Riksha, Ṛkṣa, Rikṣa, Rikṣā, Ṛkṣā: 25 definitions
Riksha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Ṛkṣa and Rikṣa and Rikṣā and Ṛkṣā can be transliterated into English as Rksa or Riksha or Riksa, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “bear”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Ṛkṣa is part of the sub-group named prasaha, refering to animals “who take their food by snatching”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष)—Sanskrit word for the animal “bear”. This animal is from the group called Guhāśaya (‘which have a lair’, or, ‘cave-dwelling mammals’). Guhāśaya itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Jāṅghala (living in high ground and in a jungle).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
1) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष):—Son of Citrasena (son of Nariṣyanta). He had a son named Mīḍhvān. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.2)
2) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष):—Son of Ajamīḍha (one of the three sons of Hastī). He had a son named Saṃvaraṇa. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.22.4-5)
3) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष):—Son of Devātithi (son of Ayutāyu, who was the son of Rādhika). He had a son named Dilīpa. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.22.11)Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष).—One of the seven holy mountains (kulaparvata) situated in Bhārata, a region south of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 85. In the settlements (janapada) along these mountains dwell Āryas and Mlecchas who drink water from the rivers flowing there. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna
Rikṣa (रिक्ष), a descendant of Nīla, had five sons, viz., Mudgala, Śṛñjaya (or: Sañjaya, Sṛñjaya), Bṛhadiṣu, Vikrānta and Kāmpilya (or: Kampilya). For the protection of the five (pañcānāṃ) the father said to his sons, “These are the five prosperous janapadas; protect them.” It is thus that the Pāñcālas (or: Pañcālas) are so called.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष).—A king of the Pūru dynasty. He was the father of Saṃvaraṇa. For genealogy see under the word Saṃvaraṇa (M. B. Ādi Parva, Chapter 94).
2) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष).—King Hariha had a son named Ṛkṣa born to him by his wife Sudevā. Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 95 says that this Ṛkṣa had a son named Matināra, by his wife Jvālā.
3) Ṛkṣā (ऋक्षा).—Wife of Ajamīḍha, who was a king of the lunar dynasty. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 95, Verse 37).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष).—Followed Rāma in his Laṅkā expedition. Took the shield when Bharata carried the pāduka.1 A son of Śuka; took Virajā as wife given by Prajāpati. Rakṣā, mother of Jāmbavān, was his sister.2
1b) A son of Ajamīḍha and Dhūminī, and father of Samvaraṇa; pañcārṣeya.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 3; Matsya-purāṇa 50. 19; 196. 50; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 214; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 74-5.
1c) The name of Vyāsa in the 24th (25th, Viṣṇu-purāṇa) dvāpara; Śūli, the avatār of the Lord.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 206; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 3. 18.
1d) The son of Devātithi.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 233.
1e) A son of Purañjaya and father of Haryaśva.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 57-8.
1f) A son of Devātithi and father of Bhīmasena.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 20. 6-7.
1g) The mount where Atri performed penance for the birth of a son; a kulaparvata of Bhāratavarṣa.1 To this Kṛṣṇa went in search of Prasenajit; also ṛkṣagiri and ṛkṣaparvata near the Narmadā;2 rivers originating from.3
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 17.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 19. 16; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 18; III. 70. 32; 71. 39; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 89; 95. 31; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 3.
- 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 101; 98-101.
1h) A vānara tribe, born of Mṛgamandā and Pulaha.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 7. 174. 319; 22. 22; 26. 30 & 34.
2) Rikṣa (रिक्ष).—Son of Purujānu.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 195.
Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.60) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Ṛkṣa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra
Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष, “planet”) refers to the third of āyādiṣaḍvarga, six principles that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object, according to the Mānasāra. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.
Ṛkṣa and nakṣatra, sometimes used interchangeably as synonyms in the text, however, are different in a strict technical sense. Ṛkṣa is the Plaedis or constellation of seven stars (the Great Bear, Seven Sages), while nakṣatra literally means a star, asterism (that is, a constellation of heavenly bodies), 27 number.
They are in order as follows:
- Rohiṇī or Brāhmī;
- Punarvāsū or Yāmakau;
- Puṣya or Siddhya;
In the context of village planning and measurement, the text sates that among the stars, the ones that are pūrṇa, odd (literally, “full, complete”), are auspicious and the ones that are karṇa, even (literally, “ear”), inauspicious. In iconographic measurement, however, the role given is that all except the sixth, eighth and ninth nakṣatras are auspicious. In both cases, the janmanakṣatra, birth-star of the patron or of the sthapati, as applies, even if in itself an inauspicious star, is always considered as auspicious for the architectural and iconographic object.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Prācyā: Animals and animal products as reflected in Smṛti texts
Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष) refers to the animal “Sloth Bear” (Melursus ursinus).—The Smṛtis mention several domestic as well as wild animals that are enumerated in context of specifying expiation for killing them, the flesh being used as a dietary article to give satisfaction to the Manes (Pitṛs) in Śrāddha rites, the law of transmigration due to various sins committed as well as in the context of specifying gifts to be given on various occasions. These animals [viz., Ṛkṣa] are chiefly mentioned in the Manusmṛti, Parāśarasmṛti [Chap.6], Gautamasmṛti [17.2 and 15.1], Śātātapasmṛti [II.45-54], Uśānasmṛti [IX.7-9; IX.12-13], Yājñavalkyasmṛti [I.170-171; I.175; I.258- 260], Viṣṇusmṛti [51.3;51.6;51.26;51.33;80.3-14], Uttarāṅgirasasmṛti [X.15-17], Prajāpatismṛti [Śrāddhatyājyavastuvarṇanam. 138-143], 9 Kāśyapasmṛti [Section on Prāyaścittavarṇanam], Vṛddha Hārītasmṛti [6.253-255] and Kātyāyanasmṛti [27.11].
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष, “bear”) represents an incarnation destination of the tiryaggati (animal realm) according to the “world of transmigration” section in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVII).—The Bodhisattva sees the animals (tiryak) undergoing all the torments: they are made to gallop by blows of the whip or stick; they are made to make long journeys carrying burdens; their harness is damaged; they are branded with hot iron. As a result of greed (mātsarya), envy (īrṣyā), impulsiveness and haste, they take the form of [for example], a bear (ṛkṣa).
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
1) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष) is the name of a Tathāgata (Buddha) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Ṛkṣa).
2) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष) also refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
India history and geographySource: archive.org: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptions
Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष) is the name of one of the seven kulaparvata (clan mountain) of Bhāratavarṣa, associated with a distinct country or tribe.—As ascertained by Professor Hemachandra Raychaudhuri, Ṛkṣa is the mountain par excellence of the Māhiṣmatī. Ṛkṣa, Vindhya and Pāripātra are mentioned under the names Chavata, Vijha and Paricāta in the Nasik Praśasti of Gautamī-putra Śātakarṇi. The first two are referred to by Ptolemy as the Ouxenton and Ouindion ranges. According to Ptolemy, Ouxenton (Ṛkṣavant) is the source of the Dosaron, which, according to Professor Raychaudhuri sounds very much like the Daśārna, modern Dhasan near Sagar in Madhya Pradesh. This proves that the Ṛkṣa lay in the region of the central Vindhyas. The same thing appears clear also from Indian evidence.
The Harivaṃśa refers to the city of Māhiṣmatī, the capital of Narmadānūpa as nestling under the shelter of the mount Ṛkṣavat. Nīlakaṇṭha, the commentater of the Harivaṃśa, places the city to the north of the Vindhyas and the south of the Ṛkṣa. The Nalopākhyāna of the Mahābhārata places the Ṛkṣa mountain between Avanti and Dakṣiṇāpatha. Thus Ṛkṣa, when referred to incidently in literature, is invariably associated with the Middle Narmadā region of which Māhiṣmatī was the most important city, and the Daśārṇa, a notable river, and the mountain lay in the region of the central Vindhyas, near Sagar.
Four Sanchi Stūpa inscriptions of the third century A.D. mention Acavāḍa and Acavāṭa, which may be identified with the mount Ṛkṣavat. The Ṛkṣa is probably so called, because it stood in a territory, which abounded in bears (ṛkṣas). Dhūmra, one of the commanders of Rāma’s army is said lo be the king of the bears lising on the mount Ṛkṣavat. It seems that central part ofthe Vindhyas being abounded in bears came to be denoted by the second name Ṛkṣavat.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष).—n S A bear. 2 n A star or a constellation.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष).—n A bear. A star.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष).—[ṛṣ-sa kicca Uṇ.3.66]
1) A bear; स्त्रीं (strīṃ) (hṛtvā) ऋक्षः (ṛkṣaḥ) (bhavati) Ms.12.67.
2) A species of ape; A. Rām.7.3.6.
3) A kind of deer; प्रजापतिः स्वां दुहितरं दृष्ट्वा तद्रूपधर्षितः । रोहिद्भूतां सोऽन्वधावदृक्षरूपी हतत्रपः (prajāpatiḥ svāṃ duhitaraṃ dṛṣṭvā tadrūpadharṣitaḥ | rohidbhūtāṃ so'nvadhāvadṛkṣarūpī hatatrapaḥ) || Bhāg.3.31. 36.
4) Name of a mountain.
5) Name of a plant (bhallaka Mar. diṃḍā)
-kṣaḥ, kṣamaḥ 1 A star, constellation, lunar mansion; पश्चिमां तु समासीनः सम्यगृक्षविभावनात् (paścimāṃ tu samāsīnaḥ samyagṛkṣavibhāvanāt) Ms.2.11;3.9;6.1.
2) A sign of the zodiac.
3) A star under which a man happens to be born.
-kṣāḥ (m. pl.) The seven stars called Pleiades; afterwards the seven Ṛiṣis; दक्षिणां दिशमृक्षेषु वार्षिकेष्विव भास्करः (dakṣiṇāṃ diśamṛkṣeṣu vārṣikeṣviva bhāskaraḥ) (prayayau) R.12.25.
-kṣā The north.
-kṣī A female bear. [cf. Gr. arkos, L. ursus].
Derivable forms: ṛkṣaḥ (ऋक्षः).
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1) A nit (likṣā).
2) The mote in a sun-beam.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Rikṣa (रिक्ष).—(semi-MIndic for Sanskrit ṛkṣa), bear: Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.v.15.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-kṣaḥ-kṣā-kṣaṃ) Pierced, cut, divided. mn.
(-kṣaḥ-kṣaṃ) A star, a constellation. m.
(-kṣaḥ) 1. A mountain in the peninsula, the temporary residence of Rama. 2. A bear. 3. A plant, (Bignonia Indica.) E. ṛṣ to go, Unadi affix sa, the radical final then becomes ka, and sa becomes ṣa; and ka and ṣa form the compound letter kṣa.
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(-kṣā) 1. A nit. 2. A mole in a sun-beam. E. See likṣā, la being changed to ra .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष).—I. m. A bear, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 52, 45. Ii. f. kṣī, A she-bear, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 16, 21. Iii. m. and n. 1. A star, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 73, 57; Mahābhārata 13, 625. 2. Bears and stars, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 31. Iv. m. and f. kṣā, Proper names, Mahābhārata 1, 3722; 3790.
— Cf. [Latin] ursus.
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Rikṣā (रिक्षा).—f. 1. A nit. 2. A mote in a sunbeam.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष).—1. [adjective] bald, bare.
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Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष).—2. [adjective] hurtful, bad, [masculine] bear, the Seven Stars ([plural]); a kind of monkey; a man’s name; [feminine] ṛkṣī [adjective] female bear; [masculine] [neuter] star, constellation, lunar mansion.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष):—1. ṛkṣa mfn. ([etymology] doubtful) bald, bare, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Maitrāyaṇī-saṃhitā]
2) 2. ṛkṣa mfn. (√2. ṛṣ, [Uṇādi-sūtra iii, 66; 67]; probably [from] √ṛś), hurting, pernicious, [Ṛg-veda viii, 24, 27]
3) m. a bear (as a ravenous beast), [Ṛg-veda v, 56, 3; Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā xxiv, 36; Manu-smṛti; Suśruta] etc.
4) a species of ape, [Kathāsaritsāgara]
5) Bignonia Indica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) Name of several men, [Ṛg-veda viii, 68, 15; Mahābhārata] etc.
7) of a mountain, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa; Mahābhārata]
8) (ifc.) the best or most excellent, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) m. [plural] the seven stars, the Pleiades, the seven Ṛṣis, [Ṛg-veda i, 24, 10; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa ii; Taittirīya-āraṇyaka]
10) Ṛkṣā (ऋक्षा):—[from ṛkṣa] f. Name of a wife of Ajamīḍha, [Mahābhārata i]
11) [v.s. ...] of a woman in the retinue of Skanda, [Mahābhārata ix]
12) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष):—mn. a star, constellation, lunar mansion, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc.
13) n. the twelfth part of the ecliptic
14) the particular star under which a person happens to be born, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Sūryasiddhānta etc.]
15) cf. [Greek] ἄρκτος; [Latin] ursus; [Lithuanian] loky-s for olkys.
16) 3. ṛkṣa mfn. cut, pierced, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) Rikṣā (रिक्षा):—f. a nit (= likṣā), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) a mote in a sunbeam, [Horace H. Wilson]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष):—(kṣaḥ) 1. m. A bear; a mountain in the Peninsula. (kṣaḥ-kṣaṃ) m. n. A star. a. Pierced, cut.
2) Rikṣā (रिक्षा):—(kṣā) 1. f. A nit; a sunbeam.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष):—1. adj. f. ā kahl: ṛ.ṣā vā i.amalo.akāsīt [Taittirīyasaṃhitā 7, 4, 3, 1.] ṛ.ṣa.astasya mimīta.kṣaṃ vā apaśa.yam (lomatastasya mimīta u. s. w.) [?6, 1, 9, 2. Kāṭhaka-Recension 25, 2. 27, 2 in Weber’s Indische Studien 3, 465.]
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Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष):—3. adj. durchbohrt [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 2, 558.] [Medinīkoṣa avyaya (s. Med.) 7.] — Vielleicht fehlerhafte Var. für ṛkṇa .
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Ṛkṣa (ऋक्ष):—1. [?Z. 3 lies Kāṭhaka-Recension 12, 13. 25, 2. 9. 26, 5.]
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2) [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 12, 6. 86, 21. 42. 88, 3.] ṛkṣādiśabdajñāna [Oxforder Handschriften 92,b,37.] ṛkṣa = markaṭa Affe [Kathāsaritsāgara 64, 22. 25.] —
4) [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 4, 7. 6, 7. 7, 4.] Wie bha ist es in der Nativitätslehre = gṛha, rāśi d. h. ein Zwölftel der Ekliptik, ein astrologisches Haus, z. B. [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka 1, 4. 16.] —
6) ein Vyāsa [Oxforder Handschriften 53,b,8.] —
8) Nomen proprium einer der Mütter im Gefolge Skanda's [Mahābhārata 9, 2630.]
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Rikṣā (रिक्षा):—= likṣā [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1208.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)