaining to or connected with in some remote way.
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ghāṇā (घाणा).—m An oil-mill. 2 The block in which the lāṭa or roller moves. 3 Materials thrown into the mill at one time, the charge. Hence fig. The quantity of rice, gram &c. put at once into the pounding mortar or parching pan; of drugs, spiceries &c. into the mortar; of materials gen. to be ground, pounded, bruised, levigated, mashed. 4 The heap of grain which, on Makar Sankranti, the mistress of the house places on the pounding mortar; to be given to some Brahman. 5 A sugarcane-press. 6 The making (at marriages or thread-investitures) of a ghāṇā (i. e. a duraḍī full of rice) and the pounding and singing &c. by the assembled gossips. v bhara, ghāla. 7 The wheelrut of a lime-grinding mill. ghāṇā karaṇēṃ g. of o. To harass or worry (persons, animals): to rumple, discompose, disorder (clothes, papers &c.) ghāṇyānta ghālaṇēṃ To cast into a troublous condition. ghāṇyāntūna piḷaṇēṃ or kāḍhaṇēṃ To squeeze and crush; to destroy the strength, substance, marrow of, lit. fig.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
ghaṇa (घण).—m A sledge-hammer. a Thick.
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ghana (घन).—m A cloud. The cube of a number; a cube. A sledge-hammer. a Thick.
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ghāṇa (घाण).—f An offensives smell; stench, fœtor. Any thing nauseous and disgusting. A term of reviling-used to persons and things. Disorder, derangement (of an account, of affairs): plight, pickle, mess (of persons or things).
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ghāṇā (घाणा).—m An oil-mill. Materials thrown into the mill at one time, the charge. A sugarcane-press. ghāṇyāta ghālaṇēṃ To cast into a troublous condition. ghāṇyātūna piḷaṇēṃ or kāḍhaṇēṃ To squeeze and erush.
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ghāṇā (घाणा).—f A lime-mill.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Ghana (घन).—a. [in mūrtau ap ghanādeśaśca Tv.]
1) Compact, firm, hard, solid; संजातश्च घनाघनः (saṃjātaśca ghanāghanaḥ) Māl.9.39.; नासा घनास्थिका (nāsā ghanāsthikā) Y.3.89; R.11.18.
2) Thick, close, dense; घनविरलभावः (ghanaviralabhāvaḥ) U.2.27; R.8.91; Amaru.59.
3) Thick-set, full, fully developed (as breasts); घटयति सुघने कुचयुगगगने मृगमदरुचि रूषिते (ghaṭayati sughane kucayugagagane mṛgamadaruci rūṣite) Gīt.7; अगुरु-चतुष्कं भवति गुरू द्वौ घनकुचयुग्मे शशिवदनाऽसौ (aguru-catuṣkaṃ bhavati gurū dvau ghanakucayugme śaśivadanā'sau) Śrut.8; Bh.1.8; Amaru.31.
4) Deep (as sound); दधानः सौधानामलघुषु निकुञ्जेषु घनताम् (dadhānaḥ saudhānāmalaghuṣu nikuñjeṣu ghanatām) Māl.2.12; Mu.1.21.
5) Uninterrupted, permanent.
7) Great, excessive, violent.
8) Complete; अभ्यङ्गभङ्ग्या पापस्य न्यस्तं घनमपश्यतः (abhyaṅgabhaṅgyā pāpasya nyastaṃ ghanamapaśyataḥ) Ks.4.53.
9) Auspicious, fortunate.
1) Coarse, gross.
11) Engrossed by, full or replete with; मा ते मलीमसविकारघना मतिर्भूत् (mā te malīmasavikāraghanā matirbhūt) Māl.1.32; निर्वृति° (nirvṛti°) U.6.11.
-naḥ A cloud; घनोदयः प्राक् तदनन्तरं पयः (ghanodayaḥ prāk tadanantaraṃ payaḥ) Ś.7.3; घनरुचिरकलापो निःसपत्नोऽस्य जातः (ghanarucirakalāpo niḥsapatno'sya jātaḥ) V.4.22.
2) An iron club, a mace; प्रतिजघान घनैरिव मुष्टिभिः (pratijaghāna ghanairiva muṣṭibhiḥ) Ki.18.1.
3) The body.
4) The cube of a number (in math.).
5) Extension, diffusion.
6) A collection, multitude, quantity, mass, assemblage.
9) Any compact mass or substance.
1) Hardness, firmness.
11) A particular manner of reciting Vedic texts : thus the padas नमः रुद्रेभ्यः ये (namaḥ rudrebhyaḥ ye) repeated in this manner would stand thus :-नमो रुद्रेभ्यो रुद्रेभ्यो नमो नमो रुद्रेभ्यो ये ये रुद्रेभ्यो नमो नमो रुद्रेभ्यो ये (namo rudrebhyo rudrebhyo namo namo rudrebhyo ye ye rudrebhyo namo namo rudrebhyo ye).
-nam 1 A cymbal, a bell, a gong.
4) Skin, rind, bark.
5) A mode of dancing; (neither quick nor slow). ind. closely; घटयति घनं कण्ठा- श्लेषे रसान्न पयोधरौ (ghaṭayati ghanaṃ kaṇṭhā- śleṣe rasānna payodharau) Ratn.3.9.
-Com. -atyayaḥ, -antaḥ 'disappearance of the cloud', the season succeeding the rains, autumn (śarad); घनव्यपायेन गभस्तिमानिव (ghanavyapāyena gabhastimāniva) R.3.37.
-ajñānī Name of Durgā.
-ambu n. rain; घनाम्बुभिर्भूरि विलम्बिनो घनाः (ghanāmbubhirbhūri vilambino ghanāḥ) Subhās.
-ākaraḥ the rainy season.
-āgamaḥ, -udayaḥ 'the approach of clouds', the rainy season; घनागमः कामिजनप्रियः प्रिये (ghanāgamaḥ kāmijanapriyaḥ priye) Ṛs.2.1.
-āmayaḥ the date-tree.
-āśrayaḥ the atmosphere, firmament.
-uttamaḥ the face.
-udadhiḥ a particular sea (hell ?).
-ūrū a woman having thick thighs; कुरु घनोरु पदानि शनैः शनैः (kuru ghanoru padāni śanaiḥ śanaiḥ) Ve.2.2.
-oghaḥ gathering of clouds.
-kālaḥ the rainy season.
-kṣama a. what may be hammered; Bhāvapr. 5.26.53.
-garjitam 1 thunder, peal or thundering noise of clouds, roar of thunder.
2) a deep loud roar.
-golakaḥ alloy of gold and silver.
-ghanaḥ the cube of a cube.
-jambāla thick mire.
-tālaḥ a kind of bird (sāraṃga).
-tolaḥ the Chātaka bird.
-dhvani a. roaring. (-niḥ) 1 a deep or low tone.
2) the muttering of thunder clouds; अनुहुंकुरुते घनध्वनिं न हि गोमायुरुतानि केशरी (anuhuṃkurute ghanadhvaniṃ na hi gomāyurutāni keśarī) Śi.16.25.
-nābhiḥ smoke (being supposed to be a principal ingredient in clouds; Me.5).
-nīhāraḥ thick hoar-frost or mist.
-padam the cube root.
-padavī 'the path of clouds', firmament, sky; क्रामद्भिर्घनपदवीमनेकसंख्यैः (krāmadbhirghanapadavīmanekasaṃkhyaiḥ) Ki.5.34.
-pāṣaṇḍaḥ a peacock.
-phalam (in geom.) the solid or cubical contents of a body or of an excavation.
-mānam the measurement by the exterior of a structure; Māna. 39-64.
-mūlam cube root (in math.)
-rasaḥ 1 thick juice.
2) extract, decoction.
4) water (m. or n.).
-rūpā candied sugar.
-varam the face.
-vargaḥ the square of a cube, the sixth power (in math).
-vartman n. the sky; घनवर्त्म सहस्रधेव कुर्वन् (ghanavartma sahasradheva kurvan) Ki.5.17.
-vallikā, -vallī lightning.
-vāc a raven.
-vātaḥ 1 a thick oppressive breeze or air.
2) Name of a hell; Jaina.
-vīthiḥ the sky; घनवीथिवीथिमवतीर्णवतः (ghanavīthivīthimavatīrṇavataḥ) Śi.9.32.
-śabdaḥ thunder, peal of thunder.
-vāsaḥ a kind of pumpkin gourd.
-vāhanaḥ 1 Śiva.
-śyāma a. 'dark like a cloud', deep-black, dark. (-maḥ) an epithet (1) of Rain (2) of Kṛṣṇa.
-saṃvṛttiḥ profound secrecy.
-samayaḥ the rainy season.
-sāraḥ 1 camphor; घनसारनीहारहार (ghanasāranīhārahāra) &c. Dk.1 (mentioned among white substances).
4) a big cloud; घनसारस्तु कर्पूरे महामेघे च चन्दने (ghanasārastu karpūre mahāmeghe ca candane) Nm.
-svanaḥ, -śabdaḥ, -ravaḥ the roaring of clouds.
-hasta- saṃkhyā the contents of an excavation or of a solid in math.).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-naḥ-nā-naṃ) 1. Material, solid. 2. Coarse, gross. 3. Compact. 4. Hard, firm. 5. Full, plum. 6. Impenetrable. 7. Vicid, thick, inspissated. 8. Deep, (as sound) 9. Very, much. 10. Auspicious, fortunate. 11. Permanent, eternal. m.
(-naḥ) 1. A cloud. 2. An iron club. 3. The body. 4. A fragrant grass, (Cyperus rotundus.) 5. A number, an assemblage or quantity. 6. Extension, diffusion. 7. Hardness. 8. Solidity, substance. matter. 9. The cube of a number, (in arithmetic.) 10. A solid, (in geometry.) 11. Phlegm. 12. Talc. n.
(-naṃ) 1. A cymbal, a bell, a Gong, &c. any brazen or composite metallic instrument, which is struck as a clock, &c. 2. A mode of dancing, neither quick nor slow. 3. Iron. 4. Skin, rind, bark, &c. E. han to strike or be struck, affix ap and ha changed to gha.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ghana (घन).—i. e. han + a, I. adj., f. nā, 1. Firm, hard, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 17. 2. Without interstices, [Suśruta] 1, 29, 8. 3. Uninterrupted, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 237. 4. Dense, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 188; 129, 8. 5. As latter part of a compound adj., sometimes Full, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 8, 90. 6. Dusk, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 5, 3. 7. Deep (as a sound), Mahābhārata 1, 6680; [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 377. 8. Whole, [Upakośa] 24. Ii. m. 1. A solid mass, substance, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in
Ghana (घन).—[adjective] slaying, striking; compact, solid, firm, tight ([neuter] [adverb]); dark, deep (sound); uninterrupted, whole, entire; full of (—°). [masculine] slaughter, slayer; mace, club, hammer; compact mass, cloud; nothing but (—°).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Ghana (घन):—mf(ā)n. (√han) a striker, killer, destroyer, [Ṛg-veda i, 4, 8; iii, 49, 1; iv, 38, 1; viii, 96, 18]
2) compact, solid, material, hard, firm, dense, [i, 8, 3] (ghanā for nam ā), [Suśruta] etc.
3) coarse, gross
4) viscid, thick, inspissated, [Suśruta; Bhartṛhari; Kathāsaritsāgara xxiv, 93]
5) full of (in [compound]), densely filled with (in [compound]), [Mahābhārata i, xiii; Raghuvaṃśa viii, 90; Ratnāvalī iv, 2]
6) uninterrupted, [Pañcatantra iii, 14, 11]
7) dark (cf. -śyāma), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iv, 5, 3]
8) deep (as sound; colour), [Mahābhārata i, 6680; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā xliii, 19]
9) complete, all, [Kathāsaritsāgara iv, 53]
10) auspicious, fortunate, [Horace H. Wilson]
11) m. (= φόνος) slaying, [Ṛg-veda vi, 26, 8]
12) an iron club, mace, weapon shaped like a hammer, [i, 33, 4; 36, 16; 63, 5; ix, 97, 16; Atharva-veda x, 4, 9]
13) any compact mass or substance (generally ifc.), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv etc.] (said of the foetus in the 2nd month, [Nirukta, by Yāska xiv, 6; Laghujātaka, by Varāha-mihira iii, 4])
14) ifc. mere, nothing but (e.g. vijñāna-ghana, ‘nothing but intuition’ [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv]), [Māṇḍūkya-upaniṣad, 12 mantra 5; Praśna-upaniṣad v, 5; Bhāgavata-purāṇa viii f.] (cf. ambu-, ayo-)
15) a collection, multitude, mass, quantity, [Horace H. Wilson]
16) vulgar people, [Subhāṣitāvali]
17) a cloud, [Mahābhārata] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Harivaṃśa 2660])
18) talc, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) the bulbous root of Cyperus Hexastachys communis, [Suśruta vi]
20) a peculiar form of a temple, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi ii, 1, 389]
21) a particular method of reciting the [Ṛg-veda] and Yajur-veda (cf. [Religious Thought and Life in India p.409])
22) the cube (of a number), solid body (in [geometry]), [Laghujātaka, by Varāha-mihira; Sūryasiddhānta]
23) phlegm (kapha), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
24) the body, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
25) extension, diffusion, [Horace H. Wilson]
26) n. any brazen or metallic instrument or plate which is struck (cymbal, bell, gong, etc.), [Harivaṃśa 8688]
27) iron, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
28) tin, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
29) a mode of dancing (neither quick nor slow), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
30) darkness, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
31) n. (√dhvan, to sound) deep, [Rājataraṅgiṇī v, 377]
32) very much, [Horace H. Wilson]
33) Ghanā (घना):—[from ghana] f. Name of a stringed instrument
34) [v.s. ...] Glycine debilis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
35) [v.s. ...] a kind of creeper, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Ghaṇa (घण):—(da, u, ña) ghaṇoti ṇute 8. c. To shine.
2) Ghana (घन):—(naḥ) 1. m. A cloud; an assemblage. 1. m. A cymbal, a bell; iron; skin; a solid. a. Solid, thick, hard; deep-toned.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Ghana (घन):—(von han) I) subj.
1) adj. subst. der welcher erschlägt, Zermalmer: vṛ.rāṇām [Ṛgveda 3, 49, 1. 4, 38, 1. 1, 4, 8. 8, 85, 12.] —
2) m. Knüttel, Keule [Atharvavedasaṃhitā 10, 4, 9.] vadhī.hi dasyuṃ dha.inaṃ gha.ena [Ṛgveda 1, 33, 4.] ā vajraṃ gha.ā dadīmahi [8, 3. 36, 16. 63, 5. 9, 97, 16.] eine hammerähnliche Waffe [Amarakoṣa 2, 8, 2, 59.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 785.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 262.] [Medinīkoṣa Nalopākhyāna 3.] Vgl. ayoghana . — II) obj.
1) adj. f. ā (fest zusammengeschlagen u.s.w.), = mūrta, nirantara, sāndra, dṛḍha [Amarakoṣa 3, 2, 15. 3, 4, 18, 113.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1447.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] = pūrṇa, saṃpuṭa [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] a) compact: kavalikā [Suśruta 1, 16, 8.] fest, hart: granthi [257, 17.] śopha [2, 44, 19.] vraṇa [2, 7.] piṇḍa [1, 322, 7.] nāsā ghanāsthikā [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 3, 89.] śilāghane tāḍakorasi [Raghuvaṃśa 11, 18.] stanau [Bhartṛhari 1, 17.] [Caurapañcāśikā 40.] [Śrutabodha 8.] [Gītagovinda 7, 24.] jaghana, ūru [10, 6.] [Caurapañcāśikā 15.] [Amaruśataka 28.] [Prabodhacandrodaja 101, 16.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 68, 3.] aṅguli [67, 43.] fest, von Speisen [Suśruta 1, 241, 15.] zäh, dick, von Flüssigkeiten und dergl. srāva [84, 9. 2, 363, 5.] doṣa [345, 15.] ghanayāṅgaṃ mṛdālipat [Kathāsaritsāgara 24, 93.] trapsyaṃ dadhi ghanetarat [Amarakoṣa 2, 9, 51.] ghanaṃ ghanapaṭalam [Bhartṛhari 1, 43.] udadhi, vāta (Gegens. tanu) [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1359.] dicht, von einem Gewebe [Suśruta 1, 29, 8. 2, 197, 14.] vana [Pañcatantra III, 188. 141, 16] (wo sughana für saghana zu lesen ist). vṛkṣaiḥ [Vetālapañcaviṃśati 6, 8.] von Zähnen [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 67, 52.] atighanatarapatracchanna [Pañcatantra 148, 5.] pulaka [Amaruśataka 57.] dhārā [Pañcatantra 93, 2.] dhūma [Mahābhārata 14, 1738.] andhakāra [Rāmāyaṇa 6, 19, 60.] [Mṛcchakaṭikā 7, 11.] [Pañcatantra 129, 18] (comparat.). timira [I, 189.] [Śiśupālavadha 4, 67.] niśītha [Amaruśataka 69.] dick, voll von Etwas, am Ende eines comp.: jaladhārāghainarghanaiḥ [Mahābhārata 1, 5374.] tamoghanāyāṃ niśi [13, 4047.] hṛdi śokaghane [Raghuvaṃśa 8, 90.] häufig auf einander folgend, ununterbrochen: gāṇḍīvasphuragurughanāsphālanakrūrapāṇi (vgl. anavataradhanurjyāsphālana [Śākuntala 37]) [Pañcatantra III, 237.] — b) dunkel, von Farben: ghanaruc eine dunkle Hautfarbe habend [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 4, 5, 3]; vgl. ghanaśyāma . — c) tief, von Tönen: gaurhambhāravaghanasvanā [Mahābhārata 1, 6680.] paraśorjarjaraśabdo neṣṭaḥ snigdho ghanaśca hitaḥ [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 42 (43), 19.] ghanam dhvananti [Rājataraṅgiṇī 5, 377.] — d) zusammengefasst. ganz, all: dhanam das ganze Vermögen [Upakośā 24] [?(Kathāsaritsāgara 4, 26] eine ganz andere Lesart). ghanamapaśyataḥ (pāpasya) des Bösen, der nichts merkte [Kathāsaritsāgara 4, 53.] —
2) m. a) eine compacte Masse, Klumpen u.s.w.: saindhavaghana [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 14, 7, 3, 13.] supuṣpite patraghane nilānaḥ [Rāmāyaṇa 5, 16, 55.] saṃdhyābhra [6, 35, 12.] [Mahābhārata 3, 11555.] keśa [Harivaṃśa 4298.] vom Fötus im zweiten Monat (vgl. [Suśruta 1, 322, 7]) [Yāska’s Nirukta 14, 6.] [Varāhamihira’s Laghujātaka 3, 4] (nach dem [Scholiast] n.). rasa, prajñāna, vijñāna, prajñā, jīva ganz, nichts als rasa, ganz Erkennen u.s.w. [The Śatapathabrāhmaṇa 14, 7, 3, 13. 5, 4, 12.] [Māṇḍūkyopaniṣad 5.] [Praśnopaniṣad 5, 5.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 8, 3, 12. 9, 8, 23.] Vgl. ambughana, ayoghana . Nach den Lexicographen: = mūrtiguṇa, dārḍhya, vistāra, saṃgha, ogha [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 18, 113.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] — b) Wolke [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 2, 9. 3, 4, 18, 113.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 237.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 164.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Mahābhārata 1, 5374. 12, 12405] (unterschieden von jīmūta, ghanāghana, megha, balāhaka). [Daśaratha’s Tod 1, 15.] [Rāmāyaṇa 3, 61, 8. 4, 27, 23.] [Suśruta 1, 113, 19.] [Meghadūta 20. 104.] [Śākuntala 109.] prativātaṃ na hi ghanaḥ kadācidupasarpati [Pañcatantra III, 22.] [Hitopadeśa 34, 21.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 5, 93. 6, 11. 21, 20.] ghanacchannadṛṣṭirghanacchannamarkaṃ yathā niṣprabhaṃ manyate [Vedānta lecture No. 36.] Am Ende eines adj. comp. f. ā [Harivaṃśa 2660.] — c) Talk (wie auch andere Synonyme von Wolke; vgl. abhra, abhraka und [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1051]) [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — d) die knollige Wurzel von Cyperus hexastachyus communis Nees. (wie alle Synonyme von Wolke; vgl. [Amarakoṣa 2, 4, 25.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1193]) [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 237.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Suśruta 2, 421, 11. 431, 16. 485, 13. 515, 1.] — e) Phlegma, Schleim (s. kapha) [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — f) Körper [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 564.] [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] — g) Kubus [Algebra 10. 11.] trighana = 3 x 3 x 3 = 27 [Varāhamihira’s Laghujātaka 1, 21. 13, 2.] — h) eine Art den Veda zu schreiben [Colebrooke I, 21.] [Weber’s Verzeichniss No. 368.] —
3) f. ghanā Name zweier Pflanzen: a) = māṣaparṇī . — b) = rudrajaṭā [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] —
4) n. a) Schlaginstrument [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 7, 4.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 237.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 286.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Harivaṃśa 8688.] — b) Eisen [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1037.] — c) Zinn [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 160.] — d) = tvaca [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] Eher die aromatische Rinde der Laurus Cassia als Rinde, Haut überh., wie [WILSON] annimmt. — e) das gemässigte Tempo beim Tanz [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 7, 9.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 292.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] — III) nom. act. m. das Erschlagen: śreṣṭho gha.e vṛ.rāṇāṃ sa.aye.dhanānām [Ṛgveda 6, 26, 8.]
--- OR ---
1) a) sūtra fest [Spr. 4000.] viveka derb, kräftig  (Conj.). utsāhaika (vīrahṛdaya) [Kathāsaritsāgara 83, 39.] [Z. 13 lies 129, 8; Z. 14] lies jaladhārāghanairghanaiḥ . —
2) a) mahābhra [Rāmāyaṇa 7, 6, 61.] vom Fötus [WASSILJEW 236.] — f) [Halāyudha 2, 355.] — g) yugānāṃ trighano (d. i. siebenundzwanzig Yuga) gataḥ [Sūryasiddhānta 1, 22. 46. 70.] — h) vgl. [Weber’s Indische Studien 3, 269.]
--- OR ---
2) Hammer [Spr. (II) 4074.] — II)
2) a) und b) pl. von Menschen so v. a. Pack und zugleich Wolken [Spr. (II) 6919.] — h) [Ind. Antiq. 1874, S. 133.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) Adj. (f. ā) — a) erschlagend , Tödter , Vernichter. — b) compact , fest (Strick , Speisen) , hart ; zäh , dick ; dicht. [Ṛgveda (roth). 1,8,3] ist ghanā = ghanamā. Am Ende eines Comp. voll von [Böhtlingk’s Sanskrit-Chresthomathie 319,9.] ghanam Adv. fest [312,15.] — c) häufig auf einander folgend , ununterbrochen. — d) dunkel , schwarz. — e) tief (Ton). — f) tüchtig (Verstand) [Indische sprüche 6432] (Conj.) — g) ganz , all. —
2) — a) das Erschlagen. — b) Knüttel , Keule ; Hammer. — c) eine compacte Masse , Klumpen (auch vom Fötus im zweiten Monat). vijñānaghana so v.a. Nichts als — , ganz Erkennen [34,24.] — d) Pl. von Menschen so v.a. Pack. — e) Wolke. Am Ende eines adj. Comp. f. ā. — f) *Talk. — g) die Wurzel von Cyperus_hexastachyus communis. — h) eine best. Tempelform [Hemādri’s Caturvargacintāmaṇi 2,58,10.] — i) eine best. Art den Veda zu schreiben [Indian antiquary (Roth) 1874.123.] — k) Cubus. — l) *Phlegma , Schleim [Rājan 21,5.] — m) *Körper. —
3) f. ghanā — a) ein best. Saiteninstrument [Saṃgitasārasaṃgraha 185.] — b) *Glycine debilis. — c) *eine best. Schlingpflanze. —
4) n. — a) Schlaginstrument. — b) *Eisen. — c) *Zinn. — d) *das gemässigte Tempo beim Tanz. — e) *Dunkel [Rājan 21,48.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Ghana (घन) [Also spelled ghan]:—(nm) a hammer, sledge-hammer; cube; cloud; (a) dense; solid; ~[ghora] very dense; terrible, profound; ~[cakkara] a blockhead; dolt; ~[phala] cube; ~[mūla] cube-root; —[kī coṭa] a heavy shattering stroke, hammer stroke.
2) Ghanā (घना):—(a) dense, thick; intensive (as cultivation); compact; ~[pana] denseness; compactness.
3) Ghāna (घान) [Also spelled ghan]:—(nm) a lot; quantity of oilseed, wheat, etc. ground or pressed in one lot; things cooked or fried in one lot.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+135): Ghana-yenem, Ghanabha, Ghanabhitti, Ghanabhoga, Ghanabhumadhya, Ghanacakra, Ghanacaya, Ghanacchada, Ghanachada, Ghanachaya, Ghanadanta, Ghanadantaka, Ghanadata, Ghanadhatu, Ghanadhvani, Ghanadi, Ghanadruma, Ghanadundubhisvana, Ghanadvara, Ghanagama.
Ends with (+112): Abhilanghana, Abhraghana, Aghana, Aghananaghana, Alamghana, Alanghana, Ambughana, Anandacidghana, Anandaghana, Antarghana, Apaghana, Ashtaghana, Ashvajaghana, Atapalanghana, Atighana, Atilamghana, Atilanghana, Atrighana, Avilanghana, Ayoghana.
Full-text (+395): Praghana, Ghanashraya, Ghanatyaya, Payoghana, Shrighana, Durghana, Ghanavata, Ghanapallava, Ghanapadavi, Ghanamala, Ghanacaya, Ghanata, Ghanatola, Ghanasara, Dhurakatana, Ghanaruna, Ghanashyama, Ghanasamvritti, Ghanadhatu, Ghanasamaya.
Search found 60 books and stories containing Ghana, Ghaṇā, Ghaṇa, Ghanā, Ghāṇa, Ghāna, Ghāṇā; (plurals include: Ghanas, Ghaṇās, Ghaṇas, Ghanās, Ghāṇas, Ghānas, Ghāṇās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Part 2 - The Vijaya Sutta and its Translation < [Chapter 34a - The Buddha’s Seventeenth Vassa at Veḷuvana]
Part 3 - The Offering of Ghana Milk-Rice by Sujātā < [Chapter 7 - The Attainment of Buddhahood]
Part 4 - The Discourse on The Cha-pañcaka < [Chapter 32b - The Buddha’s Fourteenth Vassa at Savatthi]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 2.4.202 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha (the spiritual world)]
Verse 2.2.183 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna (knowledge)]
Verse 2.2.177 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna (knowledge)]
Patthana Dhamma (by Htoo Naing)
A Manual of Abhidhamma (by Nārada Thera)
Arising of Material Phenomena < [Chapter VI - Analysis of Matter]
Section on Planes < [Chapter IV - Analysis of Thought-Processes]
Grouping of Material Qualities < [Chapter VI - Analysis of Matter]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 3.1.14 < [Part 1 - Neutral Love of God (śānta-rasa)]
Verse 3.1.34 < [Part 1 - Neutral Love of God (śānta-rasa)]
Verse 2.5.20 < [Part 5 - Permanent Ecstatic Mood (sthāyī-bhāva)]
Mandukya Upanishad (Madhva commentary) (by Srisa Chandra Vasu)