Shringara, Śṛṅgāra: 17 definitions
Shringara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Śṛṅgāra can be transliterated into English as Srngara or Shringara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार) refers to the “erotic” sentiment (rasa). It is one of the eight rasas mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 6.15. The color associated with the śṛṅgāra is light green (śyāma), and the presiding deity of of the erotic (śṛṅgāra) sentiment is Viṣṇu.
According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “The Erotic (śṛṅgāra) Sentiment proceeds from the Durable Psychological State of love (rati), and it has as its basis (lit. soul) a bright attire; for whatever in this world is white, pure, bright and beautiful is appreciated in terms of the Durable Psychological State of love.”.Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार).—A type of glance (or facial expression): śṛṅgāra (love): born of great joy, in the toils of love—raising the eyebrows and looking out of the corners of the eyes. Usage: mutual glances of those who are fast bound by amorous desires.Source: Pearls at Random Strung: Godā Stuti (natya-shastra)
Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार).—In Sanskrit literary theory, śṛṅgāra is described as existing in two modes, vipralambha-śṛṅgāra (aestheticized love-in-separation) and saṃbhoga-śṛṅgāra (aestheticized love-in-union). Godā sings extensively in both modes in her Nācciyār Tirumoli.Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)
Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार) or the “sentiment (rasa) of love”.—The word Śṛṅgāra originates from the term śṛṅga, which literally means a ‘horn’ that grows from the head of a bull, as a plant sprouts from the ground. Thus, it means the budding of love, at the advent of Kāmadeva or Cupid, the god of love. When a man of higher dignity has erotic dalliances, it becomes a case of Śṛṅgāra. Herein Śṛṅgāra, the heroines excluding another’s wife and a harlot, if not honestly enamoured as well as the heroes impartial are the ālambanavibhāvas, again the uddīpanavibhāvas are the moon, sandalwood ointment, the humming of bees etc. whereas, motions of the eye-brows and side-glances etc. are found to be the anubhāvas and its vyabhicāribhāvas may be anything except sternness, death, indolence and disgust. Here the sthāyibhāva or permanent mood is love. The mythologists imagine that the colour of this rasa i.e. Śṛṅgāra, is black. Its presiding deity is Viṣṇu, who in His incarnation as the amorous Kṛṣṇa was celebrated for the darkness of His colour.
Regarding Śṛṅgāra, the rasa, Bharata opines that the Śṛṅgāra is that wherein, the permanent mood is rati. Dhanañjaya holds that when a pair of young man and woman feels mutual longing due to favourable place, time, dress, sports etc., that feeling is called rati or love and this rati, being fully experienced through various graceful actions, attains the status of the sentiment called Śṛṅgāra. Viśvanātha as well as Mammaṭa is of the opinion that Śṛṅgāra is of two fold viz. Saṃbhoga (love in union) and Viparalambha (love in separation). According to Dhanañjaya, there are three divisions of it, viz. Ayoga, Viprayoga and Saṃbhoga.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius
Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार) was one of the brothers of Maṅkhaka (or Maṅkha or Maṅkhuka): the author of the Śrīkaṇṭhacarita and the Maṅkhakośa.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार) refers to the “flavour of love” which entered the hearts of Śiva and Satī, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.17. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] She [viz., Satī] stood smiling sweetly before Śiva who was full of love. She opened her inmost feelings through various subtle gestures that increased notions of love. Taking up these notions, gestures and feelings, the flavour of love called Śṛṅgāra entered their hearts. O celestial sage, by the advent of the flavour of love, a peculiar glow, in the usual manner of worldly sports, was manifest in them as in the star Citrā and the moon”.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: JAINpedia: Jainism
Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार, “eroticism”) refers to the “nine sentiments” (navarasa) in poetics and dramaturgy and represents one of the topics dealt with in the Anuyogadvārasūtra : a technical treatise on analytical methods, a kind of guide to applying knowledge.—In Muni Puṇyavijaya’s words, “the Nandi which is of the form of five Jñānas serves as a mangala in the beginning of the study of the Āgamas; and the Anuyogadvāra-sūtra serves as a key to the understanding of the Āgamas”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
śṛṅgāra (शृंगार).—m (S) Dress and decoration; bedecked state. 2 Love, the amorous passion or sentiment as a subject of poetical description or dramatic representation. Ex. of comp. śṛṅgārakrīḍā or -līlā, śṛṅgārarasa, śṛṅgārasukha, śṛṅgāravinōda, śṛṅgāra- śāstra, śṛṅgāragṛha, śṛṅgārapriya, śṛṅgārabhāva, śṛṅgārasaṃ- bhāṣaṇa, śṛṅgāramatsara. 3 Exhibition (on the part of the female) of love by fond caresses, blandishments, and tendernesses; using wanton or soft gestures or airs. 4 The commerce of the sexes.
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śriṅgāra (श्रिंगार).—&c. Careless corruption, even by the educated, of śṛṅgāra.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
śṛṅgāra (शृंगार).—m Dress and decoration. Love, the amorous sentiment as a subject of poetical description. Exhibition of love (on the part of the female) by blandishments &c.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार).—[śṛṅgaṃ kāmodrekamṛcchatyanena ṛ-aṇ]
1) The sentiment of love or sexual passion, the erotic sentiment (the first of the eight or nine sentiments in poetical compositions; it is of two kinds:-saṃbhogaśṛṅgāra and vipralambhaśṛṅgāra q. q. v. v.); शृङ्गारः सखि मूर्तिमानिव मधौ मुग्धो हरिः क्रीडति (śṛṅgāraḥ sakhi mūrtimāniva madhau mugdho hariḥ krīḍati) Gīt.1; (it is thus defined:-puṃsaḥ striyāṃ striyāḥ puṃsi saṃbhogaṃ prati yā spṛhā | sa śṛṅgāra iti khyātaḥ krīḍāratyādikārakaḥ || See S. D.21 also).
2) Love, passion, sexual love; शृङ्गारैकरसः स्वयं नु मदनो मासो नु पुष्पाकरः (śṛṅgāraikarasaḥ svayaṃ nu madano māso nu puṣpākaraḥ) V.1.1.
3) A dress suited to amorous interviews, an elegant dress.
4) Coition, sextual union.
5) Marks made with redlead on the body of an elephant; वर्षन्तः शममानयन्नुपल- सच्छृङ्गारलेखायुधाः (varṣantaḥ śamamānayannupala- sacchṛṅgāralekhāyudhāḥ) Śi.17.69.
6) A mark in general.
-ram 1 Cloves.
3) Undried ginger.
4) A fragrant powder for the dress or body.
Derivable forms: śṛṅgāraḥ (शृङ्गारः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ) 1. Love, the passion or sentiment as an object of poetical description or dramatic representation. 2. Copulation, coition. 3. Marks made with red-lead on an elephant’s head and trunk by way of ornament. 4. A dress suitable for amorous purposes. n.
(-raṃ) 1. Cloves. 2. Red-lead. 3. Fragrant powder for the dress or person. 4. Ginger. 5. Agallochum. E. śṛṅga eminence, dignity, ṛ to go to or obtain, and aṇ aff.; being the chief of the poetical Rasas; or śṝ to hurt, āran Unadi aff., with num and guk augments.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार).— (from śṛṅga, cf. the next), I. m. 1. Copulation, coition, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 191. 2. Love, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 9; as an object of poetical description. 3. (m. or n.?), Elegant dress (properly, a dress for amorous purposes), [Pañcatantra] 36, 18 (cf. my transl. n. 173). 4. Marks made with red lead on an elephant’s head and trunk. 5. Mark in general, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 69, 5 (at the end of a comp. adj.). Ii. n. 1. Red lead. 2. Cloves. 3. Fragrant powder for the dress or person.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार).—[adjective] fair, beautiful; [masculine] ornament, fine dress, love, sexual passion, a man’s name.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
1) Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—son of Viśvāvarta, brother of Maṅkha. Śrīkaṇṭhacarita 3, 45.
2) Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार):—father of Jayadratha (Alaṃkāravimarśinī). Oxf. 210^a.
3) Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार):—poet. [Sūktikarṇāmṛta by Śrīdharadāsa]
4) Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार):—father of Jayaratha (Tantrālokaviveka) and Jayadratha q. v.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार):—[from śṛṅga] m. ([probably] connected with śṛṅga as vṛndāra with vṛnda) love (as ‘the horned’ or ‘the strong one’ ?), sexual passion or desire or enjoyment, [Kāvya literature; Rājataraṅgiṇī] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) the erotic sentiment (one of the 8 or 10 Rasas q.v.; it has Viṣṇu for its tutelary deity and black for its colour; [according to] to most authorities it is of two kinds, viz. sambhoga, ‘mutual enjoyment’, and vipralambha, ‘deception, disappointment’, to which by some is added as third a-yoga, ‘separation’), [Bharata-nāṭya-śāstra; Daśarūpa; Sāhitya-darpaṇa] etc.
3) [v.s. ...] a dress suitable for amorous purposes, elegant dress, fine garments, finery, [Kāvya literature; Pañcatantra; Kathāsaritsāgara] etc.
4) [v.s. ...] the ornaments on an elephant ([especially] red marks on its head and trunk), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. -dhārin)
5) [v.s. ...] any mark, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]
6) [v.s. ...] (also with bhaṭṭa) Name of various persons ([especially] of a poet), [Rājataraṅgiṇī; Catalogue(s)]
7) Śṛṅgārā (शृङ्गारा):—[from śṛṅgāra > śṛṅga] f. Name of a woman, [Inscriptions]
8) Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार):—[from śṛṅga] n. (only [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]) gold
9) [v.s. ...] red-lead
10) [v.s. ...] fragrant powder for the dress or person
11) [v.s. ...] cloves
12) [v.s. ...] undried ginger
13) [v.s. ...] black aloe-wood
14) [v.s. ...] mfn. handsome, pretty, dainty, fine, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार):—(raḥ) 1. m. Love; copulation; ornamental marks on the elephant’s head. n. Cloves, redlead; a fragrant powder; ginger; Agallochum.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार):—(von śṛṅga wie vṛndāra von vṛnda) [Uṇādisūtra 3, 136.] m. n. [Siddhāntakaumudī 249], b, 4.
1) adj. schmuck: vaktra [Rāmāyaṇa 6, 95, 24.] śṛṅgāraiḥ suprahāraiśca kailāso madanāyate [Harivaṃśa 12007.] veṣābharaṇa adj. [Mahābhārata 4, 2295.] veṣa adj. [5, 237.] —
2) m. a) Putz, Staat, schmucke Kleider [Spr. (II) 1649.] vasantaḥ saṃtatojjṛmbhitānaṅgaśṛṅgāra eva [Dhūrtasamāgama 69, 5.] śṛṅgāraṃ vidhāya [Pañcatantra ed. orn. 32, 20.] [Vetālapañcaviṃśati] in [Lassen’s Anthologie (III) 8, 18.] [ŚUK.] ebend. [36, 4.] kṛta adj. (f. ā) [Pañcatantra ed. orn. 32, 24. 51, 15.] mukta [32, 23.] sa geputzt [?49, 21. Kathāsaritsāgara 64, 131. Medinīkoṣa Nalopākhyāna 214.] Schmucksachen eines Elephanten [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 375.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 614] (gajamaṇḍana st. rājamaṇḍana zu lesen). [Medinīkoṣa 3, 231.] [Hārāvalī 204.] [ŚĀŚVATA] bei [UJJVAL.] zu [Uṇādisūtra 3, 136.] dhārin [Rāmāyaṇa 7, 35, 37.] — b) Geschlechtsliebe; der erotische Grundton (rasa) in einem Kunstwerke [Amarakoṣa 1, 1, 7, 17.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 1, 1, 126.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 229. 294.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] [Halāyudha 1, 92. 5, 75.] puṃsaḥ striyāṃ striyaḥ puṃsi saṃbhogaṃ prati yā spṛhā . sa śṛṅgāra iti khyātaḥ krīḍāratyādikārakaḥ .. [SUVARṆAREKHA] bei [UJJVAL. a. a. O.] śṛṅgaṃ hi manmathodbhedastadāgamanahetukaḥ . uttamaprakṛtiprāyo rasaḥ śṛṅgāra iṣyate .. [Sāhityadarpana 210.] [DAŚAR. 2, 13. 45.] [Rāmāyaṇa 1, 4,7 (3, 46 Gorresio).] śṛṅgāraikaraso madanaḥ [Vikramorvaśī 9.] lajjā [Śākuntala 14, 3.] [Spr. 3018. (II) 1911.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 2, 121. 3, 484. 5, 230. 233.] śūra [PAÑCAR. 1, 10, 26. 11, 30. 14, 69.] [Oxforder Handschriften 130], a, [No. 236. 208], b, [27. 213], b, [1.] dharmārthakāmaistrividhaḥ śṛṅgāraḥ [Sāhityadarpana 516.] dharma, artha, kāma [?193, 8. fgg. Bharata NĀṬYAŚ. 18, 67. fgg.] saṃbhoga [Sāhityadarpana 226. 7, 7.] ceṣṭita [95.] ceṣṭā [Raghuvaṃśa 6, 12.] [Halāyudha 1, 89.] — c) Nomen proprium verschiedener Männer [Oxforder Handschriften 210,a, No. 495.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī.8,329. 509. 2121. 2354. 2370. 2434. 2471.] bhaṭṭa [2427.] —
3) n. a) Mennig [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1061,] [Scholiast] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] — b) Gewürznelke. — c) Mehl, Pulver [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] — d) frischer Ingwer (vgl. śṛṅgavera) [Śabdacandrikā im Śabdakalpadruma] — e) schwarzes Agallochum (kālāguru) [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+79): Shringara-bhoga, Shringarabhashita, Shringarabhedapradipa, Shringarabhra, Shringarabhushana, Shringaracandrika, Shringaracandrodaya, Shringaracaturika, Shringaraceshta, Shringaraceshtita, Shringaracheshta, Shringaradharin, Shringaradipaka, Shringaradipika, Shringaradirasa, Shringaragalesari, Shringaragarva, Shringaragupta, Shringarahara, Shringaraikarasa.
Ends with: Chandahshringara, Chhandahshringara, Harashringara, Jyotirvedashringara, Jyotirvidashringara, Sambhogashringara, Sashringara, Sola Shringara, Sudhishringara, Sundarashringara, Sushringara, Vipralambhashringara.
Full-text (+191): Shringarayoni, Shringarabhushana, Shringaravesha, Shringararasa, Sambhoga, Shringarabhashita, Shringaravidhi, Shringarasahaya, Shringaraka, Rati, Shringaraikarasa, Harashringara, Shringararasashtaka, Shringararasodaya, Shringararasamandana, Shringarasarasi, Shringaravati, Shringaraprabandhadipika, Shringarasaptashati, Shringaracandrodaya.
Search found 20 books and stories containing Shringara, Śṛṅgāra, Srngara, Śriṅgāra, Sringara, Śṛṅgārā; (plurals include: Shringaras, Śṛṅgāras, Srngaras, Śriṅgāras, Sringaras, Śṛṅgārās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The backdrop of the Srikanthacarita and the Mankhakosa (by Dhrubajit Sarma)
Part 2b - Rasa (2): Śṛṅgāra or the sentiment of love < [Chapter III - Literary Assessment Of The Śrīkaṇṭhacarita]
Part 2 - Rasa or the sentiment < [Chapter III - Literary Assessment Of The Śrīkaṇṭhacarita]
Part 6 - Maṅkhaka: his genealogy and date < [Chapter I - Introduction]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 360 - Greatness of Śṛṅgāreśvara (Śṛṅgāra-īśvara) < [Section 1 - Prabhāsa-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Chapter 99 - The Greatness of Śrī Viśveśvara < [Section 2 - Uttarārdha]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 4.8.13 < [Part 8 - Compatible & Incompatible Mellows (maitrī-vaira-sthiti)]
Verse 2.1.267 < [Part 1 - Ecstatic Excitants (vibhāva)]
Verse 2.1.332 < [Part 1 - Ecstatic Excitants (vibhāva)]
Bhajana-Rahasya (by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura Mahasaya)
Text 23 < [Chapter 8 - Aṣṭama-yāma-sādhana (Rātri-līlā–prema-bhajana sambhoga)]
Text 10 < [Chapter 5 - Pañcama-yāma-sādhana (Aparāhna-kālīya-bhajana–kṛṣṇa-āsakti)]
Text 9 < [Chapter 8 - Aṣṭama-yāma-sādhana (Rātri-līlā–prema-bhajana sambhoga)]
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)
Chapter 12 - On the description of Maṇi Dvīpa < [Book 12]
Chapter 50 - On the Glory of Śakti < [Book 9]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)