Manas, Manash: 21 definitions
Manas means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: bhagavadgitausa.com: Kashmir Saivism
Manas. It is the mind derived from Ahamkara in a cascade fashion. Its function is to obtain knowledge of the external world and build a library of impressions, perceptions... from its distal elements such as the organs of perception (Jnanendriyas). The Antah-Karana is the crossroads for the organs of perception and organs of actions where all perceptions are stored and all actions originate.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Yoga (school of philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga
Manas (मनस्) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “mind”. It is one of the fourteen Adhyātma (pertaining to the body) mentioned in the Subālopaniṣad (fifth section). The corresponding Ādhibhūta (pertaining to the elements) is called mantavya (the thinkable) and the corresponding Adhidaivata (presiding deity) is candramā. Accordingly, “the nādis form their bond (or connect them). He who moves in the thinkable (manas), in mantavya, in candramā, in the nādis, in prāṇa, in vijñāna, in ānanda, in the ākāśa of the heart and within all else—That is Ātman. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow or end.”
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
Manas (मनस्).—One of the seven sons of Jyotiṣmān, who was a son of Priyavrata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74. Priyavrata was a son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)Source: Wikipedia: Vaisheshika
Manas (मनस्, “mind”) is one of the nine dravyas (‘substances’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These dravyas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)
Manas (मनस्, “mind”) refers to one of the nine substances (dravya) according to the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika school of philosophy (cf. Vaiśeṣikasūtra 1.1.5, Saptapadārthī, Tarkabhāṣā and Bhāṣāpariccheda). Nyāya-Vaiśeṣikas, accept manas (mind) as a separate substance and enlist it as the last one of the nine dravyas. It is the internal sense (antarendriya). Annaṃbhaṭṭa defines manas as the internal organ which is the instrument of the cognition of pleasure, pain etc. It is connected with each human self and as such it is infinite. The mind is atomic in size and eternal. In his view, manas is infinite because it is different for different bodies. Therefore, there is difference of knowledge in different individual. If it is one, then one’s pleasure will be pleasure of all, one’s pain will be pain of all. So, manas is different according to different bodies.
Manas is Atomic (anu) size. If it is of the largest size, then it will be conjoined with all sense organs at the same time and produce different perceptions, such as colours, smells tastes, sounds etc. at the same time. But they are not possible to be perceived simultaneously. Each perception comes successively because conjunction of the mind with the sense-organs is possible only successively. Therefore, manas is atomic in size. Manas can come into contact with one sense only at one time. Manas is eternal because it is partless and self-subsistent. Annaṃbhaṭṭa gives another definition of manas in his Dīpikā thus: “sparśarahitatve sati kriyāvatvaṃmanaso lakṣanaṃ”. That means manas is that which is touchless but possesses action.
Praśastapāda, in his Bhāṣya, mentions eight guṇas of manas which are: number, magnitude, distinctness, conjunction, disjunction, remoteness, proximity and velocity. These are general qualities. Manas has no special quality. The NyāyaVaiśeṣika process of perception depends on the existence of the mind. Without mind it is not possible to have perception. In the soul comes into contact with the manas, the manas with the sense-organs and the sense-organs with the objects, these are important conditions of perception. The mind is necessary for perception of external objects. The mind is controlled by the self and it controls the external sense-organs. The self-perceives the external objects by the external sense-organs being controlled by the manas.
Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Manas (मनस्, “mind”).—Objects of sense-organs are preceived by a person with attentive mind (manas). But person out of his mind cannot perceive any object which comes through five sense-organs. With reference to the representation, the mind has three attitudes towards objects, viz.
- iṣṭa (desired),
- aniṣṭa (undesired),
- madhyastha (indifferent).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Nyaya (school of philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
Manas (मनस्, “mind”) refers to one of the twelve prameya (“objects of valid knowledge) according to the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Prameya in turn represents the second of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”). Accordingly, “manas is the internal sense organ. The internal perception like pleasure, pain etc. can be apprehended through it. Manas is one in each body and it is like an atom”.
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
Manas (मनस्):—The mind, the internal organ which link among soul, sensory and motor organs
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Manas (मनस्) is the name of Vidyārāja (i.e., “wisdom king”) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Manas).
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Manas (मनस्, “mind”) refers to the one of the twenty-two faculties (indriya), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 38. The word indriya, derived from the root id or ind, is synonymous with great power, with control. The twenty-two Dharmas in question [viz., manas] have the characteristic of being dominant in regard to the living being (sattva) in that which concerns: his primary constitution, his distinctiveness, his duration, his moral defilement and his purification.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
Manas (मनस्, “mind”) or manoyatana refers to one of the “twelve sense spheres” (āyatana) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 24). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., manas). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living
Manas (मनस्, “mind”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.19.—The function of matter (pudgala) is to form the basis of the body (śarīra), the organs of speech (vāc), the mind (manas) and the respiration (prāṇa). What is mind? The entity which has the capacity to comprehend i.e. examine good and evil, and remembering is called mind.
What is psychic mind? Power to discriminate between good and evil or the attainment of the manifestation of consciousness is called psychic mind. What is physical mind? The transformation of matter particles due to the rise of āṃgopāṃga-karma and the subsidence cum destruction of energy obscuring karma and knowledge obscuring karmas, is called physical mind.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Manas (मनस्).—n. [manyate'nena man karaṇe asun]
1) The mind, heart, understanding, perception, intelligence; as in सुमनस्, दुमर्नस् (sumanas, dumarnas) &c.
2) (In phil.) The mind or internal organ of perception and cognition, the instrument by which objects of sense affect the soul; (in Nyāya phil. manas is regarded as a Dravya or substance, and is distinct from ātman or the soul); तदेव सुखदुःखाद्युपलब्धि- साधनमिन्द्रियं प्रतिजीवं भिन्नमणु नित्यं च (tadeva sukhaduḥkhādyupalabdhi- sādhanamindriyaṃ pratijīvaṃ bhinnamaṇu nityaṃ ca) Tarka K.
3) Conscience, the faculty of discrimination or judgment.
4) Thought, idea, fancy, imagination, conception; पश्यन्न- दूरान्मनसाप्यधृष्यम् (paśyanna- dūrānmanasāpyadhṛṣyam) Ku.3.51; R.2.27; कायेन वाचा मनसापि शश्वत् (kāyena vācā manasāpi śaśvat) 5.5; मनसापि न विप्रियं मया (manasāpi na vipriyaṃ mayā) (kṛtapūrvam) 8.52.
5) Design, purpose, intention.
6) Will, wish, desire, inclination; in this sense मनस् (manas) is frequently used with the infinitive form with the final म् (m) dropped, and forms adjectives; अयं जनः प्रष्टुमनास्तपोधने (ayaṃ janaḥ praṣṭumanāstapodhane) Ku.5.4; cf. काम (kāma).
7) Reflection (dhyāna); मनसा जपैः प्रणतिभिः प्रयतः समुपेयिवानधिपतिं स दिवः (manasā japaiḥ praṇatibhiḥ prayataḥ samupeyivānadhipatiṃ sa divaḥ) Ki.6.22.
8) Disposition, temper, mood.
9) Spirit, energy, mettle; मनोवीर्यवरोत्सिक्तमसृण्यमकुतोभयम् (manovīryavarotsiktamasṛṇyamakutobhayam) Bhag.3. 17.22.
1) Name of the lake called Mānasa.
11) Breath or living soul.
12) Desire, longing after. (manasā gam &c. to think of, contemplate, remember; jagāma manasā rāmaṃ dharmajño dharmakāṅkṣayā Rām.2.82.9; (agamat) मनसा कार्यसंसिद्धौ त्वरादिगुणरंहसा (manasā kāryasaṃsiddhau tvarādiguṇaraṃhasā) Ku.2.63; मनः कृ (manaḥ kṛ) to fix the mind upon, direct the thoughts towards, with dat. or loc.; मनो बन्ध् (mano bandh) to fix the heart or affection upon; (abhilāṣe) मनो बबन्धान्यरसान् विलङ्ध्य सा (mano babandhānyarasān vilaṅdhya sā) R.3.4; मनः समाधा (manaḥ samādhā) to collect oneself; मनसि उद्भू (manasi udbhū) to cross the mind; मनसि कृ (manasi kṛ) to think, to bear in mind; to resolve, determine, think of.) N. B. In comp. मनस् (manas) is changed to मनो (mano) before अ (a) and soft consonants, as मनोऽनुग, मनोज्ञ, मनोहर (mano'nuga, manojña, manohara) &c.).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-naḥ) 1. The mind, considered as the seat of perception and passion, the heart. 2. The intellect, the understanding. 3. The connecting link between the Indriyas and Buddhi, (in Nyaya Phil.) 4. Thought, imagination, conception, fancy. 5. Intention, design, purpose, wish. 6. Desire, affection. 7. Disposition, temper. 8. Energy, spirit. 9. Conscience. 10. Red arsanic. 11. An epithet of the lake Manasa. E. man to know, to understand, aff. asun .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Manas (मनस्).—[man + as], n. 1. Mind,
Manas (मनस्).—[neuter] mind, soul, heart; the internal organ of perception and cognition (ph.); intellect, reason, thought; excogitation, invention; wish, inclination, desire, endeavour; sentiment, disposition; adj. —° wishing or intending to ([especially] [with] an infin. in tu). — Instr. manasā in the mind, in thought; with the heart, willingly. manaḥ kṛ take to ([genetive]); determine, resolve; also = dhā, vidhā, bandh, etc. direct the mind towards, think of ([locative], [dative], [accusative] [with] prati, or infin.); manasi kṛ or nidhā take to heart, consider, imagine.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Manaś (मनश्):—[from man] in [compound] for manas.
2) Manas (मनस्):—[from man] n. mind (in its widest sense as applied to all the mental powers), intellect, intelligence, understanding, perception, sense, conscience, will, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (in [philosophy] the internal organ or antaḥ-karaṇa of perception and cognition, the faculty or instrument through which thoughts enter or by which objects of sense affect the soul, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 53]; in this sense manas is always regarded as distinct from ātman and puruṣa, ‘spirit or soul’ and belonging only to the body, like which it is except in the Nyāya considered perishable; as to its position in the various systems See for Nyāya and Vaiśeṣika, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 63; 67; 76], for Sāṃkhya and Vedānta, [ib. 84; 109; 117]; in [Ṛg-veda] it is sometimes joined with hṛd or hṛdaya, the heart, [Manu-smṛti vii, 6 with] cakṣus, the eye)
3) [v.s. ...] the spirit or spiritual principle, the breath or living soul which escapes from the body at death (called asu in animals; cf. above), [ib.]
4) [v.s. ...] thought, imagination, excogitation, invention, reflection, opinion, intention, inclination, affection, desire, mood, temper, spirit, [ib.] (ifc. after a verbal noun or an [infinitive mood] stem in tu = having a mind or wishing to; cf. draṣṭu-m etc.; manaḥ √kṛ, to make up one’s mind; with [genitive case], to feel inclination for ; manaḥ √kṛ, pra-√kṛ, √dhā, vi-√dhā, √dhṛ, √bandh and [Causal] of ni-√viś with [locative case] [dative case] [accusative] with prati, or [infinitive mood], to direct the mind or thoughts towards, think of or upon; manaḥ with sam-ā-√dhā, to recover the senses, collect one’s self; with √han See mano-hatya; manasā ind. in the mind; in thought or imagination; with all the heart, willingly; with [genitive case], by the leave of; with iva = seva, as with a thought, in a moment; with √man, to think in one’s mind, be willing or inclined; with saṃ-√gam, to become unanimous, agree; manasi with √kṛ, to bear or ponder in the mind, meditate on, remember; with ni-√dhā, to impress on the mind, consider; with √vṛt, to be passing in one’s mind)
5) [v.s. ...] Name of the 26th Kalpa (sub voce), [Catalogue(s)]
6) [v.s. ...] of the lake Mānasa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
7) [v.s. ...] manaso dohaḥ Name of a Sāman, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]
8) [v.s. ...] cf. [Greek] μένος; [Latin] miner-va.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Manas (मनस्):—(naḥ) 1. n. The mind.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
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1) a) manaseva vinirmitam so v. a. in einem Nu geschaffen [Rāmāyaṇa ed. Bomb. 1, 13, 39.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
Manas (मनस्):—n. —
1) der innere Sinn , das innere Organ , Geist , Verstand , Gemüth , Seele , Gewissen , Herz nebst deren Functionen und Aeusserungen: Denken , Vorstellen , Gedenken ; Erdenken , Ersinnen , Nachdenken (vielleicht auch das Ersonnene , Erfindung) ; Wunsch , Wille , Geneigtheit ; Lust , Verlangen , Streben , Trieb ; Gesinnung , Stimmung. Das Manas entflieht mit dem Tode aus dem Körper ; das Thier hat nicht Manas , sondern Asu. In den philosophischen Systemen ist Manas das Organ der Erkenntniss , das Erkenntnissvermögen mit der Fähigkeit Vorstellungen zu verbinden und zu haben ; es gilt , ausser im Nyāya , für vergänglich. — a) Acc. mit kar beschliessen ; Jmd (Gen.) geneigt werden , sich zu Jmd hingezogen fühlen ; mit kar , pra kar , dhā , dhar , bandh und ni veśay seinen Gedanken richten auf , denken an (die Ergänzung im Loc. , Dat. , Acc. mit prati oder Infin.) ; mit samā dhā sich fassen ; mit (han , manehatya so v.a. bis das Verlangen gestillt ist. — b) manasā mit dem Geiste ; in Gedanken (Gegensatz in Wirklichkeit) ; von Herzen , gern ; mit Vergunst von (Gen.) ; vermöge des blossen Willens ; manaseva so v.a. in einem Nu ; mit man im Geiste denken , so v.a. willens sein ; mit sam , gam einmüthig werden. — c) manasi mit kar beherzigen ; in’s Herz schliessen , im Herzen gedenken [104,15.] [Indische studien von Weber 15,314.] mit ni dhā dem Geiste einprägen , im Geiste sich vorführen [Böhtlingk’s Sanskrit-Chresthomathie 155,21] ; mit vart so v.a. im Kopfe herumgehen. — d) am Ende eines adj. Comp. nach einem Nom. act. oder nach einem Infin. auf tu den Wunsch habend — , beabsichtigend zu. —
2) manaso , dohḥ Name eines Sāman. —
3) der 26ste Kalpa 2)h). —
4) der See Mānasa.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Manas (मनस्):—(nm) the psyche, psychic element, mind.
2) Manas in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) the psyche, mind; heart; a famous lake- [manasarovara] (in the Himalayas); (a) mental; psychical; —[putra] psychic progeny; ~[roga -cikitsa] psychiatry; ~[roga -cikitsaka] psychiatrist; ~[vijnana/shastra] psychology..—manas (मानस) is alternatively transliterated as Mānasa.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+259): Manaapa, Manahkanta, Manahkara, Manahkshepa, Manahpapa, Manahparyaya, Manahpati, Manahpida, Manahpranita, Manahpriti, Manahpriya, Manahputa, Manahsamcetanahara, Manahsamchetanahara, Manahsamga, Manahsamkalpa, Manahsamriddhi, Manahsamtapa, Manahsamvara, Manahshalya.
Ends with (+127): Abhimanas, Acalitasumanas, Achalitasumanas, Acittamanas, Acyutamanas, Adinamanas, Ahitamanas, Alammanas, Amanas, Ananyamanas, Antargatamanas, Antarmanas, Anyamanas, Anyatramanas, Aptamanas, Aramanas, Arthamanas, Asaktamanas, Ashtapramanas, Aspardhitamanas.
Full-text (+603): Manaska, Manastala, Ekamanas, Manastva, Anyamanas, Mahamanas, Durmanas, Antarmanas, Manasya, Manolaulya, Vimanas, Manasvin, Nirmanaska, Manasayana, Samahitamanas, Manogavi, Vyakulamanas, Manohata, Ahitamanas, Manodhatu.
Search found 109 books and stories containing Manas, Manash, Manaś; (plurals include: Manases, Manashs, Manaśs). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Shrimad Bhagavad-gita (by Narayana Gosvami)
Verse 15.9 < [Chapter 15 - Puruṣottama-toga (Yoga through understanding the Supreme Person)]
Verse 10.22 < [Chapter 10 - Vibhūti-yoga (appreciating the opulences of the Supreme Lord)]
Verse 6.26 < [Chapter 6 - Dhyāna-yoga (Yoga through the Path of Meditation)]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 2 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 10 - The Circulatory and the Nervous System < [Chapter XIII - Speculations in the Medical Schools]
Part 4 - Karma, Manas and the Categories < [Chapter XII - The Philosophy of the Yogavāsiṣṭha]
Part 6 - Nature of Agency (Kartṛtva) and the Illusion of World Creation < [Chapter XII - The Philosophy of the Yogavāsiṣṭha]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 2: Minerals (uparasa) (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 1 - Characteristics of Manahshila or Manas-shila (realgar) < [Chapter XIII - Uparasa (14): Manahshila or Manas-shila (realgar)]
Part 3 - Extraction of essence of manas-shila < [Chapter XIII - Uparasa (14): Manahshila or Manas-shila (realgar)]
Part 2 - Purification of manas-shila < [Chapter XIII - Uparasa (14): Manahshila or Manas-shila (realgar)]
Chandogya Upanishad (Madhva commentary) (by Srisa Chandra Vasu)
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (commentary) (by Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktivedānta Nārāyana Gosvāmī Mahārāja)
Verse 2.3.147 < [Chapter 3 - Bhajana (loving service)]
Verse 2.3.73 < [Chapter 3 - Bhajana (loving service)]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 3 - Incineration of Lead < [Chapter VII - Metals (7): Sisaka (lead)]
Part 7 - Incineration of Diamonds, irrespective of colour < [Chapter XIII - Gems (1): Vajra or Hiraka (diamond)]
Part 4 - Extraction of essence of Rajavarta < [Chapter XXV - Gems (15): Rajavarta (quartz amethyst or lapis lazuli)]