Moksha, aka: Mokṣa, Moksa, Mokṣā; 12 Definition(s)

Introduction

Moksha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Mokṣa and Mokṣā can be transliterated into English as Moksa or Moksha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana

Mokṣa (मोक्ष).—No bondage; three-fold mokṣa; renunciation by knowledge, diminution of rāga and loss of tṛṣṇā;1 dharma of;2 is yogasiddhi;3 salvation, attained at the sacred Benares;4 oneness with Brahmam.5

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 3. 55; Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 81; 102. 76, 78, 80, 93.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 10. 116.
  • 3) Ib. IV. 36. 52; 44. 108.
  • 4) Matsya-purāṇa 180. 52; 183. 36-37; 185. 15; 193. 40.
  • 5) Vāyu-purāṇa 104. 94.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Mokṣa (मोक्ष) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Mokṣanṛsiṃha or Mokṣanarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra
Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

Mīmāṃsā (school of philosophy)

Mokṣa (मोक्ष, “liberation”).—Mīmāṃsā suggests that liberation (mokṣa) cannot be achieved by Right Knowledge alone, for the Self must first exhaust its negative and positive potentialities gained through action (karma), as a seed fulfils itself through growth. No amount of contemplation (dhyāna) will enable one to arrive at the ultimate goal of human destiny; therefore, the emphasis is on the ethical aspect of life rather than on the rational. All arguments to support this thesis are based on the premise that the Self by definition is eternal. The actions to be done (karma) and the rewards (phala) that follow are enjoined in the Veda and interpreted by Mīmāṃsā.

(Source): Srimatham: Mīmāṃsa: The Study of Hindu Exegesis
context information

Mimamsa (मीमांसा, mīmāṃsā) refers to one of the six orthodox Hindu schools of philosophy, emphasizing the nature of dharma and the philosophy of language. The literature in this school is also known for its in-depth study of ritual actions and social duties.

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Mokṣā (मोक्षा) refers to the second of twenty-six ekādaśīs according to the Garga-saṃhitā 4.8.9. Accordingly, “to attain Lord Kṛṣṇa’s mercy you should follow the vow of fasting on ekādaśī. In that way You will make Lord Kṛṣṇa into your submissive servant. Of this there is no doubt”. A person who chants the names of these twenty-six ekādaśīs (eg., Mokṣā) attains the result of following ekādaśī for one year.

(Source): Devotees Vaishnavas: Śrī Garga Saṃhitā
Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Mokṣa (मोक्ष).—The separation of the eclipsed body after an eclipse, the last contact, or the end of the eclipse. Note: Mokṣa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

(Source): Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Mokṣa (मोक्ष, “liberation”) is accomplished by performing mantrasādhana (preparatory procedures) beginning with japamālā using a rosary bead made of lotus seed beads, according to the Kakṣapuṭatantra verse 1.43. Accordingly, “for the accomplishment of all kinds of kāma (love), one should recite a mantra using a rosary made of rudrākṣa beads. For the accomplishment of dharma (virtue), artha (wealth), kāma (love), and mokṣa (liberation), one should recite a mantra using a rosary made of lotus seed beads”.

(Source): Shodhganga: Mantra-sādhana: Chapter One of the Kakṣapuṭatantra
Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

General definition (in Hinduism)

In Indian religions, moksha (mokṣa; 'liberation'), or mukti ('release') is the liberation from samsara, the cycle of death and rebirth. This liberation can be attained while one is on earth (jivanmukti) or eschatologically (karmamukti). Moksha is attained by disidentification with the body and mind, which are temporary and subject to change, and realisation of our true identity.

"Moksha" means "mukti", "eternal freedom from social and natural programming". Moksha and mukti are both from the root muc "to let loose, let go".

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Mokṣa (मोक्ष, “liberation”).—What is meant by liberation (mokṣa)? Total separation of karmas from the soul is called mokṣa. Synonyms of moksa are liberation and emancipation. It is the state of pure soul.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Discover the meaning of moksha or moksa in the context of General definition from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

mōkṣa (मोक्ष).—m (S) Final and eternal happiness; the deliverance of the soul from the body, its exemption from further transmigration, and its absorption into the divine essence. 2 S Liberation, emancipation, act of freeing or freed state.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mōkṣa (मोक्ष).—m Final and eternal happiness. Liberation.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Mokṣa (मोक्ष).—[mokṣ-ghañ]

1) Liberation, release, escape, freedom; साऽधुना तव बन्धे मोक्षे च प्रभवति (sā'dhunā tava bandhe mokṣe ca prabhavati) K.; Me.63; लब्धमोक्षाः शुकादयः (labdhamokṣāḥ śukādayaḥ) R.17.2; धुर्याणां च धुरो मोक्षम् (dhuryāṇāṃ ca dhuro mokṣam) 17.19.

2) Rescue, deliverance, delivery; ते यतध्वं परं शक्त्या सर्वे मोक्षाय पार्थिवाः (te yatadhvaṃ paraṃ śaktyā sarve mokṣāya pārthivāḥ) Mb.5.173.15.

3) Final emancipation, deliverance of the soul from recurring births or transmigration, the last of the four ends of human existence; see अर्थ (artha); धर्मार्थकाममोक्षाणां यस्यैकोऽपि न विद्यते । अजागलस्तनस्येव तस्य जन्म निरर्थकम् (dharmārthakāmamokṣāṇāṃ yasyaiko'pi na vidyate | ajāgalastanasyeva tasya janma nirarthakam) ||; Bg.5.28;18.3; Ms.6.35; R.1.84.

4) Death.

5) Falling down, dropping down, falling off; वनस्थलीर्मर्मरपत्रमोक्षाः (vanasthalīrmarmarapatramokṣāḥ) Ku.3.31.

6) Loosening, untying, unbinding; वेणिमोक्षोत्सुकानि (veṇimokṣotsukāni) Me.11; मदकलयुवतीनां नीवि- मोक्षस्तु मोक्षः (madakalayuvatīnāṃ nīvi- mokṣastu mokṣaḥ)

7) Shedding, causing to fall down or flow; बाष्पमोक्ष, अश्रुमोक्ष (bāṣpamokṣa, aśrumokṣa).

8) Shooting, casting, discharging; बाणमोक्षः (bāṇamokṣaḥ) Ś.3.5.

9) Scattering, strewing.

1) Acquittance or discharge of an obligation (debt &c.).

11) (In astr.) The liberation of an eclipsed planet, the end of an eclipse.

12) Name of a tree (pāṭali).

13) Utterance (of a curse).

14) Settling (a question).

Derivable forms: mokṣaḥ (मोक्षः).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Relevant definitions

Search found 146 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Shiramoksha
Śirāmokṣa (शिरामोक्ष).—bleeding. Derivable forms: śirāmokṣaḥ (शिरामोक्षः).Śirāmokṣa is a Sanskr...
Mokshabhava
Mokṣabhāva (मोक्षभाव).—liberation. Derivable forms: mokṣabhāvaḥ (मोक्षभावः).Mokṣabhāva is a San...
Samdhimoksha
Saṃdhimokṣa (संधिमोक्ष).—the breaking of peace; Kau. A.7. Derivable forms: saṃdhimokṣaḥ (संधिमो...
Mokshashastra
Mokṣaśāstra (मोक्षशास्त्र) referst to the “science of freedom”.—The principal philosophical sys...
Mokshadeva
Mokṣadeva (मोक्षदेव).—an epithet applied to Hiouen Thsang, the celebrated Chinese traveller. De...
Samsaramoksha
Saṃsāramokṣa (संसारमोक्ष).—final liberation or emancipation from worldly life.Derivable forms: ...
Mokshanarasimha
Mokṣanarasiṃha (मोक्षनरसिंह) is short for Mokṣa, one of the aspects of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), ac...
Mokshapati
Mokṣapati (मोक्षपति).—(in music) a kind of measure. Derivable forms: mokṣapatiḥ (मोक्षपतिः).Mok...
Bashpamoksha
Bāṣpamokṣa (बाष्पमोक्ष).—shedding tears. Derivable forms: bāṣpamokṣaḥ (बाष्पमोक्षः).Bāṣpamokṣa ...
Mokshadvara
Mokṣadvāra (मोक्षद्वार).—the sun. Derivable forms: mokṣadvāram (मोक्षद्वारम्).Mokṣadvāra is a S...
Rinamoksha
Ṛṇamokṣa (ऋणमोक्ष).—paying off debt, discharge or liquidation of debt. Derivable forms: ṛṇamokṣ...
Shapamoksha
Śāpamokṣa (शापमोक्ष).—release or deliverance from a curse. Derivable forms: śāpamokṣaḥ (शापमोक्...
Mokshanrisimha
Mokṣanṛsiṃha (मोक्षनृसिंह) is short for Mokṣa, one of the aspects of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), acco...
Mokshakama
Mokṣakāma (मोक्षकाम, “passion for liberation”) refers to one of the three types of “passion” (k...
Mokshatirtha
Mokṣatīrtha (मोक्षतीर्थ)—One of the several gaṭhas (bathing places) in the twelve fore...

Relevant text