Manas, Manash: 26 definitions


Manas means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Kashmir Saivism

Manas. It is the mind derived from Ahamkara in a cascade fashion. Its function is to obtain knowledge of the external world and build a library of impressions, perceptions... from its distal elements such as the organs of perception (Jnanendriyas). The Antah-Karana is the crossroads for the organs of perception and organs of actions where all perceptions are stored and all actions originate.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Manas (मनस्) refers to the “thoughts”, as quoted by Hṛdayaśiva in his Prāyaścittasamuccaya (verse 10.27-35).—Accordingly, “Having recited [a particular mantra] along with [the practice of one of the] observances in accordance with the rules, and having bathed [at the end of the observance], one may recite that mantra for attaining supernatural powers. The skilled practitioner should do his recitation not too slowly, not indistinctly, not without taking [the meaning of what he recites] in, not too fast, not without counting, and not with his thoughts in confusion (manas-bhrānta). [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Manas (मनस्) is a Sanskrit word referring to the “mind”. It is one of the fourteen Adhyātma (pertaining to the body) mentioned in the Subālopaniṣad (fifth section). The corresponding Ādhibhūta (pertaining to the elements) is called mantavya (the thinkable) and the corresponding Adhidaivata (presiding deity) is candramā. Accordingly, “the nādis form their bond (or connect them). He who moves in the thinkable (manas), in mantavya, in candramā, in the nādis, in prāṇa, in vijñāna, in ānanda, in the ākāśa of the heart and within all else—That is Ātman. It is that which should be worshipped. It is without old age, death, fear, sorrow or end.”

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Manas (मनस्).—One of the seven sons of Jyotiṣmān, who was a son of Priyavrata, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 74. Priyavrata was a son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Source: Wikipedia: Vaisheshika

Manas (मनस्, “mind”) is one of the nine dravyas (‘substances’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These dravyas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories (vaisesika)

Manas (मनस्, “mind”) refers to one of the nine substances (dravya) according to the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika school of philosophy (cf. Vaiśeṣikasūtra 1.1.5, Saptapadārthī, Tarkabhāṣā and Bhāṣāpariccheda). Nyāya-Vaiśeṣikas, accept manas (mind) as a separate substance and enlist it as the last one of the nine dravyas. It is the internal sense (antarendriya). Annaṃbhaṭṭa defines manas as the internal organ which is the instrument of the cognition of pleasure, pain etc. It is connected with each human self and as such it is infinite. The mind is atomic in size and eternal. In his view, manas is infinite because it is different for different bodies. Therefore, there is difference of knowledge in different individual. If it is one, then one’s pleasure will be pleasure of all, one’s pain will be pain of all. So, manas is different according to different bodies.

Manas is Atomic (anu) size. If it is of the largest size, then it will be conjoined with all sense organs at the same time and produce different perceptions, such as colours, smells tastes, sounds etc. at the same time. But they are not possible to be perceived simultaneously. Each perception comes successively because conjunction of the mind with the sense-organs is possible only successively. Therefore, manas is atomic in size. Manas can come into contact with one sense only at one time. Manas is eternal because it is partless and self-subsistent. Annaṃbhaṭṭa gives another definition of manas in his Dīpikā thus: “sparśarahitatve sati kriyāvatvaṃmanaso lakṣanaṃ”. That means manas is that which is touchless but possesses action.

Praśastapāda, in his Bhāṣya, mentions eight guṇas of manas which are: number, magnitude, distinctness, conjunction, disjunction, remoteness, proximity and velocity. These are general qualities. Manas has no special quality. The NyāyaVaiśeṣika process of perception depends on the existence of the mind. Without mind it is not possible to have perception. In the soul comes into contact with the manas, the manas with the sense-organs and the sense-organs with the objects, these are important conditions of perception. The mind is necessary for perception of external objects. The mind is controlled by the self and it controls the external sense-organs. The self-perceives the external objects by the external sense-organs being controlled by the manas.

Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Natya Shastra

Manas (मनस्, “mind”).—Objects of sense-organs are preceived by a person with attentive mind (manas). But person out of his mind cannot perceive any object which comes through five sense-organs. With reference to the representation, the mind has three attitudes towards objects, viz.

  1. iṣṭa (desired),
  2. aniṣṭa (undesired),
  3. madhyastha (indifferent).
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories

Manas (मनस्, “mind”) refers to one of the twelve prameya (“objects of valid knowledge) according to the first chapter of Gautama’s Nyāyasūtra (2nd century CE). Prameya in turn represents the second of the sixteen padārthas (“categories”). Accordingly, “manas is the internal sense organ. The internal perception like pleasure, pain etc. can be apprehended through it. Manas is one in each body and it is like an atom”.

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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Manas (मनस्):—The mind, the internal organ which link among soul, sensory and motor organs

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Manas (मनस्) refers to “one’s mind”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “May they, whom I have recollected and are satisfied, accept the vessel of the bali. [...] O god! the bali has been offered to (them to chastise) those who despise the heroes, Siddhas and yogis on the surface of the earth here in the gathering of the practice of the Rule. May they destroy the hearing, memory, mind [i.e., manas], sight, fat, flesh, bones and life of the wicked in the great gathering of the Rule!”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Manas (मनस्) is the name of Vidyārāja (i.e., “wisdom king”) mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Manas).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Manas (मनस्, “mind”) refers to the one of the twenty-two faculties (indriya), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 38. The word indriya, derived from the root id or ind, is synonymous with great power, with control. The twenty-two Dharmas in question [viz., manas] have the characteristic of being dominant in regard to the living being (sattva) in that which concerns: his primary constitution, his distinctiveness, his duration, his moral defilement and his purification.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Manas (मनस्) refers to the “mind”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly as The Lord said: “Śāriputra, the Tathāgata Ekaratnavyūha, seating in the lion’s throne thus, explained the dharma-seal called Gaganapariśuddhi to these Bodhisattvas, which has thirty-two aspects of entrance. What is this Dharma-seal (dharmamudrā) called Gaganapariśuddhi which has thirty-two aspects of entrance? [...] all dharmas are fully purified because of their essential tranquility; 17) all dharmas are tranquil since they are free from thought, mind and consciousness (citta-manas-vijñāna-vigata); 18) all dharmas lack characteristics (svalakṣaṇa-vigata) since they are non-originated from the very beginning (ādyanutpanna); [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Manas (मनस्, “mind”) or manoyatana refers to one of the “twelve sense spheres” (āyatana) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 24). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., manas). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Manas (“mind”) also represents one of the “eighteen elements” (dhātu) as well as one of the “eleven form components” (rūpaskandha).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Manas (मनस्, “mind”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.19.—The function of matter (pudgala) is to form the basis of the body (śarīra), the organs of speech (vāc), the mind (manas) and the respiration (prāṇa). What is mind? The entity which has the capacity to comprehend i.e. examine good and evil, and remembering is called mind.

What is psychic mind? Power to discriminate between good and evil or the attainment of the manifestation of consciousness is called psychic mind. What is physical mind? The transformation of matter particles due to the rise of āṃgopāṃga-karma and the subsidence cum destruction of energy obscuring karma and knowledge obscuring karmas, is called physical mind.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Mānas (मानस्) refers to “pride”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Tolerance of anger and humility towards pride (mānas), moreover straightforwardness towards deception [and] abandonment of attachment, these are the enemies of desire respectively. Yogis continually drive away desire and dislike through equanimity or through the state of non-attachment , and they drive away wrong faith through the application of right faith”.

Synonyms: Citta.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Manas (मनस्).—n. [manyate'nena man karaṇe asun]

1) The mind, heart, understanding, perception, intelligence; as in सुमनस्, दुमर्नस् (sumanas, dumarnas) &c.

2) (In phil.) The mind or internal organ of perception and cognition, the instrument by which objects of sense affect the soul; (in Nyāya phil. manas is regarded as a Dravya or substance, and is distinct from ātman or the soul); तदेव सुखदुःखाद्युपलब्धि- साधनमिन्द्रियं प्रतिजीवं भिन्नमणु नित्यं च (tadeva sukhaduḥkhādyupalabdhi- sādhanamindriyaṃ pratijīvaṃ bhinnamaṇu nityaṃ ca) Tarka K.

3) Conscience, the faculty of discrimination or judgment.

4) Thought, idea, fancy, imagination, conception; पश्यन्न- दूरान्मनसाप्यधृष्यम् (paśyanna- dūrānmanasāpyadhṛṣyam) Kumārasambhava 3.51; R.2.27; कायेन वाचा मनसापि शश्वत् (kāyena vācā manasāpi śaśvat) 5.5; मनसापि न विप्रियं मया (manasāpi na vipriyaṃ mayā) (kṛtapūrvam) 8.52.

5) Design, purpose, intention.

6) Will, wish, desire, inclination; in this sense मनस् (manas) is frequently used with the infinitive form with the final म् (m) dropped, and forms adjectives; अयं जनः प्रष्टुमनास्तपोधने (ayaṃ janaḥ praṣṭumanāstapodhane) Kumārasambhava 5.4; cf. काम (kāma).

7) Reflection (dhyāna); मनसा जपैः प्रणतिभिः प्रयतः समुपेयिवानधिपतिं स दिवः (manasā japaiḥ praṇatibhiḥ prayataḥ samupeyivānadhipatiṃ sa divaḥ) Kirātārjunīya 6.22.

8) Disposition, temper, mood.

9) Spirit, energy, mettle; मनोवीर्यवरोत्सिक्तमसृण्यमकुतोभयम् (manovīryavarotsiktamasṛṇyamakutobhayam) Bhag.3. 17.22.

1) Name of the lake called Mānasa.

11) Breath or living soul.

12) Desire, longing after. (manasā gam &c. to think of, contemplate, remember; jagāma manasā rāmaṃ dharmajño dharmakāṅkṣayā Rām.2.82.9; (agamat) मनसा कार्यसंसिद्धौ त्वरादिगुणरंहसा (manasā kāryasaṃsiddhau tvarādiguṇaraṃhasā) Kumārasambhava 2.63; मनः कृ (manaḥ kṛ) to fix the mind upon, direct the thoughts towards, with dat. or loc.; मनो बन्ध् (mano bandh) to fix the heart or affection upon; (abhilāṣe) मनो बबन्धान्यरसान् विलङ्ध्य सा (mano babandhānyarasān vilaṅdhya sā) R.3.4; मनः समाधा (manaḥ samādhā) to collect oneself; मनसि उद्भू (manasi udbhū) to cross the mind; मनसि कृ (manasi kṛ) to think, to bear in mind; to resolve, determine, think of.) N. B. In comp. मनस् (manas) is changed to मनो (mano) before अ (a) and soft consonants, as मनोऽनुग, मनोज्ञ, मनोहर (mano'nuga, manojña, manohara) &c.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Manas (मनस्).—n.

(-naḥ) 1. The mind, considered as the seat of perception and passion, the heart. 2. The intellect, the understanding. 3. The connecting link between the Indriyas and Buddhi, (in Nyaya Phil.) 4. Thought, imagination, conception, fancy. 5. Intention, design, purpose, wish. 6. Desire, affection. 7. Disposition, temper. 8. Energy, spirit. 9. Conscience. 10. Red arsanic. 11. An epithet of the lake Manasa. E. man to know, to understand, aff. asun .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Manas (मनस्).—[man + as], n. 1. Mind, Chr. 3, 8; [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 104; considered as seat of perception (Mbh. 14, 668), and passion, the heart, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 19; [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 5, 11, 9. 2. The intellect, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 206, 24; power of mind, Chr. 27, 7. 3. Purpose, Chr. 12, 23; [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 251.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Manas (मनस्).—[neuter] mind, soul, heart; the internal organ of perception and cognition (ph.); intellect, reason, thought; excogitation, invention; wish, inclination, desire, endeavour; sentiment, disposition; adj. —° wishing or intending to ([especially] [with] an infin. in tu). — Instr. manasā in the mind, in thought; with the heart, willingly. manaḥ kṛ take to ([genetive]); determine, resolve; also = dhā, vidhā, bandh, etc. direct the mind towards, think of ([locative], [dative], [accusative] [with] prati, or infin.); manasi kṛ or nidhā take to heart, consider, imagine.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Manaś (मनश्):—[from man] in [compound] for manas.

2) Manas (मनस्):—[from man] n. mind (in its widest sense as applied to all the mental powers), intellect, intelligence, understanding, perception, sense, conscience, will, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc. (in [philosophy] the internal organ or antaḥ-karaṇa of perception and cognition, the faculty or instrument through which thoughts enter or by which objects of sense affect the soul, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 53]; in this sense manas is always regarded as distinct from ātman and puruṣa, ‘spirit or soul’ and belonging only to the body, like which it is except in the Nyāya considered perishable; as to its position in the various systems See for Nyāya and Vaiśeṣika, [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 63; 67; 76], for Sāṃkhya and Vedānta, [ib. 84; 109; 117]; in [Ṛg-veda] it is sometimes joined with hṛd or hṛdaya, the heart, [Manu-smṛti vii, 6 with] cakṣus, the eye)

3) [v.s. ...] the spirit or spiritual principle, the breath or living soul which escapes from the body at death (called asu in animals; cf. above), [ib.]

4) [v.s. ...] thought, imagination, excogitation, invention, reflection, opinion, intention, inclination, affection, desire, mood, temper, spirit, [ib.] (ifc. after a verbal noun or an [infinitive mood] stem in tu = having a mind or wishing to; cf. draṣṭu-m etc.; manaḥkṛ, to make up one’s mind; with [genitive case], to feel inclination for ; manaḥkṛ, pra-√kṛ, √dhā, vi-√dhā, √dhṛ, √bandh and [Causal] of ni-√viś with [locative case] [dative case] [accusative] with prati, or [infinitive mood], to direct the mind or thoughts towards, think of or upon; manaḥ with sam-ā-√dhā, to recover the senses, collect one’s self; with √han See mano-hatya; manasā ind. in the mind; in thought or imagination; with all the heart, willingly; with [genitive case], by the leave of; with iva = seva, as with a thought, in a moment; with √man, to think in one’s mind, be willing or inclined; with saṃ-√gam, to become unanimous, agree; manasi with √kṛ, to bear or ponder in the mind, meditate on, remember; with ni-√dhā, to impress on the mind, consider; with √vṛt, to be passing in one’s mind)

5) [v.s. ...] Name of the 26th Kalpa (sub voce), [Catalogue(s)]

6) [v.s. ...] of the lake Mānasa, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

7) [v.s. ...] manaso dohaḥ Name of a Sāman, [Ārṣeya-brāhmaṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] cf. [Greek] μένος; [Latin] miner-va.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Manas (मनस्):—(naḥ) 1. n. The mind.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Manas (मनस्) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Maṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Manas in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Manas (मनस्):—(nm) the psyche, psychic element, mind.

2) Manas in Hindi refers in English to:—(nm) the psyche, mind; heart; a famous lake- [manasarovara] (in the Himalayas); (a) mental; psychical; —[putra] psychic progeny; ~[roga -cikitsa] psychiatry; ~[roga -cikitsaka] psychiatrist; ~[vijnana/shastra] psychology..—manas (मानस) is alternatively transliterated as Mānasa.

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