Shringara, Śṛṅgāra: 14 definitions

Introduction

Shringara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śṛṅgāra can be transliterated into English as Srngara or Shringara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार) refers to the “erotic” sentiment (rasa). It is one of the eight rasas mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 6.15. The color associated with the śṛṅgāra is light green (śyāma), and the presiding deity of of the erotic (śṛṅgāra) sentiment is Viṣṇu.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “The Erotic (śṛṅgāra) Sentiment proceeds from the Durable Psychological State of love (rati), and it has as its basis (lit. soul) a bright attire; for whatever in this world is white, pure, bright and beautiful is appreciated in terms of the Durable Psychological State of love.”.

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार).—A type of glance (or facial expression): śṛṅgāra (love): born of great joy, in the toils of love—raising the eyebrows and looking out of the corners of the eyes. Usage: mutual glances of those who are fast bound by amorous desires.

Source: Pearls at Random Strung: Godā Stuti (natya-shastra)

Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार).—In Sanskrit literary theory, śṛṅgāra is described as existing in two modes, vipralambha-śṛṅgāra (aestheticized love-in-separation) and saṃbhoga-śṛṅgāra (aestheticized love-in-union). Godā sings extensively in both modes in her Nācciyār Tirumoli.

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार) or the “sentiment (rasa) of love”.—The word Śṛṅgāra originates from the term śṛṅga, which literally means a ‘horn’ that grows from the head of a bull, as a plant sprouts from the ground. Thus, it means the budding of love, at the advent of Kāmadeva or Cupid, the god of love. When a man of higher dignity has erotic dalliances, it becomes a case of Śṛṅgāra. Herein Śṛṅgāra, the heroines excluding another’s wife and a harlot, if not honestly enamoured as well as the heroes impartial are the ālambanavibhāvas, again the uddīpanavibhāvas are the moon, sandalwood ointment, the humming of bees etc. whereas, motions of the eye-brows and side-glances etc. are found to be the anubhāvas and its vyabhicāribhāvas may be anything except sternness, death, indolence and disgust. Here the sthāyibhāva or permanent mood is love. The mythologists imagine that the colour of this rasa i.e. Śṛṅgāra, is black. Its presiding deity is Viṣṇu, who in His incarnation as the amorous Kṛṣṇa was celebrated for the darkness of His colour.

Regarding Śṛṅgāra, the rasa, Bharata opines that the Śṛṅgāra is that wherein, the permanent mood is rati. Dhanañjaya holds that when a pair of young man and woman feels mutual longing due to favourable place, time, dress, sports etc., that feeling is called rati or love and this rati, being fully experienced through various graceful actions, attains the status of the sentiment called Śṛṅgāra. Viśvanātha as well as Mammaṭa is of the opinion that Śṛṅgāra is of two fold viz. Saṃbhoga (love in union) and Viparalambha (love in separation). According to Dhanañjaya, there are three divisions of it, viz. Ayoga, Viprayoga and Saṃbhoga.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous (S) next»] — Shringara in Kavya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius

Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार) was one of the brothers of Maṅkhaka (or Maṅkha or Maṅkhuka): the author of the Śrīkaṇṭhacarita and the Maṅkhakośa.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous (S) next»] — Shringara in Jainism glossary
Source: JAINpedia: Jainism

Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार, “eroticism”) refers to the “nine sentiments” (navarasa) in poetics and dramaturgy and represents one of the topics dealt with in the Anuyogadvārasūtra : a technical treatise on analytical methods, a kind of guide to applying knowledge.—In Muni Puṇyavijaya’s words, “the Nandi which is of the form of five Jñānas serves as a mangala in the beginning of the study of the Āgamas; and the Anuyogadvāra-sūtra serves as a key to the understanding of the Āgamas”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (S) next»] — Shringara in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śṛṅgāra (शृंगार).—m (S) Dress and decoration; bedecked state. 2 Love, the amorous passion or sentiment as a subject of poetical description or dramatic representation. Ex. of comp. śṛṅgārakrīḍā or -līlā, śṛṅgārarasa, śṛṅgārasukha, śṛṅgāravinōda, śṛṅgāra- śāstra, śṛṅgāragṛha, śṛṅgārapriya, śṛṅgārabhāva, śṛṅgārasaṃ- bhāṣaṇa, śṛṅgāramatsara. 3 Exhibition (on the part of the female) of love by fond caresses, blandishments, and tendernesses; using wanton or soft gestures or airs. 4 The commerce of the sexes.

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śriṅgāra (श्रिंगार).—&c. Careless corruption, even by the educated, of śṛṅgāra.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śṛṅgāra (शृंगार).—m Dress and decoration. Love, the amorous sentiment as a subject of poetical description. Exhibition of love (on the part of the female) by blandishments &c.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (S) next»] — Shringara in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार).—[śṛṅgaṃ kāmodrekamṛcchatyanena ṛ-aṇ]

1) The sentiment of love or sexual passion, the erotic sentiment (the first of the eight or nine sentiments in poetical compositions; it is of two kinds:-saṃbhogaśṛṅgāra and vipralambhaśṛṅgāra q. q. v. v.); शृङ्गारः सखि मूर्तिमानिव मधौ मुग्धो हरिः क्रीडति (śṛṅgāraḥ sakhi mūrtimāniva madhau mugdho hariḥ krīḍati) Gīt.1; (it is thus defined:-puṃsaḥ striyāṃ striyāḥ puṃsi saṃbhogaṃ prati yā spṛhā | sa śṛṅgāra iti khyātaḥ krīḍāratyādikārakaḥ || See S. D.21 also).

2) Love, passion, sexual love; शृङ्गारैकरसः स्वयं नु मदनो मासो नु पुष्पाकरः (śṛṅgāraikarasaḥ svayaṃ nu madano māso nu puṣpākaraḥ) V.1.1.

3) A dress suited to amorous interviews, an elegant dress.

4) Coition, sextual union.

5) Marks made with redlead on the body of an elephant; वर्षन्तः शममानयन्नुपल- सच्छृङ्गारलेखायुधाः (varṣantaḥ śamamānayannupala- sacchṛṅgāralekhāyudhāḥ) Śi.17.69.

6) A mark in general.

-ram 1 Cloves.

2) Red-lead.

3) Undried ginger.

4) A fragrant powder for the dress or body.

5) Agallochum.

Derivable forms: śṛṅgāraḥ (शृङ्गारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śṛṅgāra (शृङ्गार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. Love, the passion or sentiment as an object of poetical description or dramatic representation. 2. Copulation, coition. 3. Marks made with red-lead on an elephant’s head and trunk by way of ornament. 4. A dress suitable for amorous purposes. n.

(-raṃ) 1. Cloves. 2. Red-lead. 3. Fragrant powder for the dress or person. 4. Ginger. 5. Agallochum. E. śṛṅga eminence, dignity, to go to or obtain, and aṇ aff.; being the chief of the poetical Rasas; or śṝ to hurt, āran Unadi aff., with num and guk augments.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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