Visha, Viśa, Visa, Viṣa, Viṣā, Vīśa: 26 definitions
Visha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Viśa and Viṣa and Viṣā and Vīśa can be transliterated into English as Visa or Visha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Viṣa (विष, “poisonous”):—Another name for Ativiṣā, a medicinal plant (Aconitum heterophyllum) used in the treatment of fever (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which is part of the 7th-century Mādhavacikitsā, a Sanskrit classical work on Āyurveda.Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Viṣa (विष) refers to “poison”, as mentioned in verse 5.15-16 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] normal, fat, and lean (respectively get) those who drink water during, after, and before meals. Cold water removes alcoholism, lassitude, stupor, nausea, fatigue, giddiness, thirst, heat through hot (factors), hemorrhage, and poison [viz., viṣa]”.Source: eJournal of Indian Medicine: A Case of Contact with Spider Venom
On the characteristics of poison (viṣa) in general, the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayam Uttarasthāna 35.7cd-8ab reads: “Poison is sharp (tīkṣṇa), hot (uṣṇa), rough (rūkṣa), bright (viśada), pervading (vyavāya), going quickly (āśukara), light (laghu), shining (vikāṣi), subtle (sūkṣman), having indistinct taste (i), unripe (apāki) in quality (guṇa).” See also Carakasaṃhitā Cikitsāsthāna 23.24-27; Suśrutasaṃhitā Kalpasthāna 2.19cd-23; Aṣṭāṅgasaṃgraha Uttarasthāna 40.12.Source: Research Gate: Internal applications of Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox wall)
Viṣa (विष) refers to “poison”. Medicinal formulations in the management of this condition include 10 references of Vatsanābha usages. Guṭikā is maximum (4) dosage form in the management of Viṣa. Vatsanābha (Aconitum ferox), although categorized as sthāvara-viṣa (vegetable poisons), has been extensively used in ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Viṣa (विष) refers to “food poisoning” as described in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The food poisoning (viṣa) occurs through different ways. Sometimes it may occur through certain insects or certain combinations of ingredients, etc. The text says that, a poisoned food will be very thick in consistency. It cannot be easily poured down. It can be cooked with difficulty and even if it gets cooked, it resembles stale food. Such food emits vapours which are similar in colour of the neck of peacock. It loses its original colour and odour. Cooked foods that are poisoned will instantly dry up. These foods turn black and dirty while boiling. The shadow formed by falling light on a poisoned food is seen to be incomplete, superfluous or deformed. In some cases the shadow may be totally absent.Source: Ancient Science of Life: Snake bite treatment in Prayoga samuccayam
Viṣa (विष) refers to “poison”, and is dealt with in the 20th century Prayogasamuccaya (one of the most popular and widely practised book in toxicology in Malayalam).—The work classifies viṣa into two groups, viz. sthāvara and jaṅgama (animate and inanimate). [...] Spread of poison is compared to spread of tamarind in milk. Viṣa (poison) stays at bite site for 100 mātras (unit of time), then combines with vāta and subsequently circulate throughout the body. The sequence of its travel will be first to the forehead, then to eyes, all over the face and eventually into the sapta-dhātus (constituent elements). Signs and symptoms which indicate forthcoming death are tremors, redness of lateral ends of eyes and edematous appearance of mouth. If signs of life cannot be seen even after expulsion of urine and faeces, death can be assured.
Root of Nīlī (Indigofera tinctoria) ground in juice of Nīlī itself, rolled into the size of the fruit of Vibhītaki (Terminalia bellirica) and dried is given with milk. If vomiting occurs immediately, prognosis is good. If not, its asādhya (incurable). [...] Symptoms of impending death are also mentioned in the first chapter.Source: Ancient Science of Life: Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification
Viṣa (विष) refers to “poisonous plants”, which can be detoxified/purified using the Śodhana process, which involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles according to Ayurvedic principles.—Traditionally, plants having various classes of phytochemicals are still in use either in their crude form or after proper processing. Though most of the plant drugs are safe, yet few are toxic for human health. These poisonous/toxic plants are categorized as viṣa (poison) and upaviṣa (toxic but not lethal for human health) in Ayurvedic texts [...].Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Viṣa (विष):—[viṣaṃ] Poison
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
Viṣa (विष) is the name of a mountain situated at lake Mānasa and mount Gandhamādana, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. The Gandhamādana mountain lies on the eastern side of mount Meru, which is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1) Viśa (विश).—A Ṛṣi.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 22.
2a) Viṣa (विष).—A Śiva god.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 32.
2b) An Asura, attacked by Nakuli Devī.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 28. 39.
2c) A son of Danāyuṣa; father of four sons all bent on doing cruelty.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 30, 33.
2d) Produced by the churning of the ocean by the Devas and Asuras.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 54. 49; 62. 180.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Viṣa (विष).—Death from drinking poison (viṣa) should be represented by throwing out of hands and feet and other limbs, and the power of the poison will lead to the quivering action of the different parts of the body.
The first stage of the action of poison is the thinness (kṣāma or kārśya) of the body, the second tremor (vepathu), the third a burning sensation (dāha), the fourth hiccup (hikkā), the fifth froth in the mouth (phena), the sixth breaking of the neck (śirobhañja or grivābhaṅga), the seventh paralysis (jaḍatā) and the eighth death (maraṇa). These particular representations should be combined with suitable psychological states (bhāva) and with sufficient sattva, and representation of other popular aspects of these should be learnt from the people.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama
Viṣa (विष) refers to “n. of a coloring substance § 2.10.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
Viṣa (विष, “poison”) refers to an article of food classified as abhakṣya (forbidden to eat) according to Nemicandra (in his Pravacana-sāroddhāra v245-246). Poison (viṣa) is not to be taken even if its effect can be counteracted by mantras because it will in any event kill innumerable gaṇḍolaka organisms in the stomach and because if death ensues it may provoke great delusions in the last hours. Later writers, from the fifteenth century onwards, here mention opium (ahi-phena).
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Vīsa.—(IE 8-8; EI 5), name of a coin (JNSI, Vol. XXVI, pp. 127ff.); cf. lokkiya-vīsa, probably meaning ‘a vīsa minted at Lokkiguṇḍi’; Sanskrit viṃśa, viṃśaka, viṃśatika, or viṃśopaka. (Ep. Ind., Vol. VI, p. 232, note 6), Telugu-Kannaḍa; (1/16) of a haṇa (paṇa); but (1/20) of the standard coin in value essentially. (CITD), also called visā, visya, visāmu; Telugu-Kannaḍa; the fraction (1/10); gold equal in weight to one grain of rice; (1/256) of a Hun or Pagoda; 40 palas; a measure of land equal nearly to 2 acres. Note: vīsa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
--- OR ---
Visā.—also spelt visāmu (CITD), see vīsa. Note: visā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
visa : (nt.) poison; venom.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Visa, (nt.) (cp. Vedic viṣa; Av. viš poison, Gr. i)όs, Lat. vīrus, Oir. fī: all meaning “poison”) poison, virus, venom M. I, 316=S. II, 110; Th. 1, 418; 768; Sn. 1 (sappa° snake venom); A. II, 110; J. I, 271 (halāhala° deadly p.); III, 201; IV, 222; Pug. 48; Miln. 302; PvA. 62, 256; ThA. 489.—On visa in similes see J. P. T. S. 1907, 137. Cp. āsī°.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
viṣa (विष).—n (S) Poison. Nine kinds are reckoned; viz. kākōla, kālakūṭa, halāhala, saurāṣṭrika, śaulkikēya, brahmaputra, pradīpana, dārada, vatsanābha. By the word viṣa simply Animal poison is generally understood. See sthāvaraviṣa. 2 Applied metaphorically to anything exceedingly bitter; also to anything baleful, baneful, dire, deadly. viṣa mānaṇēṃ To abominate or abhor. viṣācī parikṣā (Tasting of poison to determine upon it.) Venturing upon any dangerous experiment or hazardous action. v pāha.
--- OR ---
visā (विसा).—f (vīsa) An aggregate of twenty considered as an unit by simple men in counting or reckoning, a score. Ex. tyājakaḍē mājhyā pāñca visā rupayē yāyācē āhēta.
--- OR ---
vīsa (वीस).—a (viṃśati S) Twenty. Pr. visāṃ nāhīṃ tara tisāṃ nāhīṃ tara jaśācā tasā He will be good at twenty, if not, at thirty, if not, he will remain as he is.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
viṣa (विष).—n Poison. Anything exceedingly bitter.
--- OR ---
visā (विसा).—f A score.
--- OR ---
vīsa (वीस).—a Twenty. Veneral.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Viśa (विश).—The fibres of the stalk of a lotus; cf. बिस (bisa).
Derivable forms: viśam (विशम्).
--- OR ---
1) Poison, venom (said to be m. also in this sense); विषं भवतु मा भूद्वा फटाटोपो भयंकरः (viṣaṃ bhavatu mā bhūdvā phaṭāṭopo bhayaṃkaraḥ) Pt.1.24.
2) Water; विषं जलधरैः पीतं मूर्च्छिताः पथिकाङ्गनाः (viṣaṃ jaladharaiḥ pītaṃ mūrcchitāḥ pathikāṅganāḥ) Chandr.5. 82 (where both senses are intended).
3) The fibres of a lotus-stalk.
5) A poisonous weapon; विमोक्ष्यन्ति विष क्रुद्धाः कौरवेयेषु भारत (vimokṣyanti viṣa kruddhāḥ kauraveyeṣu bhārata) Mb.3.8.3.
Derivable forms: viṣam (विषम्).
--- OR ---
1) Ordure, feces.
2) Intellect, understanding.
3) A tree (ativiṣā).
--- OR ---
Visa (विस).—See बिस (bisa).
--- OR ---
Visā (विसा).—A lotus stalk.
--- OR ---
Vīśa (वीश).—A kind of weight ( = 2 Palas = 1/5 Tulā).
Derivable forms: vīśaḥ (वीशः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-śaṃ) The film or fibres of the stalk of the water-lily. E. viś to enter, aff. ka .
--- OR ---
(-ṣaḥ-ṣaṃ) Poison, venom. n.
(-ṣaṃ) 1. Water. 2. The fibres attached to the stalk of the lotus. 3. Gum-myrrh. 4. A vegetable poison, (Aconitum ferox.) f.
(-ṣā) A tree, the bark of which is used in dyeing of a red colour. E. viṣ to pervade, aff. ka .
--- OR ---
Viṣā (विषा).—Ind. Apotte noun. Intellect, understanding. f.
(-ṣā) Ordure, feces. E. ṣo to destroy, (ignorance,) with vi prefixed, and o Unadi aff.
--- OR ---
(-saṃ) The film or fibres of the stalk of the water-lily. E. vis to send, to put forth, aff. ka .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Viśa (विश).—see visa.
--- OR ---
Viṣa (विष).—I. m. and n. Poison, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 83 (n.). Ii. n. 1. Water. 2. See visa.
--- OR ---
Viṣā (विषा).—[viṣ + ā], I. f. Excrement, Amarak. Ii. ind. Intellect.
--- OR ---
Visa (विस).— (also viśa and viṣa), probably curtailed visara, or visala (cf. both), i. e. vi-sṛ + a, n. The film or fibres of the stalk of the water-lily, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 66; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 94; Mahābhārata 13, 4509; 12, 7877 (all with s).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Viṣa (विष).—1. [masculine] servant, attendant.
--- OR ---
Viṣa (विष).—2. [neuter] venom, poison; adj. [feminine] ā poisonous.
--- OR ---
Visā (विसा).—make loose, untie, unyoke, open, set free. — Cf. a/tiṣita ([additions]), adhyavasita, a/vasita, u/tsita, parya/vasita, prasita, vyavasita.
Visā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms vi and sā (सा).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Viśa (विश):—[from viś] mfn. See dur-viśa; [wrong reading] for bisa q.v.
2) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a man [gana] śubhrādi
3) [v.s. ...] f(ā)n. = viś2, a tribe, class, people (See manuṣya-v)
4) Viṣa (विष):—[from viṣ] m. a servant, attendant, [Ṛg-veda]
5) [v.s. ...] Name of a Sādhya, [Harivaṃśa] (cf. dur-v)
6) [v.s. ...] n. (also m., [Siddhānta-kaumudī]; ifc. f(ā). ) ‘anything active’, poison, venom, bane, anything actively pernicious, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
7) [v.s. ...] n. a [particular] vegetable poison (= vatsa-nābha), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) [v.s. ...] water, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 12]
9) [v.s. ...] a mystical Name of the sound m, [Upaniṣad]
10) [v.s. ...] gum-myrrh, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) [v.s. ...] the fibres attached to the stalk of the lotus, [Horace H. Wilson] (See bisa)
12) Viṣā (विषा):—[from viṣa > viṣ] a f. a kind of aconite, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
13) [v.s. ...] a tree (commonly called Atis, its bark is used as a red dye), [Horace H. Wilson]
14) [v.s. ...] = viṣ3, feces (cf. vīta-viṣa)
15) Viṣa (विष):—[from viṣ] mf(ā)n. poisonous, [Atharva-veda vii, 113, 2.]
16) [v.s. ...] cf. [Greek] ἰός for ϝισος; [Latin] virus.
17) Viṣā (विषा):—b ind. = buddhi, [Uṇādi-sūtra iv, 36 [Scholiast or Commentator]] (for viṣā f. See under viṣa, p. 995, col. 2).
18) Vīśa (वीश):—1. vīśa m. a kind of weight (= 20 Palas = 1/5 Tulā), [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi]
19) 2. vīśa See paḍ-vīśa.
20) Vīsa (वीस):—n. a kind of dance, [Saṃgīta-sārasaṃgraha]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Viśa (विश):—(śaṃ) 1. n. Fibres of the stalk of the water lily.
2) Viṣa (विष):—[(ṣaḥ-ṣaṃ)] 1. m. n. Poison. n. Water; fibres of the lotus; gum myrrh. f. A tree used used for dying red.
3) Viṣā (विषा):—(ṣā) ind. Intellect.
4) Visa (विस):—(saṃ) 1. n. The film or fibres of the stalk of the water lily.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Viṣa (विष) [Also spelled vish]:—(nm) poison, venom; ~[kaṃṭha] an epithet of Lord Shiv; ~[kanyā] a girl/woman so impregnated with poison that a man copulating with, or even kissing, her dies; ~[kṛta] treated with poison, poisoned; ~[ghātaka/ghātī/ghna] antivenom, antidote to poison; ~[daṃta] a fang; ~[dātā/dāyaka] one who administers poison; ~[dhara] a snake, poisonous snake; ~[nāśī] poison-destroying, anti-poison; -[bela] see -[vṛkṣa;-bhakṣaṇa] taking poison; -[maṃtra] a [maṃtra] for curing snake-bite; •[vida] a snake-bite curer through [maṃtra; -mātrā] toxicity; ~[vat] poisonous, venomous; ~[vamana] vituperative/virulent utterance; •[karanā] to make virulent utterances, to say vituperative words; ~[vidyā] science of curing snakebite etc; cure of poisons by drugs or charms; —[vṛkṣa] a poison-tree—a beginning that causes ever greater harm; —[vijñāna] toxicology; hence ~[vaijñānika] (nm) ~[vaidya] a physician who cures snake-bite or other poisonous stings (either by charms or by drugs); ~[hara] see ~[ghātī; ~hīna] poisonless, non-venomous; hence ~[hīnatā] (nf); ~[hradaya] vituperative, full of venom; —[ugalanā] to disgorge venom; to make vituperative utterances/remarks; —[kī gāṃṭha] the root of all evils, the villain of piece; —[ke dāṃta toḍanā] to render poisonless/incapable of causing harm; —[ke bīja bonā] to sow the seeds of evil/disharmony; —[gholanā] to put venom in (words); to cause disharmony/quarrel; —[caḍhanā] poison (to begin) to have effect (said only in the context of snake-bite, scorpionbite, etc.); —[pīnā] to assimilate virulence/bitter experiences.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+600): Vigaujas, Visada, Visahara, Visahata, Visaja, Visakalita, Visakantaka, Visanka, Visankita, Visapita, Visara, Visarada, Visata, Visha-kkanam, Visha-vritti, Vishabda, Vishabdana, Vishabdita, Vishabhadra, Vishabhadrika.
Ends with (+106): Aghavisha, Akhuvisha, Akilvisha, Alarkavisha, Amavisha, Amlavisha, Antargudhavisha, Antarvisha, Apavisha, Ashirvisha, Asivisa, Asuravisha, Ativisa, Atyurvisha, Avisha, Barabavisha, Bhinnavisha, Bhutavisha, Brihadvisha, Caladvisha.
Full-text (+1298): Upavisha, Ativisa, Nirvisha, Vishapushpa, Pravisha, Durvisha, Prativisha, Vishasya, Asivisa, Visaja, Samvisha, Drishtivisha, Vishamrityu, Vishavidhana, Apavisha, Visini, Vishasrikkan, Avisha, Vishankura, Vishas.
Search found 46 books and stories containing Visha, Vi-sa, Vi-sā, Viśa, Visa, Viṣa, Visā, Vīsa, Viṣā, Vīśa; (plurals include: Vishas, sas, sās, Viśas, Visas, Viṣas, Visās, Vīsas, Viṣās, Vīśas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 5: Kalpasthana (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Sushruta Samhita, Volume 6: Uttara-tantra (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)
Chapter III - Pathology of the diseases of the eye-lids < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]
Chapter XIV - Treatment of eye-diseases which require Incision < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]
Chapter VIII - Classification and treatment of ocular affections < [Canto I - Shalakya-tantra (ears, eyes, nose, mouth and throat)]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 6 - Semi-poison (6): Visha-musti (kuchila) < [Chapter XXXI - Upavisha (semi-poisons)]
A Blessed Pilgrimage (by Dr. Yutang Lin)
Kathasaritsagara (the Ocean of Story) (by Somadeva)
Note on the “letter of death” motif < [Notes]
Chapter CIX < [Book XV - Mahābhiṣeka]
Appendix 2.3 - Poison-Damsels < [Appendices]
Vipassana Meditation Course (by Chanmyay Sayadaw)