Visha, Viśa, Visa, Viṣa, Viṣā, Vīśa: 20 definitions

Introduction

Visha means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Viśa and Viṣa and Viṣā and Vīśa can be transliterated into English as Visa or Visha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Viṣa (विष, “poisonous”):—Another name for Ativiṣā, a medicinal plant (Aconitum heterophyllum) used in the treatment of fever (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which is part of the 7th-century Mādhavacikitsā, a Sanskrit classical work on Āyurveda.

Source: eJournal of Indian Medicine: A Case of Contact with Spider Venom

On the characteristics of poison (viṣa) in general, the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayam Uttarasthāna 35.7cd-8ab reads: “Poison is sharp (tīkṣṇa), hot (uṣṇa), rough (rūkṣa), bright (viśada), pervading (vyavāya), going quickly (āśukara), light (laghu), shining (vikāṣi), subtle (sūkṣman), having indistinct taste (i), unripe (apāki) in quality (guṇa).” See also Carakasaṃhitā Cikitsāsthāna 23.24-27; Suśrutasaṃhitā Kalpasthāna 2.19cd-23; Aṣṭāṅgasaṃgraha Uttarasthāna 40.12.

Source: Research Gate: Internal applications of Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox wall)

Viṣa (विष) refers to “poison”. Medicinal formulations in the management of this condition include 10 references of Vatsanābha usages. Guṭikā is maximum (4) dosage form in the management of Viṣa. Vatsanābha (Aconitum ferox), although categorized as sthāvara-viṣa (vegetable poisons), has been extensively used in ayurvedic pharmacopoeia.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Viṣa (विष) refers to “food poisoning” as described in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The food poisoning (viṣa) occurs through different ways. Sometimes it may occur through certain insects or certain combinations of ingredients, etc. The text says that, a poisoned food will be very thick in consistency. It cannot be easily poured down. It can be cooked with difficulty and even if it gets cooked, it resembles stale food. Such food emits vapours which are similar in colour of the neck of peacock. It loses its original colour and odour. Cooked foods that are poisoned will instantly dry up. These foods turn black and dirty while boiling. The shadow formed by falling light on a poisoned food is seen to be incomplete, superfluous or deformed. In some cases the shadow may be totally absent.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Snake bite treatment in Prayoga samuccayam

Viṣa (विष) refers to “poison”, and is dealt with in the 20th century Prayogasamuccaya (one of the most popular and widely practised book in toxicology in Malayalam).—The work classifies viṣa into two groups, viz. sthāvara and jaṅgama (animate and inanimate). [...] Spread of poison is compared to spread of tamarind in milk. Viṣa (poison) stays at bite site for 100 mātras (unit of time), then combines with vāta and subsequently circulate throughout the body. The sequence of its travel will be first to the forehead, then to eyes, all over the face and eventually into the sapta-dhātus (constituent elements). Signs and symptoms which indicate forthcoming death are tremors, redness of lateral ends of eyes and edematous appearance of mouth. If signs of life cannot be seen even after expulsion of urine and faeces, death can be assured.

Root of Nīlī (Indigofera tinctoria) ground in juice of Nīlī itself, rolled into the size of the fruit of Vibhītaki (Terminalia bellirica) and dried is given with milk. If vomiting occurs immediately, prognosis is good. If not, its asādhya (incurable). [...] Symptoms of impending death are also mentioned in the first chapter.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification

Viṣa (विष) refers to “poisonous plants”, which can be detoxified/purified using the Śodhana process, which involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles according to Ayurvedic principles.—Traditionally, plants having various classes of phytochemicals are still in use either in their crude form or after proper processing. Though most of the plant drugs are safe, yet few are toxic for human health. These poisonous/toxic plants are categorized as viṣa (poison) and upaviṣa (toxic but not lethal for human health) in Ayurvedic texts [...].

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Viṣa (विष) is the name of a mountain situated at lake Mānasa and mount Gandhamādana, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. The Gandhamādana mountain lies on the eastern side of mount Meru, which is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Viśa (विश).—A Ṛṣi.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 22.

2a) Viṣa (विष).—A Śiva god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 32.

2b) An Asura, attacked by Nakuli Devī.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 28. 39.

2c) A son of Danāyuṣa; father of four sons all bent on doing cruelty.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 30, 33.

2d) Produced by the churning of the ocean by the Devas and Asuras.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 54. 49; 62. 180.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Viṣa (विष).—Death from drinking poison (viṣa) should be represented by throwing out of hands and feet and other limbs, and the power of the poison will lead to the quivering action of the different parts of the body.

The first stage of the action of poison is the thinness (kṣāma or kārśya) of the body, the second tremor (vepathu), the third a burning sensation (dāha), the fourth hiccup (hikkā), the fifth froth in the mouth (phena), the sixth breaking of the neck (śirobhañja or grivābhaṅga), the seventh paralysis (jaḍatā) and the eighth death (maraṇa). These particular representations should be combined with suitable psychological states (bhāva) and with sufficient sattva, and representation of other popular aspects of these should be learnt from the people.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Viṣa (विष, “poison”) refers to an article of food classified as abhakṣya (forbidden to eat) according to Nemicandra (in his Pravacana-sāroddhāra v245-246). Poison (viṣa) is not to be taken even if its effect can be counteracted by mantras because it will in any event kill innumerable gaṇḍolaka organisms in the stomach and because if death ensues it may provoke great delusions in the last hours. Later writers, from the fifteenth century onwards, here mention opium (ahi-phena).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Vīsa.—(IE 8-8; EI 5), name of a coin (JNSI, Vol. XXVI, pp. 127ff.); cf. lokkiya-vīsa, probably meaning ‘a vīsa minted at Lokkiguṇḍi’; Sanskrit viṃśa, viṃśaka, viṃśatika, or viṃśopaka. (Ep. Ind., Vol. VI, p. 232, note 6), Telugu-Kannaḍa; (1/16) of a haṇa (paṇa); but (1/20) of the standard coin in value essentially. (CITD), also called visā, visya, visāmu; Telugu-Kannaḍa; the fraction (1/10); gold equal in weight to one grain of rice; (1/256) of a Hun or Pagoda; 40 palas; a measure of land equal nearly to 2 acres. Note: vīsa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Visā.—also spelt visāmu (CITD), see vīsa. Note: visā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

visa : (nt.) poison; venom.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Visa, (nt.) (cp. Vedic viṣa; Av. viš poison, Gr. i)όs, Lat. vīrus, Oir. fī: all meaning “poison”) poison, virus, venom M. I, 316=S. II, 110; Th. 1, 418; 768; Sn. 1 (sappa° snake venom); A. II, 110; J. I, 271 (halāhala° deadly p.); III, 201; IV, 222; Pug. 48; Miln. 302; PvA. 62, 256; ThA. 489.—On visa in similes see J. P. T. S. 1907, 137. Cp. āsī°.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

viṣa (विष).—n (S) Poison. Nine kinds are reckoned; viz. kākōla, kālakūṭa, halāhala, saurāṣṭrika, śaulkikēya, brahmaputra, pradīpana, dārada, vatsanābha. By the word viṣa simply Animal poison is generally understood. See sthāvaraviṣa. 2 Applied metaphorically to anything exceedingly bitter; also to anything baleful, baneful, dire, deadly. viṣa mānaṇēṃ To abominate or abhor. viṣācī parikṣā (Tasting of poison to determine upon it.) Venturing upon any dangerous experiment or hazardous action. v pāha.

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visā (विसा).—f (vīsa) An aggregate of twenty considered as an unit by simple men in counting or reckoning, a score. Ex. tyājakaḍē mājhyā pāñca visā rupayē yāyācē āhēta.

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vīsa (वीस).—a (viṃśati S) Twenty. Pr. visāṃ nāhīṃ tara tisāṃ nāhīṃ tara jaśācā tasā He will be good at twenty, if not, at thirty, if not, he will remain as he is.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

viṣa (विष).—n Poison. Anything exceedingly bitter.

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visā (विसा).—f A score.

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vīsa (वीस).—a Twenty. Veneral.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Viśa (विश).—The fibres of the stalk of a lotus; cf. बिस (bisa).

Derivable forms: viśam (विशम्).

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Viṣa (विष).—[viṣ-ka]

1) Poison, venom (said to be m. also in this sense); विषं भवतु मा भूद्वा फटाटोपो भयंकरः (viṣaṃ bhavatu mā bhūdvā phaṭāṭopo bhayaṃkaraḥ) Pt.1.24.

2) Water; विषं जलधरैः पीतं मूर्च्छिताः पथिकाङ्गनाः (viṣaṃ jaladharaiḥ pītaṃ mūrcchitāḥ pathikāṅganāḥ) Chandr.5. 82 (where both senses are intended).

3) The fibres of a lotus-stalk.

4) Gum-myrrh.

5) A poisonous weapon; विमोक्ष्यन्ति विष क्रुद्धाः कौरवेयेषु भारत (vimokṣyanti viṣa kruddhāḥ kauraveyeṣu bhārata) Mb.3.8.3.

Derivable forms: viṣam (विषम्).

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Viṣā (विषा).—

1) Ordure, feces.

2) Intellect, understanding.

3) A tree (ativiṣā).

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Visa (विस).—See बिस (bisa).

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Visā (विसा).—A lotus stalk.

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Vīśa (वीश).—A kind of weight ( = 2 Palas = 1/5 Tulā).

Derivable forms: vīśaḥ (वीशः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viśa (विश).—n.

(-śaṃ) The film or fibres of the stalk of the water-lily. E. viś to enter, aff. ka .

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Viṣa (विष).—mn.

(-ṣaḥ-ṣaṃ) Poison, venom. n.

(-ṣaṃ) 1. Water. 2. The fibres attached to the stalk of the lotus. 3. Gum-myrrh. 4. A vegetable poison, (Aconitum ferox.) f.

(-ṣā) A tree, the bark of which is used in dyeing of a red colour. E. viṣ to pervade, aff. ka .

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Viṣā (विषा).—Ind. Apotte noun. Intellect, understanding. f.

(-ṣā) Ordure, feces. E. ṣo to destroy, (ignorance,) with vi prefixed, and o Unadi aff.

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Visa (विस).—n.

(-saṃ) The film or fibres of the stalk of the water-lily. E. vis to send, to put forth, aff. ka .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Viśa (विश).—see visa.

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Viṣa (विष).—I. m. and n. Poison, [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 83 (n.). Ii. n. 1. Water. 2. See visa.

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Viṣā (विषा).—[viṣ + ā], I. f. Excrement, Amarak. Ii. ind. Intellect.

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Visa (विस).— (also viśa and viṣa), probably curtailed visara, or visala (cf. both), i. e. vi-sṛ + a, n. The film or fibres of the stalk of the water-lily, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 66; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 94; Mahābhārata 13, 4509; 12, 7877 (all with s).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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