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Riksha, aka: Ṛkṣa, Rikṣa; 10 Definition(s)

Introduction

Riksha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Ṛkṣa and Rikṣa can be transliterated into English as Rksa or Riksha or Riksa, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Āyurveda (science of life)

Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “bear”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Āyurvedic literature. The animal Ṛkṣa is part of the sub-group named prasaha, refering to animals “who take their food by snatching”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष)—Sanskrit word for the animal “bear”. This animal is from the group called Guhāśaya (‘which have a lair’, or, ‘cave-dwelling mammals’). Guhāśaya itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle).

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume IĀyurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Purāṇa

Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष).—One of the seven holy mountains (kulaparvata) situated in Bhārata, a region south of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. In the settlements (janapada) along these mountains dwell Āryas and Mlecchas who drink water from the rivers flowing there. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Rikṣa (रिक्ष), a descendant of Nīla, had five sons, viz., Mudgala, Śṛñjaya (or: Sañjaya, Sṛñjaya), Bṛhadiṣu, Vikrānta and Kāmpilya (or: Kampilya). For the protection of the five (pañcānāṃ) the father said to his sons, “These are the five prosperous janapadas; protect them.” It is thus that the Pāñcālas (or: Pañcālas) are so called.

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

1a) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष).—Followed Rāma in his Laṅkā expedition. Took the shield when Bharata carried the pāduka.1 A son of Śuka; took Virajā as wife given by Prajāpati. Rakṣā, mother of Jāmbavān, was his sister.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 10. 19 & 44.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 210-17; 51. 11.

1b) A son of Ajamīḍha and Dhūminī, and father of Samvaraṇa; pañcārṣeya.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 3; Matsya-purāṇa 50. 19; 196. 50; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 214; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 74-5.

1c) The name of Vyāsa in the 24th (25th, Viṣṇu-purāṇa) dvāpara; Śūli, the avatār of the Lord.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 206; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 3. 18.

1d) The son of Devātithi.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 233.

1e) A son of Purañjaya and father of Haryaśva.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 57-8.

1f) A son of Devātithi and father of Bhīmasena.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 20. 6-7.

1g) The mount where Atri performed penance for the birth of a son; a kulaparvata of Bhāratavarṣa.1 To this Kṛṣṇa went in search of Prasenajit; also ṛkṣagiri and ṛkṣaparvata near the Narmadā;2 rivers originating from.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 17.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 19. 16; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 18; III. 70. 32; 71. 39; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 89; 95. 31; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 3.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 101; 98-101.

1h) A vānara tribe, born of Mṛgamandā and Pulaha.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 174. 319; 22. 22; 26. 30 & 34.

2) Rikṣa (रिक्ष).—Son of Purujānu.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 195.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana IndexPurāṇa book cover
context information

The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Vāstuśāstra (architecture)

Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष, “planet”) refers to the third of āyādiṣaḍvarga, six principles that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object, according to the Mānasāra. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.

Ṛkṣa and nakṣatra, sometimes used interchangeably as synonyms in the text, however, are different in a strict technical sense. Ṛkṣa is the Plaedis or constellation of seven stars (the Great Bear, Seven Sages), while nakṣatra literally means a star, asterism (that is, a constellation of heavenly bodies), 27 number.

They are in order as follows:

  1. Aśvinī;
  2. Bharaṇī;
  3. Kārttikā;
  4. Rohiṇī or Brāhmī;
  5. Mṛgaśiras;
  6. Ārdrā;
  7. Punarvāsū or Yāmakau;
  8. Puṣya or Siddhya;
  9. Āśleṣā;
  10. Māghā;
  11. Pūrva-phālguṇī;
  12. Uttara-phālguṇī;
  13. Hasta;
  14. Citrā;
  15. Svāti;
  16. Viśākhā;
  17. Anurādhā;
  18. Jyeṣṭha;
  19. Mūla;
  20. Pūrvāṣāḍhā;
  21. Uttarāṣāḍhā;
  22. Abhijit;
  23. Śravaṇa;
  24. Śraviṣṭā;
  25. Śatabhiṣaj;
  26. Bhādrapāda;
  27. Revati.

In the context of village planning and measurement, the text sates that among the stars, the ones that are pūrṇa, odd (literally, “full, complete”), are auspicious and the ones that are karṇa, even (literally, “ear”), inauspicious. In iconographic measurement, however, the role given is that all except the sixth, eighth and ninth nakṣatras are auspicious. In both cases, the janmanakṣatra, birth-star of the patron or of the sthapati, as applies, even if in itself an inauspicious star, is always considered as auspicious for the architectural and iconographic object.

Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the MānasāraVāstuśāstra book cover
context information

Vāstuśāstra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vastu-shastra) refers to the knowledge of architecture. It is a branch of ancient Indian science dealing with topics such architecture, construction, sculpture and their relation with the cosmic universe.

General definition (in Hinduism)

1) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष):—Son of Citrasena (son of Nariṣyanta). He had a son named Mīḍhvān. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.2)

2) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष):—Son of Ajamīḍha (one of the three sons of Hastī). He had a son named Saṃvaraṇa. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.22.4-5)

3) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष):—Son of Devātithi (son of Ayutāyu, who was the son of Rādhika). He had a son named Dilīpa. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.22.11)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

India history and geogprahy

Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष) is the name of one of the seven kulaparvata (clan mountain) of Bhāratavarṣa, associated with a distinct country or tribe.—As ascertained by Professor Hemachandra Raychaudhuri, Ṛkṣa is the mountain par excellence of the Māhiṣmatī. Ṛkṣa, Vindhya and Pāripātra are mentioned under the names Chavata, Vijha and Paricāta in the Nasik Praśasti of Gautamī-putra Śātakarṇi. The first two are referred to by Ptolemy as the Ouxenton and Ouindion ranges. According to Ptolemy, Ouxenton (Ṛkṣavant) is the source of the Dosaron, which, according to Professor Raychaudhuri sounds very much like the Daśārna, modern Dhasan near Sagar in Madhya Pradesh. This proves that the Ṛkṣa lay in the region of the central Vindhyas. The same thing appears clear also from Indian evidence.

The Harivaṃśa refers to the city of Māhiṣmatī, the capital of Narmadānūpa as nestling under the shelter of the mount Ṛkṣavat. Nīlakaṇṭha, the commentater of the Harivaṃśa, places the city to the north of the Vindhyas and the south of the Ṛkṣa. The Nalopākhyāna of the Mahābhārata places the Ṛkṣa mountain between Avanti and Dakṣiṇāpatha. Thus Ṛkṣa, when referred to incidently in literature, is invariably associated with the Middle Narmadā region of which Māhiṣmatī was the most important city, and the Daśārṇa, a notable river, and the mountain lay in the region of the central Vindhyas, near Sagar.

Four Sanchi Stūpa inscriptions of the third century A.D. mention Acavāḍa and Acavāṭa, which may be identified with the mount Ṛkṣavat. The Ṛkṣa is probably so called, because it stood in a territory, which abounded in bears (ṛkṣas). Dhūmra, one of the commanders of Rāma’s army is said lo be the king of the bears lising on the mount Ṛkṣavat. It seems that central part ofthe Vindhyas being abounded in bears came to be denoted by the second name Ṛkṣavat.

Source: archive.org: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptionsIndia history book cover
context information

The history and of India includes names of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as historical dynasties, rulers, tribes and various local traditions, languages and festivals. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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